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The ways in which infectious diseases are transmitted could be because of many reasons like direct or indirect contact with another person. This is usually dependent on the type of disease as airborne disease can be spread by indirect contact whereas HIV is transmitted directly through sexual contact. Factors that allow the spread of disease are food, water, soiled objects, sexual intercourse, skin or mucous membrane.

Direct contact
Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, or parasites. Methods of which these diseases are transmitted are through direct contact from human to human. For example HIV is spread from person to person via bodily fluids; it cannot just be spread by touch or close proximity but require bodily fluids to inter the person. Ways it can be transmitted is through sexual intercourse as unprotected sex with someone who has HIV can lead to the virus being spread via sexual fluids from the infected person. If the individual already has STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection) then they are at a higher risk of contracting HIV. This virus could also be spread through blood transfusion. A child of HIV-positive mothers may contract the virus during the pregnancy, labour or through breastfeeding. Zoonotic diseases are transmitted between species from animals to humans or from humans to animals. An example of a disease which is caused by a virus so can be spread by an infected animal biting a person or even another animal. This disease affects the nervous system and cannot be treated once you face the symptoms, hence why you are with a vaccination to prevent it from happening.

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Indirect contact
Infectious diseases can also be spread indirectly through the air and other mechanisms. Some zoonotic infectious are transmitted by vectors such as insects, particularly those that suck blood. These include examples like fleas, mosquitos, lice and ticks. The way in which theses insects become infected is when they feed on infected hosts, like birds, animals, and humans. They then spread this disease by biting human. An example is Malaria which is transmitted by plasmodium parasite which infuses the diseases into the individual’s blood.

Transmission can take place when touching surfaces for example if an organism was living on a certain object and if you were to touch that surface like a door knob the individual will soon be infected with the disease. The spray of droplets during coughing and sneezing can spread an infectious disease. An example of a disease could be Ebola which is spread very easily just by touching the infected person. A common infection that can be spread air born is tuberculosis. This is spread through droplets of when an infected person sneezes or coughs, sending infectious droplets into the air. The droplets fall on the ground where they are transmitted however this requires close proximity.

Infectious diseases can be transmitted via contaminated food and water. For example salmonella is transmitted through foods that have been contaminated by feces. Commonly infected foods include raw meat, poultry and seafood. Feces may get onto raw meat and poultry during the butchering process. Some fresh produce may be washed during processing with water contaminated with salmonella.

Methods by which infectious disease can be prevented from spreading

Diseases can be prevented from spreading through various techniques and methods like use of prophylaxis like antibiotics, antimalarial or antiviral to kill the strain of bacteria or virus causing the disease so that it cannot progresses and spread. To keep an individual safe whilst carry out certain procedures the use personal protective equipment like gloves or a biohazard suit will be at use so that the disease cannot spread to other people as well as prevent the spread of other bacteria in the surrounding so that the disease cannot be spread. Carrying out safe behaviors like washing hand can also prevent the spread of disease as it kills the unwanted bacteria. Living in certain environments that have exposure to lots of chemical spray can also encourage the spread of disease. Those that don’t have sufficient water supplies means that bacterial infections like cholera can easily be spread.

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