NPV

The Net present value is as the difference between the prevailing present value of the cost inflows and the present value of the cash outflows. When computing the investment net present value, the cash flows going on at unique factors in time are adjusted for the time cost of money the usage of a reduction rate this is the minimum fee of return required for the project to be proper. As Ross (2013) states in his book, a project should be accepted if the NPV is greater than zero and rejected if it is less than zero.

The npv is computed as follows:

Npv=n=0ncn1+rn

In which

C – the coins waft generated in the particular length,

n – time index

N – the closing duration while coins flows take place

r – relevant cut price price

Note that better npvs are extra acceptable. The unique choice rule for npv is as follows:

Npv ? 0, reject mission

Npv > 0, accept challenge

“When making an investment decision, take the alternative with the

highest NPV. Choosing this alternative is equivalent to receiving its NPV in cash today” (Berk and DeMarzo, 2017). This is known as the NPV rule. However, if the NPV is equal to zero, the manager of the company has to decide whether to accept or reject depending on several factors, such as there might be a better investment to be made elsewhere that might produce higher revenue. It will be a question of opportunity cost. The whole point of the rule is that if a firm accepts an investment with positive net present value, it will benefit the shareholders, as the value of the firm will increase (considering no other circumstances) by the amount of the NPV. This is called additivity, which means that the value of the firm is simply the value of the different divisions, projects, or other entities within the firm.

A firm or company must always consider is the concept of ‘time value of money’ (TVM). TMV means that if £1 is invested today, say for instance in a bank or a fund, with an interest rate of 5 per cent per annum, in one year it will be £1.05 because the bank compensates the investors for borrowing their money. The same would be if you reverse the equation. £1 in a year with the same interest rate of 5 per cent equals £0.9524 today (Berk and DeMarzo, 2017).

The main advantage with the net present value technique according to Ross (2013) is that is uses cash flows, it includes all the cash flows of the project and that it rightly discounts the cash flows properly. NPV can handle multiple discount rates without any problems. Each cash flow can be discounted separately from the others.

The main disadvantage to the net present value approach is that it is sensitive to discount rates. By simply adjusting a discount rate that is impossible to know for certain is right or wrong, a manager can go from making a profit to losing. It all depends on whether the investment is regarded as safe or not and from there, one may decide on what discount rate may be convenient. When it is this hard to predict, it makes a big disadvantage to the NPV rule.

The NPV excludes the value of any real options that can consist within the investment and it doesn’t take acknowledgement to the size of a project.