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TO EXPLORE THE SUCCESS AND CHALLENGES OF WARD DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEES IN EDUCATION SERVICE DELIVERY INTANZANIA.

A CASE OF ILEMELA DISTRICT COUNCIL
By: …….

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A PROPOSAL SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARD OF BACHELOR DEGREE IN LOCAL GOVERNMENT MANAGEMENT (BLGM) OF MZUMBE UNIVERSITY
April, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of content……………………………………………………..………………………………i
CHAPTER ONE
Background of the Study…………………………………………..……………..…………….1
Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………..………….2
Objective of the Study……………………………………….…………………………..…….3
1.3.1General objective……………………………….…………………………..………………..3
1.3.2Specific Objective…………………………..…………………………………………………3
1.4 Research questions………………………….………………………………………………….3
1.5 Significance of the Study………………………………..….…………….……………….…..3
CHAPTER TWO; LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Introduction……………………………………………………………………………………..4
2.2 Theoretical literature review…………………………………………………………………………………………4
2.3 Conceptualizing the term decentralization policies……………………………………………5
2.4 The concept of education and its importance…………………………………………………7
2.5 Contribution of ward development (education) committees to quality education……….……7
2.6 Decentralization and the quality of education in Tanzania…………..………………………..8
2.7 Execution of duties by ward development committee for quality education…………………..9
2.8 The responsibilities and autonomy of ward development committees………..………………9
2.9 Education and training policy of 1995 and decentralization in education……………………10
2.10 Conceptual framework……………………………………………………………….……..11
CHAPTER THREE; RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction……………………..……………………….…………………..……………….14
3.2 Research Design…………………………………………….……………………………..…14
3.3Research paradigm……………………………………………………………………………14
3.4 Area of Study………………………………………………………………………………….15
3.5Sampling procedures…………..……………………………………………………………..15
3.6 Targeted Population………………………………………………………….………………16
3.7 Sample and Sample size………………………………………………………………………16
3.8 Sampling Technique………………………………………………………………………….17
3.9 Reliability and data reliability………..………………………………………………………17
3.10 Data Analysis……………………..…………………………………………………………18
References……………………………………………………………………………………..…19
CHAPTER ONE
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
1.1 Background of the study
Decentralization is one of the many key reforms currently being implemented by many developing countries. During the past few decades, most of the sub-Saharan African countries have implemented decentralization policies. The government of the United Republic of Tanzania (URT) is among many countries in Africa currently undergoing decentralization processes where effort is being put into decentralizing fiscal, political and administrative responsibilities to the lower levels. In the education sector, decentralization means the transfer of responsibility, authority, and financial resources from the central government to the local government in order to manage schools, which involve planning, organizing, leading and motivating both the staff and the students.
The need for expansion of education systems in developing countries developed in the 1960s because of the highly need for qualified man power required by national economies. But the idea of decentralizing both primary and secondary education arose since early 1970s. The major aims of decentralization policy were to increase educational access to Tanzanians and improving educational management systems (Galabawa, 2001).For more than 20 years education system of Tanzania has been organized, coordinated and implemented under education and training policy of 1995, 1996, higher education policy of 1999 and information and technology policy of 2007 with minimum efforts of removing challenges on shortage of teachers, shortage of teaching and learning materials, poor infrastructure, poor quality education and ineffectivemanagement (URT, 2014). The situation shows that presence of weak educational management affects quality of education provided in most of schools hence platform for discussion on the new role of ward development committee in providing managerial supports to schools.

Thestudy by World Bank (2012) asserted that, most of education system and schools in developing countries has poor quality education, that influenced by teacher absenteeism, student’s truancy and droop out, poor teaching and learning environment and poor incentives for teachers. The provision of education in Tanzania is directly under the supervision and control of the government through the directives of the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training and the President Office-Regional Administration and Local Governments at national level with the aid of different appointed leaders at regional, district and ward levels, where various principles and responsibilities has been stipulated to simplify managerial activities in schools (URT, 2014).
Similarly, Galabawa (2001) noted that, quality education in both primary and secondary education can be controlled by improving management specifically at district, ward and school level mainly in the aspects of supervision, coordination and inspection. This is justified by the information which alerts that reciprocally careful monitoring by head of schoolsand other educational leaders, high frequency of inspections and active parent-teacher association are positively correlated withresponsible management towards quality education (Habyarimana, 2007).

