What is the impact of improvisation in teaching and learning Improvisation are materials that are used in absent of the original or ideal object to bring about the same learning effect that the standard material would have brought (ahmed 2008). it seems to be the opposite of teaching, which requires proper planning and advance thinking. Moreover, the students of G.S kabarondo B require the improvisation in other to increase performing especial in chemistry due to lack of the laboratory. it is known worldwide that laboratory equipment and teaching-learning material are factor influencing students ‘performance in science especial in chemistry. Franzer et al.(1992) cited that professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school have insufficient of equipment and material necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality and also TLM are the most important in knowing science in real life. Franzer et al, Abdullah (1982) cited that TLM are materials or tools locally made or imported that could make tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. This means that TLM is the most important in useful in teaching and learning science and they affect students’ performance in sciences permanently. Based on Clegg.et-al.(2008) science education in African countries is at most universally in-adequate. He showed that African has the problem in science especial in RWANDA where the big number of students they don’t liked sciences, this brought the problem of lack of doctors, engineers and researchers.
1.2 Statement Problem
Different educationalists claim that improvisation have a role to play in performance of students in science subject especial in chemistry S1students.when teaching and learning process was done by using improvisation, the performance of S1 learner was increased or improved. The act of teaching and learning by using improvisation is fundamentally concerned with ideas, skills and attitude from teacher to the learner and learner discover the lesson and understand, enjoyable that lesson. During the progression of my observation I have seen that spoken words alone in the learning instruction were ineffective and inefficient in producing out came of learners in performance. After each evaluation done in class, I saw that the result of learner was released out; there had always been failure in the work and quiz prepared.
However, the use of improvisations materials during the lesson especial in S1 chemistry during teaching and learning of science subject (chemistry) is the only way of increasing the performance of the learners.as student conducted an action research at GS KABARONDO B based on information given above, I observed that the learners in ordinary level especially at GS KABARONDO B in S1 students were not performing well in science subjects due to the lack of laboratory resources; therefore, there is a need of using improvisation materials to concretize the lesson or the lesson more understandable.
1.3 Research objectives
This research aimed to attain the following objectives;
? To demonstrate the importance of improvisation in performance of learner of S1 in chemistry.
? To apply improvisation strategy in improving performance of learners in chemistry subject at GS kabarondo B
? To assess the efficacy of this strategy in increasing performance of S1 in chemistry.
1.4 Research Question
This study was guided by the following research question:
? What is the importance of Improvisation in of teaching and learning?
? how can improvisation be applied in teaching and learning science at GS kabarondo b?
? What is the impact of improvisation in teaching and learning science at GS kabarondo B
1.5 Significance of The Study
it is more important for Rwandan community and GS kabarondo B in particular to know the important of teaching and learning by using improvisation in improving the performance of students in science subject especial in chemistry.
The findings from this study will benefit the following people:
? For students, improvisation will help them to understand and enjoyable the lesson especial science subject(chemistry).
? For teachers, Improvisation will help teacher to improve learner’s attitudes and skills by conducting different experiment during the lesson of chemistry, it produces the big role in increasing the performance of learners. Moreover, teaching and learning by using improvisation materials reduce financial problem in government and GS kabarondo B.
? As intern, is very importance to use laboratory resources at GS kabarondo B, as the use of laboratory materials give the learners opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in teaching and learning process, especial in chemistry S1.
? Consequently, the knowledge passed into the students at different levels of educational instructional should be well planned; hence the significance of this studies the students, teachers, curriculum, educational system and the society are large. Moreover, government of RWANDA can use this document to identify problems in teaching and learning science and also to predict solution to these problems or the way of solving them.
SECTION TWO: LITERATURE RIVIEW
In this chapter two we are going to look at concepts, opinions and ideas from authors about improvisation in teaching and learning materials and about learner’s performance. In this chapter, we will look at some theories related to our research.
2.2 Definition of key concept
? Improvisation are materials that are used in absent of the original or ideal object to bring about the same learning effect that the standard material would have brought (ahmed 2008).
? Teaching and learning materials: According to Beth Lewis (2016) in the field of education, the term TLM (Teaching and Learning Materials) refers to a spectrum of educational materials that teachers use in the classroom to support specific learning objectives, as set out in lesson plans.
? Performance: according to business dictionary performance “is the accomplishment of a given task measured against the preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed”
2.3 Improvisation in the Teaching of Chemistry.
Teaching and learning by using available local resource(materials) is one way of promote effective teaching and learning in schools. They are materials that are used in absence of the original materials would have brought (ahmed2008). Ndirangu et al (2003) investigated the effective use of improvised materials designed by science teacher during their teaching practice. This study presented evidence that improvised teaching aids designed by science teachers during practice had a great influence in the teaching of science in school. These materials were found to be available and not expensive. The teacher of science should motivate to make their own teaching resource from the local available materials of science.
According to Montuori (2003) taught about ‘the complexity of improvisation and improvisation of complexity” in which he stresses the importance of not reading improvisation as deficiency, but rather as something fundamental to our existence in the world:
Improvisation might be said to serve at least a dual role or allowing us to adapt in our own way to complex environments, and to express our own complexity through the performance of our interaction with the world. the concept of improvisation is, I believe, it is important in education because it increase the performance of learner when it is use in teaching and learning.
Ndikubwayo (2017) said that science should be different subject like history or literature that why the school should have the laboratory well equipped Chemistry, Physics and Biology. these laboratories have everything inside, the teachers not only conduct science experiment but also use improvisation at least once a week and they are highly motivated to do so. When asked how they motivate their future students who will go to primary school and encounter with the problem of the lack of laboratory, the answer given was «they will come up with making their own locally materials as the curriculum requirements include the use of several and locally made materials» Ndikubwayo believes that the teaching and learning by using improvisation, is important in increasing finance of school, and performance of learner.
In addition, according to the statement of Hunk and Zimmer man (2006) which says that if I study hard for next test, I’ m going to do well. this describes that by improvisation of lesson in teaching and learning materials, helps learners to study hard as they become more attentive.
As definition of improvisation said that« They are materials that are used in absence of the original materials would have brought (ahmed2008) » this show us use of improvisation in teaching and learning has great impact in performance of learner.