Consumer Awareness and Preference for Electric & Hybrid Vehicles with specific reference to Four-Wheeler
In fulfilment for the award of the degree
Master of Business Administration (2016-18)
B.K. School of Business Management
Submitted by Under the Guidance of Yash Barot (11604) Prof. Dr. Mehal Pandya
Sandeep Parmar (11628)
India today is one of the top ten automobile markets in the world and given its burgeoning middle-class population with buying potential and the steady economic growth, accelerating automotive sales is expected to continue. The dependence on fossil fuels and threat of disruptions of supplies from Middle East has heightened the debate on energy security and brought the focus on to alternative technologies.
In this context the importance of alternative technologies has especially grown in the public perception since the NITI Aayog the government think tank is targeting the year 2030 by which it plans to go all-electric in terms of new car sales in the country as part of its commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce spending on oil imports. But it’s path is riddled with many challenges.
The potential for alternative technologies in automobiles such as electric and hybrid vehicles in India, as in case the case of many other comparable markets, depends on improved battery technologies, driving ranges, government incentives, regulation, lower prices and better charging infrastructure.
Policy think tank Niti Aayog has recommended offering fiscal incentives to EV manufacturers and discouraging privately owned petrol and diesel fuelled vehicles.
While there are many factors that influence the EV market, we have carried out a study to understand the perception and expectations of potential for alternative technologies in automobiles such as electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid vehicles.
Therefore, this contribution gives an overview of important topics and issues related to the introduction of electric and hybrid vehicles
This is to certify that Yash Barot and Sandeep Parmar, students of full time MBA (2016-2018 BATCH) at B.K. School of Business Management, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad has prepared a Grand project report on “Consumer Awareness and Preference for Electric & Hybrid Vehicles with specific reference to Four-Wheeler” in partial fulfilment of 2 Year Full Time program of Gujarat University. This project work has been undertaken under the guidance of Dr. Mehal Pandya, faculty at B.K. School of Business Management, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad.
Date: Dr. Mehal Pandya
Place: Ahmedabad Project Guide
The satiation and euphoria that accomplish the successful completion of the Grand project would be incomplete without the mention of the people who made it possible.
I would like to take the opportunity to thank and express my deep sense of gratitude to our guide Dr. Mehal Pandya (Associate Professor-BKSBM) for providing valuable guidance at all stages of study, her advice, suggestion, positive and supportive attitude and continues encouragement without which it would have not been possible to complete the project. I am also thankful to Director Pratik Kanchan for giving me this opportunity. I wholeheartedly thank and appreciate all faculty members of BK School of Business Management for their cooperation and assistance during the course of my project.
Date: Yash Barot (11604)
Place: Ahmedabad Sandeep Parmar (11628)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction ……………………………………………………….
1.1 History ………………………………………………………………………
1.2 Overview of Electric and Hybrid vehicles ………………………………….
1.3 Global market scenario ………………………………………………….……
1.4 The Necessity Of Robust Support Infrastructure ……………………………
1.5 Why EV Adoption Is Crucial For India …………………………………….
1.6 Electric Vehicles: The Future Of Mobility ………………………………..Chapter 2: Research Methodology ………………………………………….. 2.1 Research Objective ……………………………………………………….
2.2 Research Methodology ……………………………………………………
2.3 Scope and Significance of the Project …………………………………….
2.4 Type of research and Research Design ……………………………………
2.5 Data Collection Method ……………………………………………………
2.6 Limitation of the Study ……………………………………………………..Chapter 3: Literature Review ……………………………………………
Chapter 4: Data Analysis ……………………………………………
5. CHAPTER 5: Findings And Suggestions (42)
5.1 Findings from Research (43)
5.2 Suggestions (44)
6.1 Abbreviations (47)
6.2 References (47)
6.3 Annexure (Questionnaire)
Electric vehicles, as the name suggests, run at least partially on electricity. Instead of fossil fuel-driven internal combustion engines, these vehicles are powered by electric motors for propulsion. The electric motor, in turn, derives energy from rechargeable batteries, solar panels or fuel cells.
Historically, electric cars have been around for more than a century. Interestingly, the first known electric car was built in Aberdeen, Scotland way back in 1837. Exhibited at the Royal Scottish Society of Arts Exhibition in 1841, the vehicle, weighing seven tons, could carry a load of six tons at speed of around four miles per hour over a distance of one and a half miles.