Management of education in Tanzania directed by the Educational and Vocational Training Policy of 1995 which did not stipulate the functions and responsibilities of Ward Development Committee practical methodologies and techniques on how to improve educational managements and quality education in most of the schools. While UNICEF (2000) recommended that country’s education policies should involve programmes of quality improvement strategies such as how to improve teaching environment, conducting teacher’s and supervising trainings, assistance for lower-achieving students and provision of new text books for students, teachers and supervisors.
Although there are several global and local studies that investigated on the role and responsibilities of educational committee in supporting, managing and coordinating service delivery of education on improving quality education such as World Bank (2010), World Bank (2012), UNESCO (2005), Chidiel (2010) and Galabawa (2001) still there is low quality of education, inefficiency and poor to most of the schools. In connection to the above studies, it is noted that, ward educational committees were formally engaged in the management support to education and were not prepared to the new role in providing managerial supports to education service delivery.

1.2 Problem statement
The Government of the United Republic of Tanzania continues to strengthen local communities? participation at all levels of education. At the lower levels of education system in Tanzaniathe primary and secondary education, local communities participate through ward education committees. As stipulated in the Education Development Plan (EDP, 2000), ward education committee have a duty toenhance education service in the country.It is obvious that education committees have been in schools for many years. These committees are given a number of predetermined responsibilities to implement in order to ensure the service delivery of education. However, most of those responsibilities seem to be not well implemented. This study therefore, aimed to investigate different success and factors facing ward education committees in enhancing the service delivery of education in Tanzania particularly in Ilemela district council
1.3 General Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is to explore the success and challenges of ward development committees (Ward educational committee) in education service delivery inIlemela district council.

1.3.1 Specific Objectives of the Study
To examine strategies employed by ward development committee in promoting and supervising education in Tanzania
To investigate the extent to which ward development committee has manage to promoteeducation in Tanzania
To examine the challenges facing ward development committee in promotingeducation.

1.3.2 Research questions
Which strategies employed by Ward development committee in promoting and supervising education in Tanzania?
To what extent does the ward development committee has managed to promoteeducation in Tanzania?
What are the challenges facing ward development committee in promotingeducation in Tanzania?
1.4 Significance of the Study
The study will give knowledge to the public on the success and challenges facing ward development committee in implementingeducation service deliveryand thus will enable society to be aware on the provision of the education as a national policy. The findings of the study may help Ward Education Committees to understand the major challenges on managerial aspects in education service deliveryand generate appropriate measures to solve such challenges. In addition the study findings may induce awareness to other upper educational authority on the nature and types of challenges facing established schools and its implication on teaching and learning coordination, hence awakens sense of responsibility and commitment. Finally the study will be a secondary source of other researches on the same or related topic.

1.5 Limitation of the study
As the researcher expect to be limited with time since have a considerable short time while doingother activities, also budgets limitation since this study needs enough funds so that to accomplish it, the respondents or organizations always keeps some basic information very confidential, therefore the researcher is expecting to face this kind of challenges.

1.6 Delimitation of the study
The researcher expects to overcome the realized challenges by doing the following fixing enough time for research study and working hours, also researcher expects to save some amount of Money which will be used for financing the research studies and lastly a researcher expects to be provided with a good cooperation from the respondents and institution of the study so that the basic information required for his study could be obtained easily.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Introduction
This chapter examines various studies that have been conducted for management of education to local authorities. This chapter consists of the theoretical literature review and conceptualization of decentralization policies around the world, followed by decentralization in Tanzania and ending up with conceptual framework as follows:
2.2 Theoretical literature review
The theoretical literature review for this study is employed by two models for management of education to local authorities, defines a kind of management of education to local authorities andtheir roles.
2.2.1 Cost RecoveryMaking services more demand responsive through decentralization is argued to have the added benefit that it increases households’ willingness to pay for services (Briscoe and Garn 1995, Litvack and Seddon 1999). Households are argued to be more willing to pay for and maintain services that match their demand. This is the flip side of the allocative efficiency coin.
Moreover, a relatively close match between supply and local demand, if coupled with transparency and with local cost-sharing or cost recovery, can provide the incentives and information base for effective local monitoring. The latter is a necessary ingredient in an overall anti-corruption strategy, and in particular helps to shrink the information asymmetries and leakages that can undercut both allocative efficiency and cost recovery.

