SOCIOLOGY Assignment # 1
Mr. Abdul Rasheed
Trafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad. Almost every country in the world is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination for victims. UNODC, as guardian of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and the Protocols thereto, assists States in their efforts to implement the HYPERLINK “https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/index_old.html” “_blank” Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons (Trafficking in Persons Protocol).
Human trafficking is a serious contemporary social justice and human right issue. A recent US government report estimated that as many as 27 million persons around the world are victims of human trafficking. To address the problem of trafficking the US passed the trafficking victims protection act (TVPA) in 2000.The study about human trafficking targeted social work policy, research education and practice. The following search terms were used: trafficking, Human trafficking, sex trafficking, anti-trafficking, commercial sexual exploitation, prostitution, sex industry, forced labour, smuggling, labour exploitation, modern day slavery. Studies include in the review met following inclusion criteria:
Published in the social work generals included in comprehensive list
Published between January, 2000 and December 2011
Published in English and English translation
Focused on listed search terms
Inter-rater reliability tests between reviewer were conducted four times resulting in agreement exceeding 90%. Results: A total of 33 articles on human trafficking as above were published in 14 social work journals between 2000 and 2011. 23/70 authors were affiliated from US, 10/30 were affiliated with institutions outside the US.
Human Traficking is defined as, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs
On the basis of the definition given in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol, it is evident that trafficking in persons has three constituent elements;
The Act (What is done)
Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons
The Means (How it is done)
Threat or use of force, coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or vulnerability, or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim
The Purpose (Why it is done)
For the purpose of exploitation, which includes exploiting the prostitution of others, sexual exploitation, forced labour, slavery or similar practices and the removal of organsIt disproportionally effect woman and children worldwide. To ascertain whether a particular circumstance constitutes trafficking in persons, consider the definition of trafficking in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol and the constituent elements of the offense, as defined by relevant domestic legislation.
Effects of human traficking among the mases and the people who are involved in in this act are dicussed later
Human trafficking is the illegal trade of human beings for the purpose of exploiting them. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especiallyWomen and Children(also referred to as the
Trafficking Protocol ) was adopted by theUnited NationsinPalermo,Italy in 2000. The aim of the Protocol is to facilitateconvergence in national cooperation in investigating and prosecuting trafficking inpersons. An additional objective of the Protocol is to protect and assist the victims of trafficking with full respect for their human rights. The Trafficking Protocol defines humantrafficking as:(a) … the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, bymeans of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving orreceiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control overanother person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum,the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forcedlabour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs;(b) The consent of a victim of trafficking in persons to the intended exploitation set forthin subparagraph (a) of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth insubparagraph (a) have been used; (c) The recruitment, transportation, transfer,harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered
“trafficking in persons” even if this does not involve any of the means set forth in sub paragraph (a) of this article;
(d) “Child” shall mean any person under eighteen years of age.
The Trafficking Protocol entered into force on 25 December 2003. By June 2010, the Trafficking Protocol had been approved by 117 countries and 137 parties. In other words, human trafficking is a crime against humanity. It involves an act of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring or receiving someone through a use of force.
The victims lose their autonomy, freedom of movement and choice, and face various formsof physical and mental abuse. It is considered as a modern-day form of slavery.
There are many forms of trafficking:
Bonded labour, or debt bondage
, is the least known form of labour traffickingtoday but it is the most widely used way of enslaving people. A person becomes a bondedlabourer when their labour is demanded as a means of repayment for a loan. The personis then tricked or trapped into working for very little or no pay at all, often for seven daysa week. The value of their work is superiortothe original sum of money borrowed.
is a situation in which victims are forced to work against their ownwill, under the threat of violence or some other form of punishment. People completelylose their freedom. This type of Human Trafficking can globally generate $31bn accordingto theInternational Labour Organization.Forms of forced labour can include domesticservitude; agricultural labour; food service, begging and many others. At least 12.3 millionpeople around the world are trapped in forced labour.
is a form of work very dangerous to the physical, mental, spiritual, moral, or social development of children and can interfere with their education. TheInternational Labor Organization estimates worldwide that there are 246 million exploitedchildren (more than 20 times the population of Portugal) aged between 5 and 17 involved in debt bondage,prostitution,pornography,the illegaldrug tradeor the illegal arms trade.
