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HONOURS RESEARCH REPORT

An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Management at Kwa Jonnase Private School in the Kwa Zulu Natal Province

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By

Lamlile Lorraine Khuluse

MANAGEMENT COLLEGE OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (MANCOSA)

BBA Honours: Business Administration

Supervisor: John Masson

May 2018

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ABSTRACT
The study concerns the effectiveness of management at Kwa Jonnase private school in KZN .An interest was why parents choose to pay for education when free public schools are available. In order to explain that samples were chosen in order to see what it is that Kwa Jonnase are doing right. Using qualitative approach. Structured interviews were conducted, together with documentary analyses and some observation work.
The investigation tackled the following aspects: the structure of the school, decision making, financial resources, and relations at school (administration-teachers, teachers-students), the culture, parents and their relation to the school.
The school works hard to be distinguished by its style of education which emphasizes the development of the student personality and trains him/her resect, serve and be responsible towards others.
It was found that the school rule resembles a mission statement. General vision about students and what the school’s aim is toward their upbringing. The school goal is to be distinguished by the upbringing of the personality of its students in training them to respect each other, be responsible, to serve and be open-minded. Incentive and chastisements are the tools aiming to correct the mistakes of students and to give them credit for good job and behaviour. At Kwa Jonnase School the principal and staff have greater freedom in decision-making, they are more efficient, greater accountability to parents meant a more conductive and less punitive culture for learning.
Few recommendations were made. The school management must be more transparent in terms of the decisions and they must not impose things to teachers without getting their opinion. The school must increase in staff development. Regular team buildings and more of outreached programmes to help under privileged children.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract i
Table of content ii
List of tables v
List of figures v
List of acronyms v
1.1 Section one introduction 1
1.2 Background to the problem 1
1.3 Problem statement 1
1.4 Aim of the study 2
1.5 Objectives of the study 2
1.6 Significance of the study 2
1.7 Conclusion 2
SECTION TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 3
2.1 Introduction 4
2.3 Role of managers 4
2.4 Management of financial resources 5
2.4.1 Fees and fundraising 5
2.4.2 Cash budget allocation 5
2.4.3 Prioritisation of priorities for funding 6
2.5 School culture 6
2.5.1 Concepts of institutional culture 6
2.5.2 Enhancement of a positive culture 7
2.6 Roles of parents in a school 8
2.6.1 Parents involvement 8
2.6.2 Parent-school relationships 9
2.7Conclusion 10
SECTION THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 11
3.1 Introduction 11
3.2Research methodology 11
3.2.1 Qualitative research methodology 11
3.2.2 Rational for the selection of the qualitative approach 11
3.3 Research philosophy 12
3.3.1 Positivist paradigm 12
3.3.2 Reason for choosing the positivist paradigm 12
3.4 Research design 13
3.5 Research strategies 13
3.5.1 Positivist research strategy 13
3.5.2 Reason for choosing the positivist research strategy 13
3.6 Sampling strategy 13
3.6.1 Target population 13
3.6.2 Sample size 14
3.6.4 Questionnaire construction 15
3.6.5 Interview process 16
3.7 Pilot study 16
3.8 Administration of questions 17
3.8.1 Collection of questionnaire 17
3.8.2 Storage and security of data questionnaire 17
3.9 Data analysis 17
3.10 Validity and reliability 17
3.10.1 Validity 18
3.10.2 Reliability 18
3.11 Eliminations of bias 18
3.12 Ethical considerations 18
3.12.1 Ensuring participants given informed consent 18
3.12.2 Ensuring no harm comes to participants 18
3.12.3 Ensuring confidentiality and anonymity 18
3.12.4 Ensuring that permission is obtained 19
3.13 Conclusion 19
Section Four: Results, discussion and interpretation of findings 20
4.1 Introduction 20
4.2 Interpretation and discussion 20
4.3 Section A: Demographic information 21
4.3.1 Position in school 21
4.3.2 Gender compassion 21
4.3.3 Duration in school 22
4.3.4 Racial grouping 22
4.4 Section B Effectiveness of school management 23
4.4.1 Effectiveness of school management 23
4.4.2 Opinion and comment about the school 23
4.4.3 Addressing problems at the school 24
4.5 Section C: Schools organisational culture 24
4.5.1 Compulsory chapel services 24
4.6 Section D: Respondents Recommendations 24
4.7 Limitations of the study 25
4.8 Conclusion 25
Section Five Conclusion 26
5.1 Introduction 26
5.2 Findings for the research study 26
5.2.1 Findings from the literature review 26
5.2.2 Findings from primary research 26
5.2.3 Conclusions from findings 27
5.3 Recommendations 27
5.3.1 Recommendation one 28
5.3.2 Recommendation two 28
5.3.3 Recommendation Three 28
5.3.4 Recommendation Four 28
5.4 Conclusion 29
Bibliography 30
Appendices
Appendix A: letter of permission to conduct research study 33
Appendix B: Covering letter for the questionnaire 34
Appendix C: Survey questionnaire 35

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1: Survey Sample with Participant Codes 20
Table 5.1: Structure of the School 32

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 4.1: Gender Composition 26
Figure 4.2: Duration in School (years) 27
Figure 4.3: Racial Grouping 28

LIST OF ACRONYMS
KZN Kwa Zulu Natal

SECTION ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
This research study is based on a school called Kwa Jonnase Private School. The school is one of the top private schools in Kwa Zulu Natal (KZN), and has a matric qualification pass rate of 100 percent over the past twenty years. Management of the school always encounter challenges in the selection process of students that are going to be accepted at the school. The issue is that there is always a very long list of potential students who what to join the school but they cannot be accommodated.

