Siberia is not a country of its own, it is part or territory of Russia. Many people think that it is a country of its own and they have own ruling powers to control and everything found inside them like business, economic, education and other supportive components of the country. However, the territory of Siberia is controlled and monitored by the big domain power of Russia. Therefore it is one of the state territory of Russia.
Brief history of Siberia
Siberia has a long history that dates back to prehistoric times. Evidences of some of the earliest human species have been found in Southern Siberia that dates back to more than 40,000 years ago. These species include Homo neanderthalensis, the species that came prior to the human beings and Homo sapiens and as well as currently unidentified species.
The land area of present day Siberia was conquered by Mongols. Before or prior to that conquered time the land of Siberia was inhabited by various nomadic groups.
Around 16th century Russian begins to grow in power and they started to take lands from the Siberian khanate or territory. From there Russian begin to establish fort father and eventually they or it developed their towns (Tara, Yeniseysk and Tobolsk) and finally they extend their areas to the Pacific Ocean.
In the early 1900s or 20th century the power of Siberia continues to grow or proliferate and the main economic practices were the resources extraction from its origin of the region.
In addition, during the time of Soviet Union, prison labor camp was set up in Siberia that were similar to those created earlier by the Imperial Russia.
Today Siberia has a total population of about 36 million people and it is divided into several different districts. Those regions also they have number of major cities and Novosibirsk is the largest of all other cities and they have the total population of about 1.3 million people then followed by other cities.
In that manner Siberia is one of the most unique territory of Russia and has many adventures that portray its uniqueness of the state territory and the country of Russia. The territory of Siberia starts from Ural mountain- the highest mountain in Russia and many people think that it covers all or most of the Eastern part of Russia but according to Russian regional divisions, Siberia is the total territory of Russian country. Therefore, they give official name to the Siberia as Siberian federal district of Russia and is a big country,
Siberia is the region almost or making up nearly all of Northern Asia. It is made up of central and east portion of Russia and it encompasses the area from the Ural mountain and move towards east to the Pacific Ocean. It also extends from the Arctic Ocean from south to the northern Kazakhstan and the borders of Mongolia and China. The total landmass of Siberia is 5.1 million square miles (13.1 square kilometers) or 77% of the Russia’s territory.
Siberia is the smaller, but is much more populated area or section of Russia. Siberia has a tiny population but they have immense natural resources. It stretches from the Ural Mountains and Kamchatka peninsula bordering central Asia, Mongolia, China, European Russia, the pacific, Korea and nearing Japan. For sure, Siberia is actually a region and a state of Russian federation which is largest in area but due to extreme weather condition the population is less.
The borders of Siberia was not defined precisely or concisely, sometimes it includes all of the Asian part of the Russian federal from the Ural mountains all the way to the pacific ocean and sometimes it includes only some limited areas to the east of Ural mountains. And Siberia is a unique geographical term, everyone knows that in exists but no one knows where exactly it is. That is because or due to Siberia has no definite border with neighboring territories or regions or the Russian landmass. Most broad definition is Asian part of Russia. Border between Europe and Asian drawn on the Ural mountain belt so the land of Siberia is on the right of the Ural Mountains. https://www.locatio.com/siberia.
However that definition is not correct as Siberia is a fuzzy area. As stated above that it is not a country of its own. It is a complete state territory or region influence by every legislative enforces and decisions that done by the Russia because the country of Russia dominates and subordinates the state region-Siberia. Many scientist and geographers are yet to discover and uncover the definite borders and give the fixed population figures due to the fuzzy areas.
Type of climate in Siberia
The climate of Russia is formed under the influence of several determining factors. The enormous or big size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia. Mountains in the south obstructing the flow of warm air masses from the Indian Ocean and the plain of the west and north makes the country open to Arctic and Atlantic influences
Due to the moderating influence of the Atlantic or Pacific ocean, most areas of the country in European Russia, in the south of West Siberia and in the south of the Russian Far East, including the cities of Moscow and Saint Petersburg, experience a humid continental climate. Most of Northern European Russia and Siberia between the Scandinavian Peninsula and the Pacific Ocean has a sub-arctic climate, with extremely severe winters in the inner regions of Northeast Siberia, mostly the Sakha Republic, where the Northern Pole of Cold is located with the record low temperature and more moderate elsewhere.
