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The fireflies emit light in a flashing pattern and that is a pleasant view to the sight. Huge Firefly species exists and almost all of them radiate periodic short flash. Each Firefly species flashing pattern is different. Fireflies emit light and it does it by bioluminescence procedure Fireflies emit light to attract prey or mating partner and also to remind predators the bitter taste of Fireflies.
Same Firefly species respond to each other as their flashing pattern would be similar but certain species such as Photuris will imitate other female firefly species pattern and attract male fireflies of those species who would take that signal for mating but Photuris would eat them.
The light intensity I and distance are inversely proportional to each other, I ? 1/r2 . The light is also being absorbed by the air so the light intensity reduces as the distance increases. Because of above mentioned reason the fireflies emitted light is restricted to be viewed to few hundred meters at night however that is sufficient for them to communicate amongst each other. The objective function which needs to be optimized is associated with the flashing pattern of the fireflies.

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