2.2.2 Shared decision-Making Theory
The theory was developed by Liontos (1994) which has been allocated as one of the major educational management reforms in recent years. He noted that, as the process of making educational decisions in collaborative manner, shared decision-making involves fundamental changes in the way schools are managed as well as alterations that could be made in the role and relationship of everyone in the school community.

The theory has basic beliefs and values underpinning management in educational institution as following:
Those closest to the children should be the ones making decision regarding the children’s education.

Teachers, parents and school staff should have more say in the policies and programmes affecting their schools and children.

Those responsible for carrying out decisions should have a voice in determining those decisions and;
Change is more likely to be effective and lasting when those who implement it feel a sense of ownership and responsibility for the process.
In the context of this study all four basic principles are important to Ward Education Committee in satisfied management of education service delivery. The theory is valuable to organizational management and employers because it has the potential to improve the quality of decision and increase decision’s acceptance, implementation and strengthen staff morale, commitment and teamwork, build trust, help staff and administrators to acquire new skills and increase effectiveness. The theory is said to be efficient and effective once applied as supported by Alphonce (2011) by pointed out that, when more people are involved in the decision making process more alternatives are likely to be generated and this can result in more innovative approaches to problem solving and improve productivity.

2.3 Conceptualizing the term decentralization policies
While most of the views are unanimous on the idea that decentralization concerns the shifting of decision making authority and power from a central point (such as the central government) to its local units (local government), there are some differences with regard to the scope and specificity (Dyer & Rose, 2005). For instance, while some definitions focus on the partial transfer of authority and power from the centre to the periphery (deconcentration and delegation), others suggest total shifting of authority and power from the central point to its respective local units (devolution) (Masue, 2010). In the past years many developing countries have adopted decentralization policies in an attempt to increase communities’ participation in decision making to enhance organizational efficiency. This came about as a result of lack of accountability and poor institutional capacities which led to low growth of the developing countries. To improve the effectiveness of education services provided in Albania, the system must focus on teaching and learning, rebuild quality assurance and accountability, redesign financing arrangements, and promote resource equalization and school improvement (Fiszbein, 2001). Formerly, the government of Albania had no tradition of involving parents in decisions making of their school; this may have led to deteriorating quality of education provision which hampered her economic growth. The argument is that, those closest to school/institution are in a better position to monitor resources and deliver basic social services including education.

In Bulgaria, the need for changing the education provision system was found to be inevitable as the then prevailing situation was found insufficient” (Fiszbein, 2001). To them, although there were school committees they were only to adviceand not effectively involved in the decision making and planning for the school and thus it was agreed that “Reforming the education system to make it more effective in pursuing objectives of equity, efficiency and quality will require a realignment of functions among participants. The key participants of education delivery in school are teachers, head of school, parents and the students. The roles of the parents are to make a managerial supervision and monitoring of the school and assure proper implementation of the curriculum through the school committees meetings. In school committees, parents are represented by few elected members by the parents? meeting. Where there is a good relationship between parents and teachers, education quality is enhanced.

The highly centralized system of budget control and the power of the ministry of finance in Costa Rica seriously affect the ability of the ministry of education to operate efficiently (Rondinellietal., 1990). In this system, budget allocated for education by the ministry of finance takes too long a way to reach the designation. Because of this bureaucratic nature the ministry of education in Costa Rica lacks the flexibility in allocating the funds efficiently whichresults into school committees working below standards. Also it was impossible to solve problems and challenges facing each school equally as the situations of the institutions were not the similar. The need to make educational reforms was inevitable so that decisions on financing system could be decentralized to local authoritieswhere ward education committee should be given more power to coordinate different school matters. Planning and running of schools are made responsibilities of the local authorities which allow more participationof the community who are close to these institutions and understand their local environments better than the central ministry does.

