Political approaches and theories to politics are embodied in the way different political parties or groups claim and provide with distinctive visions of a ‘better future’ and to attempt and convince that the world should be remade in the line with most popular vision. Issues of the present often reflect ideas that carry centuries of tradition and meaning. It refers to the structure, efficiency, and social consequences of different sorts of political systems. Democracy, justice, ethics, law, equality, authority and other concepts encounters in daily life have deep roots in the past.
The first person we will encounter on our journey through the history and concepts of philosophy is a Greek philosopher named Plato. He was born in 427 BC, living most of his life in Athens. Whilst he was by no means the first philosopher he was one of the earliest to leave a significant body of work, as well as being one of the most influential of all philosophers. Even today, near 2,500 years after Plato’s death, thinking about politics and the problems of living together the issues confront and often involve the sorts of questions that Plato’s Republic can help in thinking about in a more focused and sophisticated way. Questions asked regarding the best form of state, about what democracy is a good idea, about why politicians make mistakes especially about whether there is anything absolutely morally right or wrong in politics are among those that Plato can help them think about.
In Plato’s The Republic, he claims that the best state is the just state, and this will be organized therefore as to match human nature and so be appropriate to the sort of creatures they are. Justice is attained in both the city and soul when each of their respective constituent parts mind its own business. When so ordered both the city and soul exhibit unity that is to be valued as it reflects the Form of Justice. Justice has been one of the relevant issues in the history of philosophy and its theories and concepts. Justice on Greek’s notion was the virtue of the soul and action. Plato and Aristotle agreed that justice meant uprightness and as well as willingness to obey laws. It suggested the correlation of rights, duties and its ideal of perfection in human relationships. To Plato, “justice was one of the highest of virtues” . Justice to the Greeks, was the spirit endowed life in men in the proper discharge of their duties. The advocacy of balance and harmony in thought and action was pre-eminently social in character.
Classical political philosophy points to moral and philosophical truths, political realism stresses the role of self-interest and rational action, and behaviorism attempts to find scientific answers through empirical research and data analysis.