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Running head: TITLE OF PAPER (DO NOT EXCEED 50 CHARACTERS) 1
The running
head is a
shortened
version of the
paper’s full title,
and it is used to
help readers
identify the
titles for
published
articles (even if
your paper is
not intended for
publication, your
paper should
still have a
running head).

Title of the Paper
Student Name
Columbia Southern University

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The title
should
summarize
the paper’s
main idea and
identify the
variables
under
discussion
and the
relationship
between
them.
The author’s
name and
institution
should be
double-spaced
and centered.
The title
should be
centered on
the page,
typed in 12-
point Times
New Roman
Font. It
should not be
bolded,
underlined, or
italicized.
Blue boxes contain
directions for writing
and citing in APA style.
Since this is a Review
of Literature with the
reference listed above
the summary, only
page numbers are
needed for quoted
material. Please check
with professors for
preferences on using
direct quotes.
Green text boxes
contain explanations
of APA style guidelines.

TITLE OF PAPER (DO NOT EXCEED 50 CHARACTERS) 2
Title of the Paper

Etherington, M. (2008). E-Learning pedagogy in the primary school classroom: The
McDonaldization of education, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 33(5), 3, 1-48.
Etherington describes the dehumanization of primary students as a direct result of online
pedagogy. He goes on to illustrate the potential problems that will stem from this:
“isolation, lack of community and decreased socialization of its learners….repetitive
stress injuries, eyestrain, obesity, and social isolation” (p. 43). His research also notes that
human advancement led them to create better technology. This technology led humans to
become reliant on machines solely, which in its brilliance demands social isolation.
“When a child gets on their computer….there is no sense of a physical connection – there
is only a mask that lies on top of a set of computer instructions” (p. 34). Further research
indicated that if a teacher were absent from the classroom, but were elsewhere conducting
an interactive activity, the children would not only leave the computer, but would have no
interest in the computer during this activity.
Lahey, B. B. (2007). Psychology: An introduction (9th ed.). Chicago, IL: McGraw-Hill
Companies.
In this book, psychology is defined as “the science of behavior and mental processes” (p.
5). Further, it breaks down the terms that define psychology, and how they are used to
accomplish the goals of psychology. Science is the act of “psychologists attempting to
understand people through careful, controlled observation” (p. 5). Behavior is considered
any direct action that can be observed. Mental processes are any “private thoughts,
emotions, feelings, and motives that others cannot directly observe” (p. 5). Additionally,
this book goes into detail regarding the “nature versus nurture” debate, in which two
Notice the header and page numbers on this
page. The actual words Running head are not
on any other pages after the first page.
The full title of the
paper is repeated
here and centered.
Notice the header and page numbers on this
page. The actual words Running head are not
on any other pages after the first page.
In the
Annotated
Bibliography
the
references are
listed in
alphabetical
order with the
summary
following. The
references are
formatted
with a
hanging
indent. The
summary will
be formatted
with a block
indention.
Notice the
only in-text
needed is
page #s for
direct quotes.

TITLE OF PAPER (DO NOT EXCEED 50 CHARACTERS) 3
This is how you cite a secondary source. It shows that Mead was quoted in a book by Macionis.
This is how to use Mead’s quote and still give credit to Macionis, who is the author of the book.
Notice the placement of the author and year and the page number after the quote.
researchers studied the effects of early social deprivation on monkeys by taking a group
of infant monkeys and raising them for the first few months of life in isolation. The
monkeys were then introduced to other monkeys, and later placed in breeding cages. “It
was then that the Harlows noticed that the social, sexual, and emotional behavior of these
monkeys was distinctly abnormal” (p. 319). Their research was further proven by the
birthing of baby monkeys.
Macionis, J. J. (2009). Society the basics (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice
Hall.
This book defines socialization from an industry perspective: “sociologists use the term
socialization to refer to the lifelong social experience by which people develop their
human potential and learn culture” (p. 72). Further, this book states that “humans need
social experience to learn their culture and to survive” (p. 72). According to Mead (as
cited in Macionis, 2008), who developed social behaviorism and the central concept of
self, “the self develops only with social experience” (p. 77). Socialization is also critically
enhanced by children attending school. In school, they begin to recognize cultural, racial,
social, and gender differences. During this time, children also begin to form peer groups,
which permit “escape from direct supervision of adults” (p. 81) and they first begin to
learn to establish relationships outside the family. Also, this book illustrates the physical
manifestations that can result from a lack of socialization: become “more passive, less
physically fit, less likely to use imagination” (p. 82).
Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., & Greene, B. (2009). Abnormal psychology in a changing world
(Custom ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Prentice Hall.

TITLE OF PAPER (DO NOT EXCEED 50 CHARACTERS) 4
Avoidant personality disorder (similarly, social phobias), increased proneness to phobias:
terrified of rejection and criticism that they are generally unwilling to enter relationships.
As a result, they do not often have close relationships outside their family. Separation-
individuation: a process by which children learn to “differentiate their own identities
from their mothers” (p. 456). This can create a personality disorder in an adult who has
not been socialized outside the home and lead to separation anxiety. This type of anxiety
could lead to a borderline personality disorder in which people are not overly confident
about their personal characteristics, leading to feelings of emptiness and boredom.
Additionally, there are several communication disorders that can develop in children who
are not taught how to properly enunciate and articulate different letters, from expressive
language disorder, mixed receptive/expressive language disorder, and phonological
disorder, to stuttering.
Ross, W. E. (2000). The promise and perils of E-learning: A critical look at the new technology.
Theory and Research in Social Education, 28(4), 482-492.
To put into perspective the current popularity of online learning, Ross indicates that “over
85% of Fortune 500 companies use remote training” (p. 482). Additionally, Ross’s
research has found that while some high schools have already converted to the online
format, in Pennsylvania, there is “currently a proposal for a cyber-school that would
enroll children as young as 5 years old” (p. 482). Adults might be able to see how
destructive that is, but in Toronto, the Wired Culture Forum was hosted in which more
than 400 high school students expressed concern regarding technology taking over their
lives – an increasing reliance on machines, the internet isolating them individually, and
“how technology threatens their privacy and ability to relate to others” (p. 483). This is

TITLE OF PAPER (DO NOT EXCEED 50 CHARACTERS) 5
especially disconcerting because, adults might be expected to notice an effect like this,
but as humanity continues to evolve, the younger generation (high school students) is
beginning to notice the possibility of the dangerous effects of primary children being left
to teach themselves in a fully online environment.

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