The strip of land along the shore of the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Arctic islands, have a polar climate on some of the islands and tundra climate elsewhere. A small portion of the Black Sea coast, most notably recognizable in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate with unusually wet winters. Winter is dry compared to summer in many regions of East Siberia and the Far East while other parts of the country experience more even precipitation across seasons. Winter precipitation in most parts of the country usually falls as snow. The region along the Lower Volga and Caspian Sea coast (the deepest blue sea/ocean), as well as some areas of southernmost Siberia, possess a semi-arid climate. The city of Kaliningrad has an Oceanic climate due to its relatively mild winters and cool summers. https://www,bikipedia.com
About 65% of the Russian territory is underlain by permafrost. Permafrost means the is permanently frozen, mainly found in the Polar Regions. Therefore Siberia in Russia located in the northern part of the equator and is more likely to be frozen.
Geography of Siberia
Siberia has a total area of over 5.1 million square miles (13.1 million square kilometers) and as such, it has a highly varied topography that covers several different geographic zones. The major geographical zones of Siberia, however, are the West Siberian Plateau and the Central Siberian Plateau. The West Siberian Plateau is mainly flat and swampy. The northern portions of the plateau are dominated by permafrost, while the southern areas are comprised of grasslands.
The Central Siberian Plateau is an ancient volcanic region that is rich in natural materials and minerals like manganese, lead, zinc, nickel, and cobalt. It also has areas with deposits of diamonds and gold. However, most of this area is under permafrost (permanent frozen land) and the dominant landscape type outside of the extreme northern areas (which are tundra) is taiga.
Outside of these major regions, Siberia has several rugged mountain ranges that include the Ural Mountains, the Altai Mountains, and the Verkhoyansk Range. The highest point in Siberia is Klyuchevskaya Sopka, an active volcano on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Siberia is also home to Lake Baikal – the world’s oldest and deepest lake. Lake Baikal is estimated to be around 30 million years old and at its deepest point it is 5,387 feet (1,642 m). It also contains about 20% of the Earth’s non-frozen water. (Golmahn.L ; Shame, Roger.1989.pg.187).
Nearly all of the vegetation in Siberia is taiga-taiga mean the subarctic forest, but there are tundra areas on in its northern areas and an area of temperate forests in the south. Most of Siberia’s climate is subarctic and precipitation is low except for the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Vegetation type in Siberia
The climatic differences create three vegetation belts. The tundra, in the north, has mainly mosses, sedges, and lichens because the temperatures, averaging below 50° F which do not allow trees to grow. In Siberia’s warmer middle latitudes is the taiga—swampy coniferous forest. The Siberian taiga contains about one fifth of all the trees on Earth, but this must be qualified. By far the most abundant species. The climatic differences in Siberia mainly create three vegetation belts. In the North Tundra, in the middle Taiga and in the South Steppe (grasslands).
1. Tundra. The main vegetation is mosses, sedges, and lichens since the temperature mainly stays below 50° F and thus do not allow vegetation to grow. 2. Taiga. This is the swampy coniferous forest, the most abundant species is larch although some pine, fir, aspen, birch, and alder also grow along with the larch. It is said that the Siberian taiga contains about one fifth of all the trees on Earth. 3. Steppe. This consists of mostly swampy grasslands. It is the best farmland in Siberia but suffers from frost, drought, hail, and late rains. Source: http://kids.britannica.com/comptons/article-208048/Siberia
Russian vegetation is divided into six groups: arctic desert, taiga, tundra, wooded steppe, steppe and mixed and deciduous forest. Taiga regions are the largest zones, and these areas hold the largest number of timber trees in the world. Coniferous forests in this area are divided into alder, birch and willow varieties. The tundra covers 10 percent of Siberia because the marshy areas cannot support tree growth, and the soil is poorly drained and acidic. Tundra vegetation includes moss, shrub willows, spruce, larch, lichen and herbaceous plants. Taiga regions are also known as boreal forest zones, and these areas are located in the western region that is home to pines, shrubs, grass and light soil. Podzol is the most common soil type in taiga areas, and it is acidic with a light soil color.