2.4 The concept of education and its importance
Education is a process by which the individual acquires knowledge and skills necessary for appropriating and adapting to the environment and the ever-changing social, political and economic conditions of the society and as the means by which one can realize ones? full potential. Tanzania traditional education emphasized principles of good citizenship, acquisition of life skills and the perpetuation of valued customs and traditions (Nyerere, 1968).

Education is a process of accumulating wisdom which goes on for as long as a person lives. In his opinion, education adapts youths to their physical environment and makes them aware of their societal institution, the law, the language, marriage and family life, as well as cultural heritage. Education is also perceived as a process that replaces ignorance with knowledge of understanding natural phenomenon and making youth conscious of themselves and their roles as useful citizens in their own social unit which is an integral part of a global community system (Meyer, 2008). The definitions of education discussed above pre-suppose the term programme because they encompasses all learning experiences that take place within and outside the formal learning environment.
In a general sense, it is a form of learning in whichthe knowledge, skills and habits of group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others. Also, it can be autodidactic. Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one think, feels or acts it may be considered as education (Mwansasu, 1979).

2.5Ward development committees
Acts no. 7 and 8 of 1982 have provisions whereby wards in each district and urban authority can form Ward Development Committees (WDC). These committees have the functions of implementing decisions and policies of the district and urban council. And development programs in their respective ward, which consists a number of villages or mitaa (mtaa is the smallest unit in urban councils and has no English translation).
Other functions are too; promote the establishment of development of cooperative enterprises and activities within the wards, initiate or formulate and undertake any task venture or enterprise designed to ensure the welfare and well being of the residents of the wards, plan and coordinate the activities of and render assistance and advice to the residents of the ward engaged in any activity or industry of any kind, formulate, and submit to the urban or district authority, proposals for the making of by laws in relation to affairs of the wards and monitor and coordinate the activities of mitaa or villages within the ward.
The WDC may also establish sub-committees and delegate to such committees any of its functions. The composition of the WDC is all the councilors of the authority resident in that ward, Chairmen of Village councils within the wards. Members of the WDC elect the Chairperson. The Ward Executive Officer who is appointed by the district authority is the secretary of Ward Development Committee.
2.6The responsibilities and autonomy of ward development committees
As found in local government Act of 1982, the ward development committee has the autonomy to advise the school leaders and local authority on matters relating to the management and conduct of the school. Following this mandatory of the ward education committee over the management of the school, it is expected that active involvement of each member of this committee will make a positive endeavour of their school. Chaligha, A (2007)argues that through the ward education committees, local communities play an important role in decision making over various issues pertaining to development and day to day responsibilities in theschools. Resources mobilization from the community for school infrastructure is very vital aspect in making aschool a comfortable place for learning. The success of this mobilization can best work if there is active cooperation between the school and the local community which is the function of the ward school committee. It is also the duty of the ward education committee toadvise the school head teacher on the matters relating to school day to day functioning
2.7 Education and training policy of 1995 and decentralization in education
The Education and Training Policy (ETP) was formulated in 1995 as a product of the liberalization policy which started in Tanzania in 1986. The liberalization policy came to effect in the country after the signing of an agreement with both International Monetary Fund and the World Bank (Mrutu, 2007). As such, the thrust of the policy initiatives is privatization, and changing of the role of state into facilitation as opposed to state ownership in the provision of services. The major aims of the Education and Training Policy include achieving increased enrolments, equitable access, qualityimprovements, expansion and optimum utilization of facilities as well as operational efficiency of the entire system. It also aims at enhancing partnership in the delivery of education, the broadening of the financial base, the cost effectiveness of the education, and reformation education management structures through the devolution of authority to schools, local communities and Local Government Authorities (Mrutu, 2007).

