Social research is a scientific method of studying the society in detail. And can be planned in a systematic way. by, using the social phenomena. Which can examine people in terms of attitudes, assumptions, beliefs, trends, rules, and different levels of stratifications. Social research are done from long back from the historical periods by using the methods related to it in the form of Excavation and finding .The Research can be classified into quantitative and qualitative data.
Quantitative data Collection is an approach were the data collected will be quantifiable in the form of statistical and numerical analysis of data collection through polls, questionnaires method and surveys, and also can be by manipulating previous statistical data using computational techniques. And the evidence which is available in the forms of sculptures, religious writings or spiritual writings and this is scientifically experimented is order to get a quantitative data through the process of research collection.
Qualitative data collections is been done in terms of observation, communication and participation in the society as a whole which helps in getting qualitative data collections. In this type of research, the researcher has to deeply understand the human behaviour in the society which leads to various reasons what ,where and why. Therefore, qualitative data collection has a strong basis in the field of research. This type of research is been widely used by researchers who are into political science and social work
Scientific Method in Social research.
Field observation in social research
Field observation is a first-hand which is gather by the researcher. But, not everything is possible by the observation in order to fulfil that the research makes the hypothesis which guides them to grab immediate observation. Therefore, hypothesis is the guiding element in the process of research. It also describes that what you expect will happen in a certain circumstances For example: if we are interested to do research on accident which happens on the road and based on that we make hypothesis that accidents occurs because of the speeding but not because of the poor road facilities available. Based on this we make an observation that how many vehicles are actually going with high speed and the consequences by them but we don’t concentrate on the highway or the road conditions which are more valuable. In order to have a better observation, your hypothesis should always contain explanation of what you expect to happen, should be clear and understandable, it should be testable and measurable, and it should contain an independent and dependent variable. In order to have full-fledged observation and get a clear outcome of the research.
There are different types of field works namely 1. noncontrolled and non-participation field observation, 2.noncontrolled participant observation, 3. Observation and insight, and 4.controlled observation
Questionnaires and schedules
Questionnaire method is formal and standardized inquiries which helps in collection of quantitative data. And the schedule data which is obtained in the form of observation schedule, rating schedule, interview schedule, document schedule, etc . many a time these schedule form of research has more demand in the process of social research. During this research the researcher may face many problems regarding the subject matter which they are willing to know such as, the interviewer go to interview people but at that time there is a problem of communication, the person may have lack of interest, not willing to share the personal details, the person may not be broad minded, etc. all these situations can be faced by the researched in the collection of questionnaires and schedules method of data collections
Interview as a tool of field research
The interaction that takes place during the interview is highly complex. The main aim of the researcher is to have a good communication capability which is very essential for the researcher. Every time when the interview is happen the interviewer can not expect that the opposite person will rival all the facts rather the person will withhold the information. The personal interview can be defined in various ways. Which may be in effective, nonverbal communication and informal verbal these are started because of some specific purpose and to focus only on some planned content. The objectives of this interview method would mainly be to have interaction with the people and to have exchange of ideas and experiences.