The mixed forests are located in warmer areas, and spruce and oak are the most common trees. Other plant life, such as ash, pine and maple, exist in mixed zones. This area has healthy soil, which makes it an ideal area for agricultural operations. Wooded steppe areas are a cross between steppe and forest areas. This type of region contains grassland and oak trees, and the wooded steppe transitions into the steppe, which has different types of bluegrass, fescue and turf grass. Drought-resistant plants are found in dry and semi-desert regions. Steppes have high levels of humus with low acidity, and they are a major grain source for the Russian economy.
As the Russian’s largest territorial region in total area, Siberian showcases a wide or large diversity of landforms. In general terms, it is divided into some very specific geographical zones.
The broad European Plain or Volga River Plain extends from the Ural Mountains to its western borders with Europe. The central and southern areas of Russia include large fertile areas, marsh, steppes (plains without trees) and massive coniferous forests. Siberia is a combination of frozen tundra, with rolling hills rising to plateaus, punctuated by scattered mountain ranges.
Mountain ranges are found across Russia, with many of the major ones stretching along its southwestern, southeastern and eastern borders in the far southwest the Caucasus Mountains slice across the land. https://www.wikipedia.landforms
Siberia has more than 1500 rivers with a length of 7 miles, or greater. Some of the world’s longest rivers flow through the vast lowland plains that dominate the Siberia landscape. Significant rivers include the Volga, Dnieper and Dvina, the Lena, Ob, and Yeniseysk (central) and the Amur in the Far East. At 1,642 m, Lake Baikal is the deepest and among the clearest of all lakes in the world. Baikal is home to more than 1,700 species of plants and animals, two thirds of which can be found nowhere else in the world.
A Siberian natural resource refers to resources found in Russian Siberia, in the North Asian Mainland. The Siberian region is rich in resources, including coal, oil and metal ores. The existence of coal, estimated at 400,000,000,000 tones, was about a quarter of the Asian total, or half of the European reserves. The principal coal mining valleys and basins are:
• Kuznetsk Basin
• Irkutsk Valley
• Minusinsk Basin
• Kirguiz Steppe Valleys (Karaganda Basin)
• Sakhalin Island (Aleksandrovsk Valley)
• Maritime Provinces
• Tunguska Basin
• Bureisk Valley
Petrol is encounter on north section of Sakhalin Island, and their exploitation is accord topic between Japanese and Russians. Other sources are in the Kamchatka coasts, but the rest of Siberia did not promise much, with the exception of petrol pits in Central Asia or the Urals. These last are one extension of Caucasian petrol zone and the mentioned Ural petrol sources.
(Theodore Shabad ; Victor L. Mote: 1977.pg.54)
Finally there are some mineral resources also found in Siberia and are Copper, Zinc, Lead and Silver. Zinc is a natural resources and Iron is also found in there. Especially important in the Kirguises Steppes, in the Altai ranges and the Yenisei river basin. Stay more distributed and is exploited. The most important are Telbes Mine (Kuznetsk coal basin), Minusinsk, Yenisei valley, Olga territory (Maritime Province) and the Irkutsk area.
In conclusion of the above profile of Siberia, Siberia is one of the state regions of Russia. Many people think that it is a country of its own but actually it is a territory. Due to some factors like no definite borders. They are hardly define precise border because it includes all of the Asian part of the Russian federal from the Ural mountains all the way to the pacific ocean. It has very unique vegetations and landforms like Ural Mountains, the country’s highest point like Elbrus and Kolyma mountains. It also has some mineral resources like petrol, oil, coal and metal ores which are country’s economic feeders. Therefore Siberia is unique in its nature.