1.2 Background to the Problem
Kwa Jonnase Private School is 100 percent privately owned and it does not get a grant from the South Africa Government so the tuition fees are high because the maintenance of the school and salaries paid from the fees that are paid by the parents. The management of the school provide an excellent service in marketing the school and also the maintenance of the school. The resources are good to equip the learners, that is why they manage to get high marks and that is why they always have the long waiting lists of new entrants every year

1.3 Problem Statement
As Kwa Jonnase School is a Christian school that accommodates learners from other religions. This is the main reason why the school is undated with so many potential learners on the waiting list and many parents even try to persuade the management to let their children in and they will pay additional funds.
This research study will identify what Kwa Jonnase School is doing to in terms of competitive advantage to make parents want to bring their children to this expensive private school when there are many government school in the area. These government schools have free education or even to semi private schools where the fees are less then what they are paying at the Kwa Jonnase School.
Even though the South African government has introduced the free education policy the gap in fees between private and public schools is large. Thus, the study will explore why parents are will to pay a lot of money to send their children to private schools than to pay nothing in the public sector schools and not get the quality of the education that they want for their children.
This research study will analyse what is it that Kwa Jonnase School is doing right to brand the school popular in their community, provinces and other countries. Every year the school accepts learners from other countries as well.

1.4 Aim of the Study
This research study aims to investigation the effectiveness of management at Kwa Jonnase Private School in the KZN Province. Also to explore why parents are willing to pay higher fees for the education of their children.
The study does not explore or compare the outcome of schools but interested in the things that work for them in management. Handy (2010) stated that, the management of the organisations are not a precise science but more of a creative and political process, owing much to the prevailing culture and tradition in that place at that time.

1.5 Objectives of the Study
The research objectives of this research study are to:
• Explore the effectiveness of management at Kwa Jonnase School to include Human Resource management, financial management and Technical Services management.
• Analyse the organisational culture of the school.
• Provide recommendations for the executive Kwa Jonnase School on how to enhance the effectiveness of management.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research study, is to identify what the Kwa Jonnase School are doing to be sort after even with their expensive tuition fees, where parents prefer to pay more and not to take their children public schools. The study will also help other schools to see what they can do to improve their standards.

1.7 Conclusion
As it was briefly mentioned that, the researcher is more interested in the things that work for the management of Kwa Jonnase School.
The next section two will focus on the required literature for this research study.

SECTION TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This section consists of the relevant literature on the management of Kwa Jonnase Private School. The materials reviewed here have examined a great range of factors that affect the effectiveness of Kwa Johannes School. Books and articles were chosen according to their relation to the research aim and the study objectives. Harber and Davies (2010:120) stated that, judgements about effective or ineffective management are difficult to make on a culture-free basis. What is seen as poor management by an external expert in a prismatic society may in fact be part of a skilled and well-designed strategy for management a bureaucracy to the managers ‘advantage.
This section is divided into four parts. Starting with the management in general of the school and their resources, financial and human resources. The second part concerns school culture and how this affects the management and the student at the school. The last part is, parents are key elements in the school so the forces on the school-home relationship in order to see how parents can affect school management.
2.2 Management of Human Resources
The appropriate organisational design, is seen as essential for efficient and effective management. Mullins (2014:25) describes organisational structure as the pattern of relationships among positions in the organisation and among members or the organization. Blandford (2013:120) once stated that the flatter organisation has a tendency to force managers into delegation, because of the enlarged managerial span of control.
Davies (2011:33) mentioned three management styles:
• Prescriptive style: The order is centralized;
• Leadership style: Staff are inspired in turbulent or stable environments; and
• Collegial style: Emphasises teamwork and collaboration.
Blandford (2013:110) named teamwork as axiomatic within the context of schools as organisations, saying that a resource manager needs to know and understand the relationship he/she has with colleagues as a team leader and team member.
Communication and trust are seen as essential to good practice; effective schools require effective teams. Bell (2013:12) defined teamwork as a group of people working together on the basis of, shared perceptions, common purpose, agreed procedures and resolving disagreements openly by discussion.
2.3 Role of Managers
As Hall (2013:35) suggest, understanding what is manager does is a necessary prerequisite to doing it effectively, he added that in essence, managers lead, manage and administrate. “There are no leader-proof reforms-and no effective reforms without good leadership
In a report produced under the South Africa Department of Education (2012:10) it is written that effective school leaders set a tone of mutual trust and respect among teachers, students, parents and community members. They take deliberate action to understand their school communities and form partnership that focus on the learning both inside and outside of the school.
Darling-Hammond at the conference mentioned above (2013:38), in a paper entitled, Excellent Teachers deserve Excellent Leaders, asked.
What do principals do when they engage in effective leadership practices? They:
• Help individual’s teachers, through support, modelling, and supervision and develop collective teacher capacity.
• Set direction, by developing a consensus around vision, goals and direction
• Redesign the organization to enable this learning and collaboration among staff as well as to engage families and community.
• Manage the organization by strategically allocating resources and support.
• In addition, the kind of transformational leadership that fundamentally changes school organisations requires such participatory decisions-making structures within and beyond the school Darling-Hammond.
Bell and Mary (2011:97) wrote in the journal compare about the role of the principals under the title, Schools logics of action as mediation and compromise between internal dynamics and external constraints and pressures. Their conclusion was that all school Principals are key figures. As Principles play a vital role in mediating between external regulatory systems and internal organisational and cultural design. Although mediation ranges from proactive engagement with the policy intermediaries and active reinterpretation on policy to make it more consistent with the internal modes of functioning. The Principals are also crucial in maintaining and changing organisational arrangements and cultures Bell and Mary (2011:97)
2.4 Management of Financial Resources
Financial resources come in the form of grants, voluntary donations, from fundraising and charging fees for educational services or in a more minor way, from the sale of non-educational services, such as renting premises. Anderson (2010:128) clarified that financial management is an important aspect of resource management that encompasses and impinges on all responsibility areas. She added that bursars should be involved in all aspects of purchasing, administering the payroll system and ensuring adequate insurance coverage for the school in addition to the involvement in budget issues, cost management and income generation.
2.4.1 Fees and Fundraising
In private schools, resources would include fees and for budgetary equilibrium, increases are always a possibility. Moore (2012:62) stated that selling a tuition increase to the board and parents is one of the most difficult chores a head of school faces, it is a delicate sales job because the need for adequate staff salaries must be balanced with the needs of tuition-paying parents.
Moore (2012:88) in Resource Guide to Private School Administration defines “fund development “as more than fundraising, because fundraising is asking for the gift, but fund development includes activities like planning, communicating, thanking and of course asking.
2.4.2 Cash and Budget Allocation
In terms of cost analysis Hanushek (2011:38) wrote, although some argue that education is too important to be managed by concerns about cost and efficiency, we argue that education is too important not to be managed by these concerns. South Africa must do everything possible to ensure that it reaps the largest possible educational gain from resources available.