. Women and children from developing countries, and fromvulnerable parts of society in developed countries, are seduced by promises of getting agood job by leaving their homes and travelling to what they consider will be a better life.Victims are often provided with false travel documents and an organized network is usedto transport them to the destination country, where they find themselves forced intosexual slavery and held in cruel conditions and constant fear.Homeless individuals, runaway teens, displaced homemakers, refugees, and drugaddicts are easily targeted by traffickers. Traffickers force the victims to becomeprostitutes or work in the sex industry;this includes prostitution, dancing in strip clubs, performing in pornographic films and other forms of involuntary servitude.
Trafficking in humans for the purpose of using their organs
is a rapidly growingcriminal activity. In many countries, waiting lists for transplants are very long so criminalshave taken this opportunity to exploit the desperation of patients and possible donors. The health of victims, even their lives, is at risk as operations may be done in clandestineconditions with poor medical conditions.What is the most common form of human trafficking?According to a range of various reports, the most common form of humantrafficking is sexual exploitation (79%). The victims of sexual exploitation are predominantly women and girls. The second most frequent form of trafficking is forced labour (18%), although thismay be a misrepresentation because forced labour is less frequently detected andreported than trafficking for sexual exploitation.
In 2009, seven countries demonstrate the highest possible performance in policies. These countries are Germany, Australia, the Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Sweden and theUS. The worst performing country in 2009 was North Korea, followed by Somalia.Human trafficking in PortugalPortugal is a destination country for women, men, and children subjected tohuman trafficking, specially forced prostitution and forced labour. Trafficking victims inPortugal are from Brazil, Eastern Europe, and Africa. According to one NGO, a number of Portuguese girls are subjected to forced prostitution within the country. Men fromEastern European countries and Brazil suffer from forced labour in agriculture,construction, hotels, and restaurants. Children from Eastern Europe are forced to beg,sometimes by theirownfamilies.The Government of Portugal does not entirely fulfill the minimum principles forthe abolition of trafficking. However, it is making some efforts to do so. It increased itsanti-trafficking training, improved national data on trafficking, and provided shelters andassistance to trafficking victims. Despite these efforts, the government didn’t provide
complete data on the general number of trafficking criminals sentenced, nor indicated the jail time received by the majority of trafficker
a long-standing problem in Portugal.Authorities identified 272 potential victims during 2008 and 2009, confirming 48 asofficial victims during this 2 year period. The government funds NGOs which assist trafficking victims, they received a fixedsubsidy from the government for each victim. One NGO received approximately 80percent of its budget from the government. However, NGOs report overall funding isinadequate in order to provide critical specialized care required for trafficking victims.Organizations that fight against Human TraffickingNumerous organizations fight against human trafficking: The United Nations thatinclude
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime and The United Nations Global Initiative to Fight Human Trafficking
placement, and financial assistance for women and children who have been victims of trafficking, especially those involved in prostitution. Prevention.The prevention of human trafficking requires several types of interventions. Someare of low or moderate cost and can have some immediate impact, such as awarenesscampaigns that allow high risk individuals to make informed decisions. Strong laws thatare enforced are an effectivemeansof prevention. However, serious law enforcement isexpensive.The “Be Smart, Be Safe” brochures describe the tactics criminal groups use totraffic women, the risks of trafficking, what women can do to protect themselves and howwomen can get help in the United States.Through its Global TV Campaign on Human Trafficking, the United Nations Officefor Drug Control and Crime Prevention (ODCCP) warns millions of potential victims aboutthe dangers of trafficking.ProsecutionAs human trafficking has a very high clandestine nature, the great majority of human trafficking cases go unreported so criminals remainfree. There are reports thatmany human traffickers are associated with international criminal organizations and are,therefore, difficult to prosecute. Sometimes members of the local law enforcementagencies are involved in the lucrative business of illegal exportation or importation of human beings. Surprisingly, in 30% of the countries which provided information on thegender of traffickers, women make up the largest proportion of traffickers. In some partsof the world, women trafficking women is “the norm”.
