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LaToya Harris
September 5, 2018
Introduction to Biology
Professor James Cox
Assignment 2: Gene Technology
Gene Technology is a division of Modern Bio-Technology that deals with the deliberate adjustments of the organism’s genome to generate the desired traits. Therefore, Genetic manufacturing of crops in the alteration of the gene chains of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of crops by the injection or replacement to obtain certain trait such as pest defiance and drought opposition. The changed plants are referred as genetically modified crops. The goal of the gene technology is to make the new traits that the harvest cannot naturally produce. Farmers have greatly adopted the GM technology in the production of different crops to improve the value and produce.

Genetic Engineering of crops has had such great success in farming since the original modified antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant of 1982 (Hull, 2009). Golden Rice is a genetically modified and the crop which it comes from is changed to produce high rank of Vitamin A. Daffodils, which are another genetically, modified plant which have bacterium gene implanted to supply beta-carotene components that are changed to Vitamin A in the body. Genetically modification of tomatoes traces back to 1994 which was where the first modified tomato was produced and available to consumers (Forman, 2010). There are currently 50 crops that are genetically engineered which serve the growing and growing population. There has been drastic progress of Crop genetic engineering due to the understanding of the deoxyribonucleic acid and the double helix bond which is the basis for genes.
Modern day plant designs make use of the recombinant DNA techno and the polymearse chain reaction (PCR). A gene is a genetic type of print and is the molecular unit of heritage and each part of the DNA codes of the synthesis of a meticulous product. DNA withdrawal techniques goal is to break down the cells and dissolve the DNA that is amplified using PCR. Polymearse Chain Reaction (PCR) is a sequence of steps method that increase and intensify the DNA. Trillions of DNA copies can be reproduced from just one single DNA copy. From that one copy, The DNA division can be combined with a series of different procedures and integrated into the chromosomes of a different crop. Genetic Engineering allows the moving of one or few genes to closely relate or distant organisms (Hull, 2009)
The method of genetic engineering engages the use of one or more gene series from one organism into the chromosome of the target organisms. It involves 5 significant steps in which DNA extraction, gene cloning, and gene design, transformations, and backcross breeding. DNA is taken from the organism, separated, and then develops the gene, and the gene is inserted into the cells and then finally transgenic crops are crossed with elite breeding lines. The planned gene is usually marked by the antibiotic resistant marker gene and then isolated in culture plate containing the individual antibiotic. A bacteria or naked virus is used to inject the gene into the recipient genome (Carter, 2011).

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The central code of belief of gene engineering is that DNA contains the genetic information and the information flows from the nucleic acid to nucleic acid, from nucleic acid to the protein but never from the protein to the nucleic acid. Also, Proteins can make copies of DNA but cannot make copies of other proteins which are independent of the genetic blueprint. The precise enzymes that are involved in genetic engineering have a specific function. Constraints and lipases enzymes recognize specific DNA series and cut them into smaller fragments (Hull, 2009) Genetic code and DNA structures are universal which allows the recombination of DNA from several different organism. Recombinant DNA technology, therefore, enables construction of crops with novel traits.
Dangers surrounding GM foods are a big concern and another one they present is the effect on the environment. GM foods, especially BT and HT crops, are filled with toxins that have the main purpose for destroying unwanted weeds and insect. When these kinds of plants pollinate, they send spores throughout our air that carry the DNA structure that is designed to kill weeds and insects. The main focus of these BT and HT plants are out of control; harmless insects are dying because of BT and HT plants and insects are essential to the way our world works and functions “Unfortunately, BT toxins kill many species of insect larvae indiscriminately; it is not possible to design a BT toxin that would only kill crop-damaging pests and remain harmless to all other insects. (Whitman)
Conclusion
Overall, genetic altered foods are becoming more practiced within the United States and other high-developed agriculture countries, although they are not the most universally accepted practices of the 21st century. At this point, GMO foods have not presented any major threats or caused any documented harm to consumers or the environment. Like with all things man-made, we will not be able to confirm the affects, if any, until years down the line. Hopefully, when this practice becomes the official standard of growing crops, the GM seeds will be less expensive and more available to larger scale of producers as well as smaller producers such as locally and family owned farms.

References
BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 The Truth About BT Crops…” Crop Life. Web. 21 November 2009. (n.d.).

whitman, d. (n.d.).

BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 Whitman, D. (n.d.). genetically altered foods: harmful or helpful? Retrieved from
http://www.csa.com
Berry, S. (2012). Genetically altered health? Retrieved from
http://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/diet-and-fitness/genetically-altered-health-20120427 1xp2k.html

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