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Opiates is derived from the word opium. These substances are used to temporarily free people from pain. Heroin, Morphine, Oxycontin, Hydrocodone, and Davon are some of the examples of opiates (NIDA Bulletin, 2005). Lots of researchers accepted that psychological dependence happens when using opiates substance (Ray & Ksir, 2004). Opiates users and abusers undergoes withdrawal symptoms once they stopped taking the substance. There are even patients who are hospitalized for the painful symptoms wherein they have no idea why. The withdrawal symptoms then lead the users to just continue using the substance than to experience the consequence when stopping (Ray & Ksir, 2004).
Methamphetamine came from amphetamine that is also known as meth, crystal, or speed. Methamphetamine has replaced the cocaine as the dangerous illegal substance, now it is known as the most illegal dangerous substance. (Sommers& Baskin, 2006).
According to the study of Pennel et al. (1999), users of methamphetamine results into violent behavior in some western countries. It was found that the methamphetamine use often leads to violent behavior of a person taking the substance (Cartier, Farabee, & Prendergast, 2005). Methamphetamine was the most in-take drug in 1960. It is believed that the drug can treat obesity and this drug result into highly addiction of a person (Goode 2005).
Amphetamine is just related to methamphetamine, it is also a common substance. Amphetamine replaces an herb called ephedrine. This drug is believed to treat people with asthma and help patients diagnosed with narcolepsy (Ray & Ksir, 2004). Amphetamine has similar effects with cocaine that results into increased heart rates and blood pressure of a person (Beebe &Walley, 1995).
Repeatedly use of cocaine can increased risk of committing a crime. Although it may be similar with methamphetamine, the way the body responds to the drug differ. Methamphetamine is still being studied if it can transcend in to risk of committing crime, as it produces longer lasting high than cocaine (Beebe &Walley, 1995). Cocaine was used for medical purposes before it became illegal (Goode, 2005; Ray & Ksir, 2004).
Methamphetamine and cocaine are dangerous and powerful that can cause severe negative effects to the people who are using the substances (Rawson e al., 2000).
Since cocaine scarce are rarely find, heroin became the alternative of users for its low cost. Heroin was said to be ban but the law became ineffective. Fortunately, heroin usage had drop in America (Goode, 2005). Harm reduction of heroin concentrates on the combat disease procedure associated with heroin use (Hendrich et al., 2008).
In 1980s, the crack-cocaine epidemic spread when crack babies were born by their crack addicted mother (Goode, 2005). When crack-cocaine was stabilized in the market, the crime and homicides decreased. Same goes with other illicit drugs such as heroin (White & Gorman, 2000).
Crack is sometimes known as rock. Compare to heroin, it cost a lot and is easy to conceal for it has no odor when vaporizing. Moreover, its effect is powerful than cocaine that made the substance popular for the illegal drug users. Crack-cocaine on the other hand, compare to crack, is cheaper yet is also addictive (Inciardi, 2008).
Poverty has become a serious issue in most of the countries. Due to poor stable of living, users of heroin and crack-cocaine users are involved in crimes such as theft and burglary. Money becomes the reason of their crime act, for they wanted to support their family financially. There are similarities between users of crack-cocaine and heroin wherein before using the substance, most likely users first used alcohol or marijuana. Crack and heroin users also have relationship with crime, increasing usage of the illegal drug also increases the chances of engaging in criminal acts (Inciardi & Pottieger, 1994).
Most of young adults use marijuana before consuming cocaine as evidence of a “portal” effect (Mills et al., 1984). Individuals who take marijuana by age 18 have a great chance to take cocaine in the future (Lynskey et al., 2006). Consuming of alcohol at young ages, between 13 and 15, increases the chances of progression to marijuana (Williford, 1992). Low levels of past cocaine use increase the future consumption of marijuana but not alcohol (Deza, 2012).
According to the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, marijuana is the most used illegal substance. Marijuana is low in cost and is easily attainable (Anglin & Speckhart, 1988). Marijuana use does not increase criminal activity but increased the sale of drugs (Wish & Johnson, 1986). According to the Nation Institute on Drug Abuse, there are millions of American who had taken marijuana (Smith & Stevens, 2009, p.64). The effects of drugs on the human body and its addiction have been debated worldwide.
Stimulants are illegal drugs that results into temporary euphoria of a person. People who use stimulants find the effects helpful as it increases their functionality and in sexual activities. The drugs negative effect includes increased breathing rate, heart rate and even the brain function and it usually affect only one specific organ – either the lungs, brain, nervous system or heart (Ray & Ksir, 2004).
Depressants are illegal drugs that result into decreasing of bodily function activity (Ray & Ksir, 2004). This type of drug is usually prescribed to patient with anxiety and sleeping disorders. Examples of depressants are Libruim and Xanax (NIDA Research Report 2005, 2006). There are two classifications of depressants, the benzodiazepines and barbiturates (Goode, 2005; Ray & Ksir, 2004)
It is known even by the users that illegal drug has negative effect to both the mind and body of a person. Promethazine side effects varies from slight to deep sleep, it also results into dizziness (Peters et al., 2003). Codeine phosphate users normally experienced nausea, drowsiness, vomiting, constipation and confusion as side effects of taking the drug (Peter et al., 2003; Silva et al., 2010). Ephedrine users are experiencing anxiety, restlessness, tremor, insomnia, fear, confusion, irritability, and psychotic states (Tagaya, 2010).

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