2.4.3 Prioritisation of Priorities for Funding
There are two main equity principles are defined by Coleman and Anderson (2013:37)
• Horizontal equity: This principle is where people with similar needs should be treated similarly, this usually implies that roughly equal amounts should be spent on each child’s education.
• Vertical equity: This principle is where the students should be provided with an education which matches their different learning needs, those with learning difficulties require additional spending in order to have access to the standard of education provided for the majority of children. Coleman and Anderson
Thomas (2011:67-68) stated that the trend in funding departmental learning material appears to be towards a formula funded system based upon pupil numbers and timetable sessions for each subject, usually with a weighting allowance for practical subjects, such as science, which require increased funding for consumables.
2.5 School Culture
Culture is another aspect of this research study which affects the management of the school, the treatment of people by each other, and the life in general at school. Culture theories relate to management theories because the beliefs and perceptions of those in power will lead to the style of management, and vice versa, the way the school is managed will create the atmosphere and the environment which generates an institutional culture. Cushner (2013:37)
2.5.1 Concepts of Institutional Culture
Cushner (2013:36) defines culture as a human-made part the environment as opposed to aspects occurring in nature he also added that culture determines, to a large extent, people’s thoughts, and ideas patterns of interaction and material adaptations to the world around them.
Fullan (2011:68) describe culture as the way people do things and relate to each other. In relation to organisational culture. O’Mahony (2011:72) claimed that good schools are characterised by factors similar to those that characterise successful companies. These factors emphasise the importance of people within the organisation, their values, and their relationships, rather on the structure or the product in terms of measurable outcomes.
Follan (2011:62) discuss two basis types of school culture as individualistic and collaborative.
• Individualistic School Culture: Follan (2011:62) added that uncertainty, isolation and individualism are a potent combination. Where multiple demands are being externally imposed on teachers and their schools, isolated teachers feel powerless in the face of pressures and decisions which they often do not understand and in which they are not involved.
• Collaborative School Culture: Collaborative school culture is a development that represents a fundamental and sophisticated changes, in his view it is easy to get it wrong and hard to set it right. Even though schools differ from each other, Levin (2011:87-88) stated that school culture describe the sameness as well as the uniqueness of each school. Most schools share a similar design for classroom and common areas, organise the day in predictable ways and develop recognizable patterns for relationships among the students and adults. Despite these similarities it is easy to recognize the differences and uniqueness of each school.
The research question therefore is, how individualistic or collaborative is Kwa Jonnase School and does this have any relation to being a private school to the pre-apartheid history of South Africa?
2.5.2 Enhancement of a Positive Culture
Fullan (2011:261) emphasized that collaborative do not arise spontaneously or completely by themselves, but they require managerial guidance and intervention. He added that the attention should be drawn to the difference between collaborative cultures and imposed collegialities which deceptively sail under the flag of collaborative cultures. He also analysed the structure and culture which is dominant in schools:
• Firstly, beliefs matter, common and shared beliefs permeate the culture of the school and in many ways define it.
• Secondly, structure matter. Structures can negate or support a culture of collaboration. They can divide cultures if boundaries are drawn too closely.
• Thirdly, trust matters. Without trust between teachers it is unlikely that positive collaboration or mutual development will occur.
• Finally, rewards matter. Whether intrinsic or extrinsic, teachers need to feel that their work is recognized and that there is some acknowledgement of their achievements within or on behalf of the school Fullan (121-22)
Bridges (2012:258) talked about the importance of education in personal life, linking it to personal autonomy: Personal autonomy is the fruit of our upbringing and education whether carried out informally in institutions established, staffed and resourced for the purpose.
2.6 Roles of Parents in a School
Parents are seen as a very important component at any school, they would seek the best for their children, and they may try to have some influence on the management of the school in one way or another. School environment is affected by internal as well as external involvement and the attention will be on parental involvement and their communication with the school. Meyer (2012:24)
Meyer (2012:25) believed that no education system exists in a vacuum and that school environments help define school purpose and meaning, and define school functions are limitations.

