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of drug biodistribution is mainly from delivered to the mononuclear phagocyte system such as bone marrow, spleen, lungs and liver.
Where the nanoparticles are recognized by the host immune system which are administered intravenously and were cleared by a phagocytes circulation. The hydrophobicity plays a vital role than nanoparticles surface bind since it determines the level of the blood component. The vivo fate are influenced by hydrophobicity in nanoparticle and the surface non-modified nanoparticles in the blood stream are rapidly opsonized and cleared by the MPS. By minimizing the opsonization and prolong the circulation of nanoparticles in vivo we can increase the likelihood of drug targeting. It can be done by coating the nanoparticles with a hydrophilic polymers or surfactants along with the biodegradable copolymers with hydrophilic characteristics like polyethylene glycol, polyethylene oxide, polyoxamer, poloxamine and polysorbate.
Nanoparticles can also cause a new type of effects not as a large particles such as mitochondrial damage, uptake through olfactory epithelium, platelet aggregation and cardiovascular effects. The epidemiological evidence says the effects occurs mainly because of predominantly subjected to impaired health. This findings may be used to develop a toxicological testing models. In past few years the number of paper on toxicology of newly engineered nanomaterials are being increased including fullerenes (says et al 2005), carbon nanotubes (Donaldson et al 2006), quantum dots (Hardman 2006) and apart from their size and surface, many other things that describing the parameters of the materials and properties is been included. Recently the costigan (2006) have reviewed the toxicity evidence of nanoparticles used in healthcare products.
NANOMATERIALS AND DRUG DELIVERY
A high drug-loading capacity gives a successful nanodelivery systems. There are two methods to accomplish the drug loading, they are incorporation method and absorption method. The incorporation method is used at the time of drug formulation and absorption after formulation of drug these are achieved at the time of incubation after the formulation of drug in a concentrated drug solution. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency depends on the excipient matrix material and the matrix composition, molecular weight, drug-polymer interaction and presence of end functional group in drug or matrix (Govender et al., 1999; Govender et al., 2000; panyam er al., 2004). The polymer nanoparticles have no effect on drug loading. In smaller molecules have a very effective drug-loading.
For developing a nanoparticle delivery system it is important to consider both drug release and polymer biodegradable particles. It depend on drug solubility, desorption of the surface-bound or absorbed drug, drug diffusion through the nanoparticle matrix, nanoparticle matrix erosion or degradation and the diffusion process. If the drug release is occurred by diffusion or erosion of matrix by a nanosphere there will be a uniform distribution. Suppose the matrix erosion occurs fast they are controlled by the mechanism of diffusion process. The membrane coating perform as a drug releasing barrier were the drug solubility and diffusion or occurs across the polymer membrane because of the realizing factors. The most important thing in pharmaceutical application is targeting towards other tissues and organs is the challenging thing.
NANOMATERIALS IN MEDICINAL NEEDS
The technique called print is used in nanomedicine by nanofabrication of organic particles that develops an effective platform in delivery system and incorporating all the components of ideal nanoparticle delivery vehicle which helps the nanomedicine to a next level. The print is versatile and delicate enough because the important biomaterial are targeted for an advanced understandings and therapies used for disease prevention. (M.E. Napier and J.M.DeSimone)
Some challenges are been plagued for additional alternatives in the field of nanomedicine. The conjugates are comprised of high molecular mass, biodegradable polymers that carries a better EPR effects. They move from heterogeneity and have a more uniform structure. The effective drug delivery methods are been developed from emerging materials science technologies and synthetic polymer nanoparticles. (M.E. Napier and J.M.Desimone)
In healthcare products, the safety evaluation is done by means of hazard identification. Some NP’s which are engineered in lab may pose inhalation hazards when it gets airborne. Some NP’s are used as devices for drug delivery to specific tissues and for other purposes also. The portal of entry of nanoparticle formulation should be tested on case by case basis. The protocols which are to be framed to address these issues, needs basic information to be considered: (Wim H De Jong)
1. Which effects are specific for nanomaterials and which are stronger? NP’s are more potent because of their greater surface area but they may also cause new types of effects which are not seen before with bigger particles.
2. Can we further analyse available data and concepts? The evidence obtained on ultrafine particleshas revealed several effects, mechanisms of such particles. But whether the usage of these conceptsis still unknown.
3. Is our current regulation specific enough to handle the risks caused by nanomaterials? materials with which we deal are not completely known of its properties. But the most important question is whether the current testing methods are sufficient or not. In various sectors nanomaterials are being developed, and to promote safe nanomaterials there must exist exchange of data between sectors. Especially sharing information of toxicity of NP’s may pave way for safe ecosystem.
4. Should we use precautionary principle in current regulatory testing? It is a highly debated issue in international politics. The principle states that there might be strong adverse effects and scientific uncertainty has no part in it. But it has been critized to form such a basis for rational decision making. Such principles are applied where scientific data seems to be insufficient but at the same time potential effects may also occur. Risk governance range was approached by many scholars from early Swiss RE (Hett 2004) till the Health Council of Netherlands (2006). The difference both the reports is that the NT products fall into risk category than use of accompany of these products. It is important to note it because it creates a risk in the environment. Furthermore, nanotechnology

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