In the same vein, the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) was developed in1996. This followed the development of the Education and Training Policy that was formulated in 1995. ESDP is a sector wide approach that was initiated to facilitate achievement of the government?s long term human development and poverty eradication targets and to redress the problem of fragmented interventions under the project modality of development assistance. The essence of the sector wide approach is collaboration by the key stakeholders, using pooled human, financial and material resources for planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation. This approach established new relations which promote partnership, co-ordination, and ownership amongst all groups of people with a vested interest ineducation (URT 2001).

It should be noted that the ESDP derives its objectives from the Education and Training Policy of 1995, as well as from the broader national development strategy of MKUKUTA and the long-term development plan of the country?s Vision 2025 The main education-related objectives include: comprehensive efforts to improve the quality of the education process, increase and improve access and equity for all children, the decentralization of the management structures, the devolution of authority to local levels and broadening the financial base which supports the education system.

2.8 Empirical of the study
Pradeep (2011) did a study on Local government (LG) service delivery system in Sri Lanka and its effects on day-to-day activities of citizens at the grassroots level. Generally, types of public goods and services and the way services are delivered by LG are frequently changing in the context of people’s expectation, changes in the technology, scientific innovation, availability of resources, and challenges that emerge either internally or externally. Though several attempts had been taken to enhance servicedelivery of LG through continuous technical and financial assistance inSri Lanka during last two decades, in most cases service receivers were socially excluded or faced problems in getting basic goods and service from the LG.
This situation emerged due to a number of factors such as shortage of sufficient and competence human resources, inconsistency politics, unclear powers and functions to undertake service delivery, poor public-privatepartnership, inadequate financial resources, inaccessibility to the communityfor services, and poor public participation. Therefore, the study attempted to explore the challenges of LG service delivery in Sri Lanka. The major findings of the study were that though as a decentralized LG institution, Matara Municipal Council implemented several strategies and innovations, developed partnership with the private sector and enhanced the public participation in the health service delivery process, it failed to ensure the better health service delivery to the public.
The main factor for this is thatit did not have an appropriate constitutional and legal framework, institutional capacity, service delivery mechanism built up by a public-privatepartnership and mutual understandingbetween national and local political leadership. This situation needed to emerge various challenges in health service delivery including a shortageof sufficient and competence human resources, inconsistency politics, unclear powers and functions to undertake the health service delivery, poor public-private partnership, inadequate financial resources, inadequate physical resources, inaccessibility to the communityfor health services, and poorpublic participation. For the sustainability of health service delivery atgrassrootslevel, the study recommends mobilizing the public to participate in health service delivery, introduction of new strategies and innovations, filling vacancies and enhancing competency of the staff, regularizing the Internal Auditing Mechanism, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the health service delivery through the Five Year Plan and enhancing Public-Private Partnership in health service delivery.

Barrera-Osorio’s (2003) thesis analyses the relationship between decentralization and education in Colombia, where in 1991 decentralizationof the State was implemented. The thesis focused on two relationships: first, the relationship between decentralization and quality of education; and second, this relationship across individuals with different incomes. Theoretically, it was found that decentralization may increase the efficiency in the provision of education, and therefore, expected an increment in educational quality in schools affected by decentralization. Furthermore, decentralization may create an unequaldistribution of educational quality, therefore,concluding thatthe impact of decentralization on education is asymmetricwith respect to income.

Hamid’s (2013) thesis focuses on decentralization in Indonesia and its effects on road infrastructure provision. The thesis found that decentralization had improved the availability of local road infrastructure and that there was a positive relationship between the improvement of the local roads infrastructure stocks and the mayor’s quality.However, it appears the aims of decentralization are yet to yield the desired benefits, and hence this study.Saavedra’s (2009) study builds on the conceptualframework of the relationship between decentralization and service delivery and provides a cross-country empirical examination of the core dimensions of decentralization reform on access to two key services: health care and improved drinking water sources. The regression results provide evidence supporting positive and significant effects of fiscal, administrative, and political decentralization, individually, on the variables used to measure access to health care, and improved water provision; although the size and robustness of such effects varyfor each dimension of decentralization in relation to each service examined. The results obtained in this study suggest that there is an additional positive effect coming from the interaction of two decentralization dimensions on access to health care and water services (that is, a mutually-reinforcing effect additional to the individual effect of each dimension of decentralization). The results obtained also support the expectation that developing countries could benefit significantly more from decentralizationreforms compared to developed countries.
These findings underscore the importance of considering all dimensions of the decentralizationprocess when investigating the effects of this reform on any economic, institutional, or social variable
2.9 Research gap
Various studies as seen in empirical literature review are not talking aboutthe success and challenges of ward development committees (Ward educational committee) in education service delivery while talks about the roles of other stakeholders in public service delivery. Hence this study tries to fill the gap by exploring the success and challenges of ward development committees (Ward educational committee) in education service delivery.