2.6.1 Parental Involvement
Jaynes (2011:25) wrote that the more involved parents are with their children’s schooling, the greater it seems are the chances of their children doing well. Sheridan (2012:110) outlined one of the goals of the South African Federal Partnership programme for family involvement in education, which is the implementation of the five-step strategic planning process:
• Awareness increasing: Community wide understanding of the need to strengthen and promote family involvement.
• Commitment developing: Shared commitments by families, schools and communities to act jointly.
• Capacity building: Developing the capacity of families, school and communities to work together.
• Knowledge development: Identifying and developing knowledge of the use of programs and practices that successfully connect families, schools and communities.
2.6.2 Parent-school Relationships
Pisciotta (2011:16-17) stated that this related to schools in Texas, but his analysis seems universal in terms of accountability to parents. He argued that, schools should be held accountable for educating students. Accountability can be broken down into two distinct processes, top down accountability and bottom-up accountability.
• Top down accountability comes from the expectations and standards of government authorities.
• Bottom up accountability comes from the expectations and standards of customers. For minor children, parents not students are the customers.
Hoerr (2010:154) developed a set of questions and encouraged schools to have answers to those questions in order to have involved and supportive parents:
• Do we let parents know that we understand and care about their children?
• Do they know that we view their children as human beings, not only as learners?
• Do we listen?
• Do we practice fairness?
• Do we work to find the positives?

2.7 Conclusion
Kwa Jonnase Private School has one of the highest Matric past rates in the KZN Province. With regards to resource management, there are questions about the sources of school resources and the decisions on budget, what principles they use to conceptualise cost and the distribution of resources.
In cultural terms, the difficult questions arise of how people should treat each other and what sort of culture is seen as conductive to learning. What constitutes a positive moral culture at Kwa Jonnase School and how does this link to external factors and how authority is exercised?
With regards to parents, the questions to whether parents’ social values impact on school choice, and perceptions of issues such as school or class size, whether the social class of parents seems to have an impact on their eventual involvement in the school. The view of teachers about different types of families and the kinds of communication teachers have with parents.
The next section three will provide the research design and the methodology used in this research study.
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SECTION THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
This section three provides the description of the research methodology. The section initially explains the reason behind the choice of a qualitative case study methodology. Subsequent parts focus on the selection of the cases, data collection techniques and data analyses.
3.2 Research Methodology
The research methodology used in this research study is a qualitative approach. The data collected from interviews and observations in these case studies revealed the attitudes of administrators, teachers and parents towards the working of their own school.
3.2.1 Quantitative Research Methodology
Saunders (2012:262) stated that quantitative research inferences from sample to larger population and make generalizations. It involves analysis of numerical data.
3.2.2 Qualitative Research Methodology
Hughes (2014:16) stated that qualitative research is all about capturing the reality of life in colleges, schools and classrooms that is in educational context and the immediate cultural milieu which surrounds that reality.
A qualitative methodology stresses primarily the kind of evidence which is based on what people and what they do, which helps to understand the meanings that are attached to what is going on. Strauss (2011:18) supports qualitative data because the crucial elements of sociological theory are often found best with a qualitative method. That is from data on structural conditions, consequences, deviances, norms, processes and patterns Strauss.
The focus was with the internal factors influencing the management and operation of the school. The research questions themselves led to qualitative research, and the underlying one was the factual or attitudinal question: why do parents prefer to send their children to private schools?
3.2.3 Rational for the Selection of the Qualitative Approach
This research study does not explore or compare the outcome of schools but interested in the things that work for them in management. Handy (2010:22) stated that, the management of the organisations are not a precise science but more of a creative and political process, owing much to the prevailing culture and tradition in that place at that time. This research is conducted by using qualitative approach because it is capturing the reality of life in a school and classrooms that is in educational contexts and the immediate cultural milieu which surrounds that reality.
3.3 Research Philosophy
Philip (2013:127) research philosophy reflect an underlying philosophy of science, on that eschews the traditional positivist belief in an objective reality that can only be understood through detached scientific inquiry.
3.3.1 Positivist Paradigm (Quantitative Research)
Crotty (2011:11) a positivist researcher might use existing theory to develop hypotheses. These hypotheses would be tested and confirmed. As a positivist you would also try to remain neutral and detached from your research and data in order to avoid influencing your findings.
3.3.2 Phenomenological Paradigm (Qualitative Research)
Kvale (2013:67) said, Phenomenology it is concerned with describing the essences of lived experience. This essence is believed to be conveyed with descriptive language, and therefore it analyses the language used
3.3.3 Reasons for choosing the Phenomenological Paradigm
The study does not explore or compare the outcome of schools but interested in the things that work for them in management. As a positivist you would also try to remain neutral and detached from your research and data in order to avoid influencing your findings.

