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Pollinators and Their Threats:
In the Northeastern U.S major groups of pollinators are as follows;
More than 3550 kinds of bees’ expert in collecting pollen and nectar are found in the U.S.

These bees have hairy bodies, they make their nests from leaves, plant fibers etc.

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Flowers pollinated by bees are brightly colored yellow or blue, aromatically scented.

One of the biggest and original groups of pollinators are the beetles.

Even though estimates indicate that in the U.S. and Canada 52 plant species are pollinated by beetles (NRC, 2007).

Typically, plant species that are pollinated by beetles have flowers with a strong fruity smell, moderate nectar amounts, and are white, to dull white or green.

In general, butterfly adults will pollinate a wide range of flowers but as larvae they require specific plant food sources.
A good example is the monarch butterfly, which will lay eggs only on milkweeds.
Butterflies are frequently associated with plants with red, yellow, and orange brightly colored flowers with large amounts of nectar that is deeply hidden.

The most representative group of bird pollinators are the hummingbirds, with 18 species in United States (NRC, 2007).

Few overwinter here, and most species are dependent on nectar passage for the southward migration.

Hummingbirds will pollinate brightly colored, tubular flowers that contain more diluted nectar than do flowers pollinated by bees.

After bees, flies are considered the most important pollinators, and contribute to the pollination of many fruit and vegetable crops.
According to the fossil record, flies might have been one of the first groups of pollinators (NRC, 2007).

The flowers pollinated by flies are in general dark brown or purple and frequently have an unpleasant, aroma.
Most pollinating flies can mimic bees and are not a irritant to humans; these flies can be quite beautiful, and delightful to watch.

Because most of their activity occurs at night, moths are often forget as pollinators.

In order to be pollinated by moths, a plant will usually have nocturnal white flowers, with strong fragrance and lots of nectar.

Threats to pollinators
Bees and other insect pollinators are beset by the same environmental challenges as other species, including habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation; non-native species and diseases; pollution, including pesticides; and climate change.

Habitat destruction:
Habitat destructing resulting from industrialized agriculture, and urban and suburban sprawl, takes a heavy toll on pollinator species.
Today’s agriculture industry claims millions of acres for monocrop production systems. The challenges pollinators face as a result of these cropping methods include the lack of “weeds”, soil cultivation (70% of bee species nest in the ground), and pesticide misuse. Furthermore, urban and suburban sprawl has replaced native habitats with landscapes containing lawns and non-native plant species that are not conducive to pollinator survival.

The extensive use and misuse of pesticides in agriculture and households weakens and kills pollinators, such as bees. Pesticide contamination can be a primary honeybee stressor, and it may play a role in Colony Collapse Disorder syndrome.
Research at Penn State University has identified more than 70 different types of pesticides and metabolites of those pesticides in pollen and bees, with an average of six per pollen sample, and a record number of 31 in one pollen sample (Messer, 2008).
The sublethal effect of pesticides may impair bees’ ability to learn, navigate, and defend themselves from pathogens.

Invasive plant species, can take over pollinator habitats, displacing the native plant populations.

Most invasive plants are opportunistic non-native plant species that have escaped cultivation. Most were deliberately introduced, either as a food and fodder source, or by gardeners in search of exotic, pest-free, and fast-growing plants.

Due to a high reproduction, dispersal, and growth rate, the most notorious noxious plants (e.g. kudzu) escape cultivation and become established in the wild and in disturbed sites. Once established, these invasive plants can out-
Compete the existent plant population, forming monocultures that do not provide pollinator food sources throughout season. Currently, billions of dollars are spent on removing invasive plant species.

Many hybridized plant cultivars produce little or no nectar and/or pollen, thus little or no food for pollinators. The plant breeder’s goal is to fashion plant cultivars more appealing to the consumer, not pollinators.

Depending on the type of industry and demand, plants are bred for having less or no pollen, longer blooming season, more abundant and showier flowers, certain pest/pathogen resistance, or better yields. These changes can decrease the amount of rewards put forth by plants, having negative consequences on the pollinator’s diet.

Climate change:
Climate change disrupts the timing of plant-pollinator relationships.

They have equally devastating effects, elevated intensities of ultraviolet-B radiations and high levels of carbon dioxide can force some plant species to have delayed and or shorter blooming periods (NRC, 2007)
Other environmental changes, such as pollution, may negatively affect pollinators’ ability to locate rewarding plants (Eilperin, 2008).

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