2.10 Conceptual framework
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
DEPENDANT VARIABLES

Implementation of the education service
Service delivery processes
Access,
Availability of effective primary & secondary education service
Organization and Management.

and goals of an effective primary health care system.

Ward development committee

Challenges

Success

Goals of an effective primary and secondary education system

The conceptual framework for this study is a description or depiction of theconfiguration that illustrates the key relationships between components of the system. The purpose is, generally speaking, to facilitate an understanding of a network ofconcepts. It determines the shape and direction of the processes as well as the outcomes in an education system. The independent variable for the study is the service delivery processes, while the independent variables is the implementation of the education system; the service delivery processes consist of accessibility, availability of effective education service, and organization and management as well as goals of an effective of education system. The education programmes in order to be implemented needs people (Ward development committees), theimplementation of the programme has its challenges that the committees facing with in reaching the goals of the programme.

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction
(Kothari, 2006) defines research methodology as a way to systematically solve the research problems. This chapter is therefore aimed at transmitting the details procedures that is showing the steps to be taken by the researcher in collecting data, the methodological foundations and the reasons behind the researcher’s choice of the research methods to be used.

Research Design
The study will be conducted under a case study research design. The study use the case study research design because it provides in-depth and detailed examination of a subject of study, as well as its related contextual conditions. Also, the case study design allowed the researcher to be able to attain more knowledge on the problem being studies. The design gives room for intensive interviews which enable the problem to be well understood (Milanzi 2009).

3.3Research Site
The area of study will be atIlemela district, Ilemela district is one of the seven districts of the Mwanza Region of Tanzania. It is bordered to the north and west by Lake Victoria, to the east by Magu District, and to the south by Nyamagana District, however the area has been selected because there is a successful implementation of education service delivery done by the ward development committee within the area due to great contribution done by ward development committee.

3.4 Targeted Population
The population of the study refers the set of objects, which are the focus of the research and about which the researcher wants to determine some characteristics (Turner 2011). In this study, the target population will be made up from the ward development committees’, and educationofficers.

3.5Sample and Sample size
3.5.1 Sample
Sample is a group of people or events drawn from a population. A research study is carried out on a sample from a population. The goal is to be able to find out true facts about the sample that is true of the population. In order for the sample to truly reflect the population, you need to have a sample that is substantially representative of the population (Babbie 1989). Kothari (2006) defines the sample as to the number of items to be selected from the universe.

3.5.2Sample size
Statistics sample size refers to a portion of a population, serving as a basis for estimates of the attributes of the whole population (Marczyk 2007) thisrefers to the number of items to be selected from the total population so as to constitute a sample.The sample size to be selected is expected to represent the general view of the Ilemela district, which comprised of various primary and secondary school with various ward school committee. The sample size will be determined according to the numberunitof respondents available in the expect area. This means in each unit the researcher will observe a number of respondents depend on how they will be categorized. The Sample will comprise 8 members from Ministry of education and vocational training within the district, 10 education officers (educational coordinators and teachers), 10 ward development committee and 12 respondents as education service delivers (citizens). This gives a sample size of 40respondents represent the entire population.

3.6 Sample Procedures
3.6.1Probability sampling technique
This type of sampling is also known as chance sampling where each and every item in the population has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample and each one of the possible samples, in case of finite universe, has the same probability of being selected (Kothari 2004). Random sampling is the process that guarantees that all the possible samples taken from the population have the same probability of being chosen, this is, all the elements of the population have the same probability of being chosen to belong to the sample (David2011). The study will use simple random sampling approach to select members of educational officers and ward development committee. Also this method will be applicable for selecting education service delivers from different list of primary and secondary schools in the district.