3.4 Research Design
M Saunders (2012:163) define research design as a general plan of how you will go about answering your research questions. It will contain clear objectives derived from research questions. The research design chosen for this research is survey method.
3.5 Research Strategies
Philip (2012:181) stated that survey strategy is usually associated with a deductive research approach. It using questionnaires. In this research we use a survey research strategy.
3.5.1 Positivist Research Strategy (Quantitative Research)
According to Thornhill (2012:190) Survey research utilise questionnaires to collect data from selected population and helps the researcher to conclude on the larger population.
3.5.2 Phenomenological Paradigm (Qualitative Research)
Kvale (2013:67) said, Phenomenology it is concerned with describing the essences of lived experience. This essence is believed to be conveyed with descriptive language, and therefore it analyses the language used. This paradigm was suitable for this research because the main of the study if to understand and know what is it that the school is doing right to make the parents want to pay so much money for their children’s education.
3.5.3 Reasons for Choosing the Phenomenological Research Strategy
According to Lancaster (2012:68) phenomenological realm focusses on the life world, and experiences of subjects, with an emphasis on providing accurate descriptions, bracketing foreknowledge and arriving at the essential meaning of these descriptions.
3.6 Sampling Strategy
The study had its initial concern as the relative effectiveness (Saunders: 2012:260).
3.6.1 Target Population
The target population must be precisely defined, as this will establish if the samples selected cases are suitable for the study as mentioned by Thornhill (2010).7 people from the school were interviewed. The school principal, two teachers, two administration staff and two parents.
3.6.2 Sample Size
Lewis (2012:258) mention that the chosen sample refers to the number of sample cases selected to be used for data Collection. Seven participants were formally involved in this research study in terms of in-depth interviews, the sample size from the Kwa Jonnase School is shown in Table 3.1 below.
Table 3.1: Survey Sample with Participant Codes
Code Designation
Participant 01 Principle
Participant 02 Teacher
Participant 03 Teacher
Participant 04 Administration staff
Participant 05 Administration staff
Participant 06 Parent
Participant 07 Parent

3.6.3 Sampling Techniques
The initial choice of sample was made in order to meet and interview people who were directly involved in management and had influence at the school. The process of selecting the sample the principal identified names of teachers and administrators who would be appropriate to interview. This was in terms of the research questions in relation to human and resource management.
3.6.3.1 Probability Sampling
In this research study a random sample will be used. According to Peled (2013:11) said random sampling is ideal to use when a sampling frame is effortlessly available.

3.6.3.2 Non-probability Sampling
According to Saunders (2012:295) non probability sampling provides a range of alternative techniques to select samples, the majority of which include an element of subjective judgements.

3.6.3.3 Relational for Selecting the Non-Probability Sampling
According to Saunders (2012:250) non-probability sample may be more practical, and you can easily get to the conclusion with few samples.
Research Instrument
A first consideration when planning research is that of ethics, as this concern starts from the first contact with the school. Peled (2013:50-51), in writing about the ethics of qualitative social work research, the attention to the following points, which equally apply to educational research. Allowing participants state their views during the research process and through the results. Treating participants respectfully throughout the research.
3.6.4 Questionnaire Construction
Providing participants with complete information on the research complete information on a study is necessary for participants in order for them to make a knowledgeable and voluntary decision whether or not participate in it. Philip (2012:420)
The interview questionnaire was sub divided into sections that were aligned to the objectives of this research study. The section are as follows:
• Section A: Demographic Information
• Section B: Effectiveness of school management
• Section C: School organisational culture
• Section D: Respondents recommendations

3.6.5 Interview Process
Glaser (2011:20) explained when it is suitable and advisable to use interview techniques, all of which applied to this research study. As the interviews are face-to face and the questions are mainly open-end will require prompts and probes from the interviewer to clarify the answers. If the material is sensitive in character so that trust is involved, respondents will normally disclose information in a face-to-face interview that they would not normally disclose in an anonymous questionnaire.
Hughes (2011:150) categorized interview types under two headings:
• Standardised interview: A standardised interview is a structured interview or survey interview, semi-structured interview, group interview.
• Non-standardised interview: A non-standardised interview is an unstructured, ethnographic interview and an oral history and life history interview.
This research study used both standardised and non-standardised, although under the second category only informal interviews and conversations, with, ethnographic or life history interviews. The interview process initially followed a standardised interview type of the structured category. Hughes (2011:110) explained structured interviews as the structured interview lies close to the questionnaire in both form and the questionnaire is greater flexibility and ability to extract more detailed information from respondents.
3.7 Pilot Study
A pilot study is a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, and cost and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale research report. Saunders (2012:450)
As the methodology chosen for this research is qualitative, the interview questionnaire was piloted using one (1) participant.

