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Gait analysis involved walking or running on the treadmill and usually used by podiatrist or physiotherapist to analyze movement and helps the patient to recovery from injury. There is a range of qualitative and quantitative systems of gait analysis. Professionals qualitatively analyzing gait should be aware that quantitative biomechanical analysis square measure required so as to properly estimate the hundreds in contractor structures, thus assumptions concerning muscle actions in gaut from body positioning alone square measure unwise. According to Sadeghi at al., (2000), the normal healthy walking is symmetric in left-right step length distance, leg swing time, internal joint forces, and external ground reaction forces. The concept of gait symmetry in able-bodied human beings is still an on-going debate.

From the picture above, it shows that the gait cycle is split into two main phases which is stance and swing that considered as one complete gait cycle of normal walking speed. The stance phase had divided into 4 stages which are;
a.Heel Strike Phase
In this phase, the forward leg that’s traveling with its initial contact with the bottom for folowing forward step. At the time of contact the primary issue that hits the bottom is that the heel of the forward leg. During heel strike phase, tthere’s increasing weight on the front foot, however the foot behind still carries weight and continues to be connected with the bottom.
b.Foot Flat or Stance Phase
This section of gait follows heel strike and the forward foot shifts weight from the heel onto the complete surface of the foot throughout this section. There are full weight on this forward foot with the opposite parts of the leg lined up over the foot and the rear foot has currently left the bottom and is within the air moving forward throughout stance section of the front leg. The trunk on top of additionally shifts forward over the leg because the weight is carried by this front leg.
c.Toe Off or Propulsion Phase
This section comes once foot flat and is that the stage that sets the foot and leg up for pushing off the bottom to propel that leg forward in area for subsequent step. The burden continues through the center of the foot in stance section and by the to off section the burden is currently on the ball of the foot. The alternative leg has currently moved forward and is taking most of the weight on the alternative aspect. The knee begins to bend and also the person then uses the ball of the foot to push off the bottom and swing the leg forward.
d.Swing Phase
In this ending of stance, the ultimate part that happens when the push off of the toe-off part. Once the push off has occurred the knee is bent and additionally the leg swings freely forward through house. In this stage, all of the weight is on the opposite leg. When the leg moves to next step, the heel will hits against the bottom for the heel strike part of gait.
Next, the swing phase had divided into 3 stages which are;
When the toe take off until its maximum, there is contraction of the dorsiflexors of the ankle, and flexors of the knee and hip.
In this halfway of swing cycle, the swing section leg is passing the midstance section extremity. Acceleration of the extremity has occurred up to the current purpose.
The deceleration happen during the preparation for heel strike and the contraction of the extenders of the thigh and knee, as well as dorsiflexors of the ankle.
Lastly, there is a different between walking and running. This is because running required swing phase as the foot is contact rapidly with grounf for shorter period. According to Umberger, B. R. (2010), the speed, stride rate and stride length have an effect on the characteristics of the stance and swing phases, still because the metabolic value, and may be varied in several attainable combos, cherish walking at one speed victimisation completely different stride rates and lengths. Therefore, when the running speed increase, the stance part will become shorter and therefore the swing part will increase so as to supply a adequate force and speed.

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From the results above, it shows that there is no any problem for normal walk and fast walk in my walking gait phases but it does shows that there is various problem on injured walk. In all 3 stages of proper walking gait, slow walking gait and fast walking gait, all the phases are meet the requirement from heel strike, foot flat, toe off, and lastly swing phases are to perform a complete cycle of walking gait.
Based on the observation on the recorded video, the way I walk in injured gait might tend to make me fall down easily due to the improper walking gait during injured period. This is because the subject has no related movement from both stance phase and swing phase except the heel strike phase and deceleration phase. According to Riskowski et al. (2013), the foot posture such as planus and cavus feet rather than foot function which known as over-pronated and over-supinated feet may be an independent risk factor for lower extremity joint pain.

1.What biomechanical principle are most evidence in natural walking gait?
The most evidence of biomechanical principle in natural walking gait are the stance phase and swing phase. This is because stance phase begins and ends with both feet on the ground, which also recognized as double-limb support. Swing phase normally employed the lower limb muscles and consume comparatively with very little metabolic energy throughout the traditional walking gait cycle.
2.What biomechanical principle increased or decreased in importance relative to normal gait, during fast gait?
The biomechanical principle increased or decrease are the 3 stages of swing phase, which are accerelation, mid-swing and decerelation. During fast gait, there is no double stand phase, and instead there is point where neither feet are in contact with the gorund which called flight phase. Therefore, when the subject perform fast gait, the stance phase will becomes shorter and shorter.
3.What injury did you simulate? What biomechanical principles increased or decreased in importance relative to normal gait, during injured gait.
From the result above, it’s shows that my walking gait is more to outwards or known as duck feet. The common injury of my abnormal walking gait might lead me to the knee and back pain, ankle injuries, and flat feet. Besides, duck footed will lead to additional stress to the joints and ligaments or even set the stage for injury.
The biomechanical principle will be increased during the normal gait and decrease while in injured gait. There is no any related movement in stance phase and swing phase on the injured gait. This result will cause the subject walk hardly and shorter the normal stride range as in normal gait cycle. According to Joseph Louis Barrow (2013), gait cycle is dominated by hypermobility because thefoot usually remains unbolted through most of the stance phase and sometimes fails to become that rigid lever within the propulsive phase of gait. This hypermobility can ends up in muscular overuse, fatigue, low endurance and poor core trunk strength.
4.What musculoskeletal structures are affected in your simulated injury? Hypothesize the likely changes in muscular actions and kinematics because of the injury and note where you might find biomechanical literature to confirm your dianogsis.
The musculoskeletal structures that affected due to my stimulated injury are the lower extremities which included pelvis and the spine musculoskeletal alignment. So, if the foot’s arches can’t provide a proper support, or has been breakdown of the plantar fascia, the abnormal postural adaptations will be develop and hence additional stress will placed on the joints, ligaments, and muscles that involved in helping to maintain upright posture. According to Riskowski et al. (2013), the foot posture such as planus and cavus feet rather than foot function which known as over-pronated and over-supinated feet may be an independent risk factor for lower extremity joint pain.
In short, a proper walking gait is important to all the individual especially for athletes. Athlete’s who had walking problem might lead them to performance dropped. Therefore, an individual shall correct their walking posture in order to reduces the musculoskeletal stress problem and affected the normal function of the ankle, knee, hip, and the back musculoskeletal structures as well.

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