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The biodegradation of wood is a critical factor in determining its performance, 37 especially for wood exposed to humid and wet conditions in both indoor and outdoor 38 environments. To protect against biological damage, a large number of preservation 39 methods for wood products have been developed and used. For instance, the 40 impregnation of wood using copper-salt solutions has been used to prevent 41 biodeterioration since 1718 (Unger et al. 2001). Today, copper salts are the dominant 42 preservative for wood products, but compounds, such as chromated copper arsenate 43 (CCA), are not allowed in Europe and the USA due to their environmental toxicity. The 44 leaching of copper ions from impregnated wood can lead to various health disorders and 45 accumulation in aquatic species (Peres and Pihan 1991; Tchounwou et al. 2012). 46 Therefore, researchers and wood impregnation industry partners are trying to develop 47 safer combinations and other solutions for wood impregnation with copper-containing

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