3.8 Administration of Questionnaires
The captured data of the respondent’s answers to the specific questions within the interview questionnaire process will be controlled by the Kwa Jonnase School information policy. Kwa Jonnase School employees and parents outside the formal interviewing process would have constituted such conversations.
3.8.1 Collection of Questionnaire
Completed questionnaires would be collected by hand and the oral interviews conducted would be recorded.
3.8.2 Storage and Security of data Questionnaires
The researcher will use Survey Planet provided the security and storage of data in respect of researcher’s personal information.
3.9 Data Analysis
Analysing the data collected, the researcher worked in a thematic way, going back and forth to the interviews, the documents, the observations and what authors had written about the subject in the reviews of literature. Once the researcher was very sure, she disregarded the data that seemed irrelevant to the study.
An important point alluded to earlier was the approach of interpretivism during and after interviews. Stahl (2012:60) clarified the difference between interpretivism and positivism as follows: Positivism is based on the ontological basis of realism, meaning that reality exists independent of the observer. Interpretivism is sceptical of this claim and contends that either reality itself is a social construct or that at least our knowledge of reality is socially constructed or gained through social contractions. Where positivism tries to describe laws that can be used for prediction by using quantitative methods, interpretivism looks at context and singular occurrences in the hope of extracting meaning and making sense, typically using qualitative methods.
3.10 Validity and Reliability
The participants must understand the question the same way the researcher anticipated. Saunders (2012:510) Measurement instrument must consist of both validity and reliability. Saunders (2012:511)
3.10.1 Validity
According to Saunders (2013:410) the instrument covers the entire subject matter. The researcher made necessary changes to the questionnaire in terms of simplified and vocabulary the questionnaire according to the recommendations from the pilot study.
3.10.2 Reliability
Reliability is concerned with consistency of a measure or robustness of the survey questionnaire. One this research one of the three approaches were used. Saunders (2012:457).
3.11 Elimination of Bias
According to Saunders (2012:227) Self-administered questionnaires have a lower probability of contamination provided there is no incentive. On this research, the questionnaire used will show a lower probability of contamination.
3.12 Ethical Considerations
The ethical considerations that were taken into consideration for this research study are highlighted in the below four sub headings.
3.12.1 Participants have given Informed Consent
Participants are no way pressured into participation in the study. Participants are aware of all the details required to the study and they are making independent decisions to participate.
3.12.2 Ensuring no Harm comes to Participants
On the questionnaire there are no personal questions and no contact details are asked. The survey questionnaire allows only for the feedback.
3.12.3 Confidentiality and Anonymity
The researcher made sure the anonymity on the questionnaires and retrained from asking information regarding participants contact details.

3.12.4 Ensuring that Permission is obtained.
The researcher will provide the final findings of the research to the organisation for use if they want to. The researcher tends to follow any compulsory confidentiality clauses required by the organisation.
3.13 Conclusion
The aim of this chapter was to provide greater insight on the research design and research methodology of this study. The focus is on sampling, research strategy, ethical considerations and limitations of the study. Section four will focus on interpretation and limitations of the study.
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SECTION FOUR: RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Introduction
The aim of this research study was to establish whether the management and ownership of Kwa Jonnase School the reason for the school to be this popular and parents are even willing to pay higher school fees even though, public education is free.
The presentation of the analysis of findings will however not use these questions as specific headings or structural ordering, as the data implied a different and more revealing way to examine the workings of Kwa Jonnase School. Finally, the researcher sorted the data and presented the findings from a macro to a micro perspective. This means the macro perspective is the overall view of the organisation, starting with the regulatory framework which would link to issues such as job descriptions, decision-making and power sharing, in order to explore the structure of the school and how the effectiveness and style of management is effected by this structural and possibly external environment. The recruitment of teachers at the Kwa Jonnase School and their use of incentives and appraisal.
From the human resources management, the researcher moved to financial management and resources, this lead to a section of accountability, which become another uniqueness of the school. All this turn impacts on the internal culture of the school.
The structure of the organisation from the research interviews and document analysis will give a researcher a good interpretation.
4.2 Interpretation and Discussion of the Results
As it was explained earlier, the findings with the structural or external context of the school, which was found to be crucial in explaining set of regulations to follow, which organise their day to day work. The school works hard to be distinguished by its style of education which emphasizes the development of the student personality and trains him/her resect, serve and be responsible towards others.

The school rule resembles a mission statement. General vision about students and what the school’s aim is toward their upbringing. In their school article written by Mr Shongololo the principal (2014:22). The school goal is to be distinguished by the upbringing of the personality of its students in training them to respect each other, be responsible, to serve and be open-minded. Incentive and chastisements are the tools aiming to correct the mistakes of students and to give them credit for good job and behaviour. And for this teachers and staff are asked not to, hit in any way, offence from any kind, be the bad example from dressing to behaving inside or outside the school and punish or appraise students if they do not deserve it.
4.3 Section A: Demographic Information
This will look at presenting the data that has been collected in a more usable format in order to facilitate analysis.
4.3.1 Position in School
The reason for this question was to make sure that the researcher does get samples from all parts of the school. Samples were from, the principle, two teachers, two admin staff and two parents.
4.3.2 Gender Composition
The aim of this question was to determine the gender of the participants. As shown in Figure 4.1 below the data represents there was a relatively equal sample of both male and female. There was a 55% participation rate of males and 45% of females.