Prosecution is further complicated because sometimes victims of humantrafficking are afraid to testify against traffickers as they are afraid of losing their lives and their family memberSthat an insensitive investigation and prosecution process does not further traumatizetrafficking victims.ReintegrationNGOs provide counselling and support services such as shelters, educational andvocational training, job placement, and financial assistance for women and children whohave been victims of trafficking, especially those involved in prostitution.Victims frequently face serious problems when they return into their homecommunities. Victimized women may have been treated by law authorities as criminals,either for prostitution or illegal migration, and, therefore face additional problems of employment or other forms of reintegration.Assisting victims to resettle and start a new life is a real challenge for concernedgovernmental agencies and NGOs. In addition to psychological and social considerations,the victim faces financial difficulties. In many source countries, reintegration resources arenot available in communities to assist the victim or to provide financial support during thetransition period. However, there are some positive examples of government agencies,international donors, and NGOs working together to establish programmes that providepractical assistance and help returning victims reintegrate and become productivemembers of their communities.
Trafficking on Victims
Given the underground nature of trafficking, the consequences of trafficking are hidden and difficult to see. Trafficked persons often do not have unlimited access to basic necessities such as safety, food, sleep, hygiene, and medical care. The effects of trafficking vary depending on the type of trafficking and the specific situation.
Given that trafficking is based on the exploitation of individuals, all victims of trafficking may be subject to physical, psychological, and social impacts. Victims of trafficking often experience harsh physical impacts due to excessive work or the use of force by traffickers. In addition, victims may be exposed to serious health risks, such as HIV/AIDS, as well as serious mental health risks. Anxiety, insecurity, fear, and trauma are all products of trafficking. Several studies indicate high levels of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in formerly trafficked persons. Trafficking can also lead to cognitive impairment, memory loss, depression, and even suicide.
Trafficked minors are all the more vulnerable due to their age. Trafficking may greatly impact children’s emotional, physical, and overall psychological development.
Trafficked persons may also experience social ostracism. Trafficked persons are often isolated from their social circles, leaving individuals unable to engage socially or reach out for help. Victims may also be trafficked internationally, and therefore may not be able to engage due to a lack of linguistic capability or geographic and cultural familiarity. Individuals specifically trafficked for sex have described facing stigma and other negative responses during and after their trafficking experience, especially from friends and family members.
Human trafficking might not be something we think about on a daily basis, but thiscrime affects the communities where we live, the products that we buy and the peoplewho we care about. It is now considered as a modern-day form of slavery, although it is no longer upheld by law, which happened in the past, victims are still trapped physically, psychologically, financially or emotionally by their traffickers. Stories about human trafficking are often set in distant places, like cities inCambodia, small towns in Moldova, or rural parts of Brazil. But human trafficking happensin cities and towns all over the world, including our own country. Traffickers do notdiscriminate any race, age, gender, or religion. Anyone can be a victim. Products we eat,wear, and use every day may have been made by human trafficking victims.Humantrafficking is not just in our town it is in our home, since trafficking victims are forced tomake many of the products we use everyday, according to
. Mostpeople have worn, touched, or consumed a product of slavery at some point. Human trafficking has global implications as well, since it threatens human health, trough thespread of AIDS or other STDs and our national and international security. However, some people state that we can actually end human trafficking around the world. Nonetheless, to achieve that goal, everyone needs to work together. Activistsaround the world are launching campaigns to hold governments, create better laws, andprevent trafficking in their communities. Citizens
1496060476250can start a campaign on “Change.org” tofight trafficking in their community, they can volunteer or donate to organizations thatfight against human trafficking.
Acharya, A. K., Suarez, A. M., & Ontiveros, F.D. J. G. (2016). Trafficking of women and children.
Alexandru, M. L. (2013). Labor exploitation, a form of child trafficking.
Alvarez, M. B., & Alessi, E. J. (2012)
Maria Jose Marques (N. 26053, 12.B)
New York Times article by John Jay Professor