Week 1: Considering quality costs
Today, business of any kind might pursue to guarantee that its products are of high quality and the disappointment of quality frequently turn out to be superficial as poor products quality can have innumerable of penalties for operators and supplementary sponsors (Chemuturi and Cagley, 2010). Quality in software development process requires fulfilment at every stage of software development life circle in conformity (Nicholls, 1992) with requirement specifications(Teeluckdharry, 2008; Chemuturi, 2013). In other words, qualitative software is a product that meets requirements standards.
According to (Benner and Veloso, 2008) developers of software must ensure they understand the process by which conforming with standards where non-conformance are identified. However, prior to the delivery of the product to the customer, corrective measures must be taken to ensure defects free finished product(Sommerville, no date; Fagan, 1986).
Chemuturi and Cagley (2010) asserted that cost of quality can be defined as cost of confirming and assuring quality and any form of damage experienced if quality is not attained. Cost of quality can be classified into two groups.
• Cost of good quality include cost of building quality into design and quality development in projects(Nicholls, 1992). Defects and failure of good quality tend to incur cost of prevention and other activities that are designed to prevent poor quality from occurring(Beckford, 2002).
• Cost of poor quality are cost arising from quality failures where problems are identified and corrected before the sign out of the product(Jones, 2004). Also, problems caused by defects of the products input and could be inefficiencies of processes. Delayed delivery leads to dissatisfaction of the project incur cost of alternative product and other costs attached to redeeming the organisations reputation(Peslak, 2004). Mostly, external failures costs arise due to problems identified and corrected after the product is delivered(Philip, 1989) to the end user such as:
? Compensation claims
? Either repairing or replacing a product delivered
? Loss of customer due to dissatisfaction
? Reputation damage of an organisation
Prevention cost are the cost incurred in order to minimize appraisal cost and it is cheaper to ensure quality at every stage than allowing the process to completed with defects(Masticola, 2007). Cost of getting it wrong is higher than cost of getting it right due to lots withdrawal cost and fixes involved(Nicholls, 1992; Beckford, 2002) ()further the project progresses, retracing development tracks to fix bugs in a software development that should have been avoided prior to competition stands more expensive. According to (Beckford, 2002) development and maintenance of poor quality software tends to be expensive and unfavourable to the firm that may last longer than expected.
Cost as technical debt, investment of lop-sided resources will remedy poor quality challenges that destroys reputation of the firm (Zazworka et al., 2014) due to non-conformity to standards relying on quick gain that results in longstanding cost (Klinger et al., 2011).
Costs related to assuring quality concludes that cost of getting it wrong expensive than cost of getting it right as more will be incurred to fix defects identified by end users.
Beckford, J. (2002) ‘Part two: The quality gurus: Chapter 5: Philip B. Crosby.’, Quality (Routledge).
Benner, M. J. and Veloso, F. M. (2008) ‘ISO 9000 practices and financial performance: A technology coherence perspective’, Journal of Operations Management. doi: 10.1016/j.jom.2007.10.005.
Chemuturi, M. (2013) ‘Requirements Management Through SDLC’, in Requirements Engineering and Management for Software Development Projects. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-5377-2_12.
Chemuturi, M. and Cagley, T. M. (2010) ‘Mastering Software Project Management: Best Practices, Tools and Techniques’, tools and techniques. J. Ross Publishing.
Fagan, M. E. (1986) ‘Advances in Software Inspections’, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. doi: 10.1109/TSE.1986.6312976.
Jones, C. (2004) ‘Software project management practices: Failure versus success’, CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software …. Citeseer, 17(10), pp. 5–9. Available at: http://www.crosstalkonline.org/storage/issue-archives/2004/200410/200410-Jones.pdf%5Cnhttp://www.inf.ufsc.br/~dovicchi/pos-ed/pos/gerti/artigos/0410Jones.pdf%5Cnhttp://www.inf.ufsc.br/~dovicchi/pos-ed/pos/gerti/artigos/0410Jones.pdf.
Klinger, T. et al. (2011) ‘An enterprise perspective on technical debt’, in Proceeding of the 2nd working on Managing technical debt – MTD ’11. doi: 10.1145/1985362.1985371.
Masticola, S. P. (2007) ‘A simple estimate of the cost of software project failures and the breakeven effectiveness of project risk management’, in First International Workshop on the Economics of Software and Computation, ESC’07.
Nicholls, J. (1992) ‘Is quality free?’, The TQM Magazine. doi: 10.1108/09544789210034356.
Peslak, A. R. (2004) ‘Improving Software Quality: An Ethics Based Approach’, Proceedings of the 2004 SIGMIS conference on Computer Personnel Research: Careers, culture, and ethics in a networked environment. doi: 10.1145/982372.982408.
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Teeluckdharry, K. (2008) ‘ISO 9000: Quality Systems Handbook’, Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology. doi: 10.2345/0899-8205(2008)4223:IQSH2.0.CO;2.
Zazworka, N. et al. (2014) ‘Comparing four approaches for technical debt identification’, Software Quality Journal. doi: 10.1007/s11219-013-9200-8.