Figure 4.1: Gender Composition

4.3.3 Duration in School
It was so important for the researcher to know, for how low they have known the school or being part of the school. And it was clear that many participants have been part of the school for a very long time. As shown in figure 4.2 below …………. two black participants have been with the school for 8 and 6 years, white participants they have been with the school for 9 and 4 years, coloured participants have been with the school for 5 and 2 years and lastly Indians participants have been with the school for 6 and 4 years.
Figure 4.2: Duration in School (years)

4.3.4 Racial Grouping
Since Kwa Jonnase School it is a multiracial school it was so very important for the research to interview all race. The Figure 4.3 below illustrates that; samples were taken from all race in the school. The school does need to transform even more because at the moment 70% are whites, 23% blacks, 5% Indians and only 3% coloureds.

Figure 4.3: Racial Grouping

4.4 Section B: Effectiveness of School Management
In this section, it was very important for the research to find out how effective is the management of the school since it the core of this study.
4.4.1 Effectiveness of School Management
• Participant 06, a parent, stated that they are very happy with the school and school management.
• Participant 04 admin staff, mentioned that he is so happy about how things are done at the school.
• Another positive comment about school management from participant 7 another parent.
4.4.2 Opinion and Comment about the School
• Participant 05, a coloured teacher mentioned that he feels that white children are more dominant to the schools, other race is not well represented and the management is taking along to transform the school.
• Participant 01 the principal maintained that as a school they are working very hard to make changes in terms of employing more staff of other race and try to do more outreach programs so that they can have children from all walks of life. Example to get children from disadvantaged societies and offer them scholarships.

4.4.3 Addressing Problems at the School
• Participant 01, the principal mentioned that all problems are addressed at a round table level when as a committee the come up with a solution, he gave the example of when they have to discipline a child for misbehaving at school, the offender does get a warning for the first time and second time and if he continues to do the same, parents are called and the issue is discussed and as a group they come up with a decision.
4.5 Section C: Schools Organisational Culture
According to Cushner (2013:36) culture determines, to a large extent, people ‘thoughts, ideas, patterns of interaction and material adaptations to the world around them.
4.5.1 Compulsory Chapel Service
• Participant 01, the principal mentioned that as a Christian school it is so important for the whole school to start their by going to chapel and it is not negotiable. Participant four, Indian teacher total disagree with that because he feels that, the school should embrace all cultures and they must respect them too.
4.6 Section D: Respondents Recommendations
As this research was all about looking at what is it that make the school to be so popular and parents prefer to pay a lot of money for the education of their children, so the focus was not much in getting and recommendations, however, from the participants but the few were about getting more and more students of other race apart from white and also the staff members.
• Participant 01, the Principal stated that he would like to see a black principal in the future and as part of the management team.
• Participant 03, recommended that the school must change their culture in terms of making chapel service to be compulsory for everybody.

4.7 Limitations of the Study
One main concern would be the size of the interview sample and whether different data would have emerged from a different selection of teachers and parents. Time constraints meant it was not possible to conduct many more interviews, but it has to be acknowledged that insights could be lost and a full picture of the management of the school not obtained.
A further limitation was that the senior students were not formally interviewed and their perceptions are not represented. The focus of a researcher was on management and focused on those people who were formally engaged in the managing of the school rather than those subject to management.
Similarly, with a question of parental choice, parents were asked rather than their children. While parents did talk of the influence of their children on what choices they made and whether they got involved, it was not triangulate this with their children, or talk to other students about parental or other involvement in the school.
In hindsight this would have added richness to this research study, particularly in areas of democracy and discipline. However, this does not invalidate the conclusions and final themes of the study, which emerges as centring round the relationship between the focus of control which was critical in deciding school culture. How students interpreted this culture would be the subject of another study.

4.8 Conclusion
Patterns start to emerge whereby the distinctive authority and autonomy that the school has, and the accountability to parents, means noticeable differences in terms of staff culture and student discipline, and from this the explanation for parental choice.
The final chapter will conclude this research report and present the suggested key recommendations for Kwa Jonnase School executive to action if they see fit.