3.6.2Non Probability technique
Non-probability sampling is that sampling procedure which does not afford any basis for estimating the probability that each item in the population has of being included in the sample. Non-probability sampling is also known by different names such as deliberate sampling, purposive sampling and judgment sampling. In this type of sampling, items for the sample are selected deliberately by the researcher; his choice concerning the items remains supreme. In the words, under non-probability sampling the organizers of the inquiry purposively choose theParticular units of the universe for constituting a sample on the basis that the small mass that they so select out of a huge one will be typical or representative of the whole (Kothari2004).The study will used purposive sampling method to the people who will be resourceful to provision of vital information to address the research questions. Specifically, purposive sampling will be used for key informants to be interviewed includingvarious education members and members as education services deliver.

3.7 Data collection methods and approach
The research will use both secondary and primary data collection approaches. The researcher will use documents as secondary sources and questionnaires, interview and observation as primary sources of data collections.

3.7.1 Documentary review
This method will be used to obtain information that could suit the research problem from various written materials for ministry of education within the district relating to the implementation of the education service deliverydone by ward development committee within the area. Also educational journals, magazines, published books and various education articles will be used to gather information for this study.

3.7.2 Interview
The research will use this method to get solicit information from study universe. According to the need structured and unstructured interviews will be conducted. The greatest value of this method is the depth and detail of information that can be secured because collecting data will involves presentation of oral verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral verbal response (Kothari 2006). More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained easily under this method, interviewer can control which person(s) will answer the questions. Yin (1994) affirms that the interview guide is very important source of getting information and it is helpful in handling case study related matters as the research design indicates. For this study, interview will be done to ward development committees and other education officers so as to get solicit information for study.

3.7.4 Observation
The personal observation will be used on this study .the researcher will also collect data through observing and participating in various activities for the purpose of getting solicit information from education service deliveryto most of the schools in Ilemela district, Observation will makes it possible to capture the whole events as it occurs and the information obtained will relates to what is currency happening in education system in Tanzania.

3.8Reliability and data reliability
Reliability is a measure of the degree to which research instruments yield consistent results after repeated trial. According to (Creswell 2003) the reliability of an instrument refers to an ability to produce consistency measurement each time when researcher administer an instrument to the same population and contain a similar result.Based on the definition above, the researcher will measure reliability through pre-test by using appropriate sample and sample size as well as analysis procedures. Pre-test of the interview guide will beconducted to a small number of respondents that will determine the validity and reliability of the instrument.

3.8.1Data reliability
Reliability refers to the extent to which your data collection techniques or analysis procedures will yield consistent findings (Sounders2007).This study will be descriptive with the aim of assessing the success and challenges for ward development committee in the implementation of the education service delivery. To accomplish this objective a comprehensive review of records associated education service deliverywill be done in conjunction with the interviews and observations.Purposive sampling method will be used to select the data collection point. Therefore, the review of these records is relevant and they contain all information to meet the objective of the study.
3.8.2 Data Validity
This refers to the extent to which a test measure what we actually want to measure. In other words validity is the extent to which results obtained from the analysis of data actually represent the phenomenon understudy (Creswell2003). Based on the descriptions above, the researcher
expects to use clearly worded interview questions (construct validity) as instruments of measuring answer of respondents with reference to research problem, research question, and the researcher avoided source of error by setting good sample, setting questions short, simple and straight. Also in order to achieve validity the researcher will ensure the measuring instrument provided adequate coverage of the topic by contained adequate representative sample of the district.

3.9Management and analysis of data
In this study a researcher expects to use qualitative (word based data) method of data in analyzing and interpreting of data, and ultimately making necessary recommendation and conclusion in order to determine the magnitude of the problem. The data that will be collected from interviews and documents will be reduced to contents, sub-contents and categories. The researcher marked quotes that were useful in generating the contents and carefully considered information that was contrary to the emerging contents.

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