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
Why do parents prefer to pay for their children’s education while education in public schools is offered for free? This question was an underlying one for the whole study and the answers could be sought in each research question. Parental choice was hypothesized to link to the culture of the school, which in turn would be conditioned by the school management, and in turn by its responsiveness to external environment and changing social contexts.
5.2 Findings from the Research Study
The findings revealed the effectiveness of the school management. There are five major themes which have emerged from this study which directly or indirectly appear to impact on parental choice and perceptions of effectiveness: Autonomy, Accountability, democracy and discipline. These constitute the school order.
5.2.1 Findings from the Literature Review
Kwa Jonnase Private School has one of the highest Matric past rates in the KZN Province. With regards to resource management, there are questions about the sources of school resources and the decisions on budget, what principles they use to conceptualise cost and the distribution of resources.
In cultural terms, the difficult questions arise of how people should treat each other and what sort of culture is seen as conductive to learning. What constitutes a positive moral culture at Kwa Jonnase School and how does this link to external factors and how authority is exercised?
With regards to parents, the questions to whether parents’ social values impact on school choice, and perceptions of issues such as school or class size, whether the social class of parents seems to have an impact on their eventual involvement in the school. The view of teachers about different types of families and the kinds of communication teachers have with parents.
5.2.2 Findings from the Primary Research
Findings are summarized in Table 4.1 below as observed during the one on one interviews. It is clear that Kwa Jonnase School have a very structure way when it comes to the structure of the school. Looking at the few features that are mentioned below. They high tuition fees are the main source of finance example maintenance and salaries are paid from that income. There is a formal structure starting from the board members to admin staff and everybody they know who is their line managers and they need to go via them if and when there is a problem. The parent’s involvement is noticeable in the school and even some parents are part of the board of directors at the school.
Table 5.1: Structure of the School
Feature Kwa Jonnase School
Financial resources High tuition fees
Formal structure Hierarchy
Collaboration Academic & structure
Decision-making More democratic
Teachers Eagerness for training
Communication and meetings Negotiation and discussion
Reasons for resistance to change Fear of the unknown
Relations with students More surveyed and controlled
Reason for parental choice Religion ,academic quality and discipline
Involvement of parents at school Noticeable and they know what they want.

5.2.3 Conclusions from the Findings
This research study does not explore or compare the outcome of schools but interested in the things that work for them in management. Handy (2010) stated that, the management of the organisations are not a precise science but more of a creative and political process, owing much to the prevailing culture and tradition in that place at that time. It is clear that Kwa Jonnase School is a well-managed school and the quality of education is very high that is why parents choose to pay a lot of money.

5.3 Recommendations
Even though this research study was not to improve or change anything about Kwa Jonnase School, the study was just to get an understanding about what is it that so popular about the school and the research was interested in the effectiveness of the management of the school. Kwa Jonnase they need to be more willing to give other children who prefer play soccer a change not to make rugby their number one sport, they need to Below the recommendations are stated even though it is not something that they need to change now but to look at in the future.
5.3.1 Recommendation One: Transparency from school management
The school management must be more transparent in terms of the decisions and they must not impose things to teachers without getting their opinion. Management must visit all parts of the school and listen to staff about their problems.
5.3.2 Recommendation Two: Increase staff development
Management must increase staff development and that will help the school more, in terms of relevant skills. Skills like new computer programmes are very useful to the teachers to know so that learning can become so interesting as well as learning different languages it will help a lot cense the school is multiracial.
5.3.3 Recommendation Three: Team building sessions
Team building is the key to success to any organisation that want to always shine. The school must do more of these not just once a year. Team building will also help staff to understand each other’s culture and they will even respect each other more.
5.3.4 Recommendation Four: Outreach programmes
The school must do outreach programmes and invite underprivileged and underperforming Government schools because of the lack of the resources, to teach them and help them where they need help so that they can improve their education. Kwa Jonnase School needs to run the Saturday school for these children and help them with different skills and that will help them a lot with their school results especially those who are in matric, programmes like maths and science they will help these children a lot because in most public schools they don’t have facilities to do experiments.

5.4 Conclusion
With the findings and recommendations for Kwa Jonnase School it would be very interesting to see what does the school do or say about them. Findings suggests that the school is doing extremely and the future is very bright they must be prepared to extend the school because more parents will still be knocking at their do looking for spaces for their children. The recommendations, that is up to them to do something about them.

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APPENDICES
Appendix A: Letter of Permission to Conduct the Study

Appendix B: Interview Covering Letter
INTERVIEW COVERING LETTER

Dear Participant,
Thank you for consenting to help me with this study on the Effectiveness of management at Kwa Jonnase Private School. Participation is voluntary only. Please complete the questions on your own without checking answers with others because your own response is unique and very important. There are no right or wrong answers and this is not a test. Your name will not appear on the paper and when you submit the questionnaire you will remain anonymous.

Yours Sincerely,
Lamlile Lorraine Khuluse
[email protected]
072-2390228

Appendix C: Interview Questionnaire

INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE
Respondent’s code number: 0 …
Interview instructions:
• For the demographic information mark with an X
Section A: Demographic Information
1. What is your position at the school?
1.1 Principle
1.2 Teacher
1.3 Admin. staff
1.4 Parent

2. What is you gender?
2.1 Male 2.2 Female

3. How long have you been part of the school?
Less than 1 year
2 years-5 years
6 years-10 years
More than 10 years

4. Racial Group
Black
White
Indian
Coloured
Other(state)

Section B: Effectiveness of School Management
5. Is the school management effective? Yes___ No ___
If your answer is NO, please explain why you think the school management is not effective.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

6. What is your opinion and comment about the school? Could anything be done to be done to better the school?
Yes/No……………………………………………………………………………………

7. Does the school/principal listen if there is a problem at the school? Anything is done about it afterwards?
Yes/No……………………………………………………………………………………

Section C: Schools Organisational Culture
8. As Kwa Jonnase is a Christian school, do you think it is correct for the school to make chapel service to be compulsory for all the learners?
Yes/No…………………………………………………………………………………….

Section D: Respondents Recommendations
9. If you were the member of the board, what would be the recommendation in terms of recruiting effective management?
………………………………………………………………………………………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Thank you for participating in this research study.

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