Its arrival coincided with the growing status of electricity as one of the preferred methods for vehicular propulsion. Additionally, with the invention of rechargeable batteries in 1859, innovations around EVs slowly, but steadily, started emerging. Incidentally, towards the end of the 19th century, battery-powered electric cabs started plying on the streets of London and New York.
The first known electric car was built in Aberdeen, Scotland way back in 1837.
In London, for instance, Walter C. Bersey built a fleet of electric taxis, called “hummingbirds”, which became operational in 1897. Around the same time, New York-based company, Samuel’s Electric Carriage and Wagon Company, designed around 62 electric cabs.
Despite its early popularity, however, electric vehicles witnessed a decline globally in the first half of the 20th century. Lack of proper charging infrastructure and simultaneous improvements in road infrastructure resulted in the dwindling popularity of EVs. At the same time, with the advancements of the automobile industry, car owners were increasingly looking for vehicles with greater range and speed than electric cars.
However, by the 1960s, EVs once again started garnering the interest of automakers. In 1959, for instance, the American Motor Corporation entered into a joint research agreement with Sonotone Corporation to develop an electric car powered by a “self-charging” battery.
In the decades since then, numerous electric car concepts have been showcased around the globe, including the Scottish Aviation Scamp (1965), the Electrovair (1966), the Electron (1977). Tracing the history of electric vehicles, we found that the first modern version of the electric car, as we know it today, was built in the early 2000s.
In 2004, Elon Musk-founded Tesla Motors started working on the Tesla Roadster, which was the first highway-legal all-electric car running on lithium-ion batteries. Over the years, most carmakers have jumped on the EV bandwagon, with Tesla, Ford, Nissan, Hyundai, Toyota and others leading the race.
it was none other than Dr. Ferdinand Porsche who built the first car to combine an internal-combustion engine with electric motors. The car, which was constructed in 1898, featured a gasoline engine that was used to power a generator that fed four electric motors, one per wheel hub. The car’s range was 40 miles.
By 1905, however, Henry Ford had begun mass-producing inexpensive cars with gasoline engines, hammering the first nails into the coffin of the early hybrid models.
By 1905, however, Henry Ford had begun mass-producing inexpensive cars with gasoline engines, hammering the first nails into the coffin of the early hybrid models.
Commonly considered to be the company that popularized hybrids, Toyota had its first hybrid prototype on the road in 1976. Two decades later, the first Prius was introduced to the Japanese market in 1997, the same year that Audi introduced the Audi Duo, a hybrid based on the A4 Avant, to the European market. Though Audi and Toyota mass-marketed the first modern gas/electric hybrids in Europe and Asia, it was Honda that brought hybrid technology to Americans with the introduction of the 1999 Insight. A year later, the Toyota Prius went on sale in the U.S.
1.2 Overview of electric and hybrid vehicle
Electric vehicles touted as the future of mobility, are fitted with onboard batteries which, unlike conventional fuel tanks, can be charged using electricity. These batteries, in turn, store and use the energy needed to power a set of electric motors, which ultimately propels the car forward.
Because an electric car is devoid of clutch, gearbox and even an exhaust pipe, it is significantly quieter and offers a smoother ride than conventional gasoline-driven vehicles. When fully charged, a standard EV is capable of covering somewhere between 150 km to 170 km before it needs to be recharged.
One of the chief features of electric vehicles is that they can be plugged into off-board power sources for charging. Essentially, there are two types of EVs: all-electric vehicles (AEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). AEVs, in turn, consist of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and fuel cell electric Vehicles (FCEVs). Both BEVs and FCEVs are charged from the electrical grid and are also usually capable of generating electricity through regenerative braking.
Because these types of vehicles don’t consume fossil fuels such as petroleum, they do not produce any tailpipe emissions.
PHEVs (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles), on the other hand, are fuelled primarily by gasoline and only supplemented with battery and motor for better efficiency.
In PHEVs, a battery, which can be plugged into the electric grid for charging, is used to power an electric motor, while gasoline drives the internal combustion engine. Certain types of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are also known as extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs).
Often times, PHEVs utilise electricity for shorter ranges (around 9.6 to 64.3 km). Once the battery is depleted, they switch to the internal combustion engine for greater speed and range. More eco-friendly varieties of plug-in hybrids, at times, use hydrogen fuel cells, biofuels or some other kind of alternative fuel in place of gasoline.
There is a third category: conventional hybrids such as Toyota Prius, which is fitted with a petrol tank and also has a battery that gets charged every time the vehicle brakes.
A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor
When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. These encompass such vehicles as the Saturn Vue, Toyota Prius, Toyota Yaris, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h and 450h and others.
A hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines (using a variety of fuels, generally gasoline or Diesel engines) and electric motors to power the vehicle. The energy is stored in the fuel of the internal combustion engine and an electric battery set. Vehicles as the Saturn Vue, Toyota Prius, Toyota Yaris, Toyota Camry Hybrid, Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Highlander Hybrid, Honda Insight, Honda Civic Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h and 450h are some of the hybrid vehicles.
There are many types of hybrid drive trains which offer varying advantages and disadvantages.
In a parallel hybrid vehicle an electric motor and an internal combustion engine are coupled such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together. Most commonly the internal combustion engine, the electric motor and gear box are coupled by automatically controlled clutches. For electric driving the clutch between the internal combustion engine is open while the clutch to the gear box is engaged. While in combustion mode the engine and motor run at the same speed.
The first mass production parallel hybrid sold outside Japan was the 1st generation Honda Insight.
Mild parallel hybrid
These types use a generally compact electric motor (usually <20 kW) to provide auto-stop/start features and to provide extra power assist during the acceleration, and to generate on the deceleration phase (aka regenerative braking).
On-road examples include Honda Civic Hybrid, Honda Insight 2nd generation, Honda CR-Z, Honda Accord Hybrid, Mercedes Benz S400 BlueHYBRID, BMW 7 Series hybrids, General Motors BAS Hybrids, Suzuki S-Cross, Suzuki Wagon R and Smart fortwo with micro hybrid drive
Power-split or series-parallel hybrid
In a power-split hybrid electric drive train there are two motors: a traction electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The power from these two motors can be shared to drive the wheels via a power split device, which is a simple planetary gear set. The ratio can be from 100% for the combustion engine to 100% for the traction electric motor, or anything in between, such as 40% for the electric motor and 60% for the combustion engine. The combustion engine can act as a generator charging the batteries.
Modern versions such as the Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive have a second electric motor/generator connected to the planetary gear. In cooperation with the traction motor/generator and the power-split device this provides a continuously variable transmission.
On the open road, the primary power source is the internal combustion engine. When maximum power is required, for example to overtake, the traction electric motor is used to assist. This increases the available power for a short period, giving the effect of having a larger engine than actually installed. In most applications, the combustion engine is switched off when the car is slow or stationary thereby reducing curbside emissions.
Passenger car installations include Toyota Prius, Ford Escape and Fusion, as well as Lexus RX400h, RX450h, GS450h, LS600h, and CT200h.
A series- or serial-hybrid vehicle is driven by an electric motor, functioning as an electric vehicle while the battery pack energy supply is sufficient, with an engine tuned for running as a generator when the battery pack is insufficient. There is no mechanical connection between the engine and the wheels, and the purpose of the range extender is to charge the battery. Unless there has been a rework of the drivetrain since its first release there is a mechanical linkage in the Chevrolet Volt. Series-hybrids have also been referred to as extended range electric vehicle, range-extended electric vehicle, or electric vehicle-extended range
The BMW i3 with Range Extender is a production series-hybrid. It operates as an electric vehicle until the battery charge is low, and then activates the generator to maintain power, and is also available without the range extender.
1.3 Global market scenario
As more and more governments across the world are aggressively looking for ways to benefit from the ongoing EV revolution, the market opportunity in the space has grown dramatically over the years. Thanks to the push from local governments and corporates, the sector is expected to grow at a CAGR of 28.3% between 2017 and 2026, as per BIS Research.
For the first time in 2015, the global electric vehicle fleet surpassed 1 Mn, which was later doubled in 2016.
Here are some stats that highlight the sector’s rising potential:
New registrations of electric cars hit an all-time high in 2016, with over 750K sales worldwide, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA).
With a 29% market share, Norway currently boasts the most successful deployment of electric vehicles globally, followed by the Netherlands at 6.4% and Sweden with 3.4% market share. Recently, the Scandinavian nation of Norway set a new world record, with electric and hybrid vehicles accounting for nearly 52% of its total car sales in 2017 against 40% in 2016.
Coming closely behind are China, France and the United Kingdom, all of whom have electric car market shares close to 1.5% respectively.
In 2016, China accounted for nearly 40% of the world’s total electric car sales. In fact, Chinese OEMs produced 43% of the 873K EVs built worldwide in 2016. With more than 200 Mn electric two-wheelers, 3.3 to 4 Mn low-speed electric vehicles (LSEVs) and over 300K electric buses (as of 2017), China is currently the global leader in the electric mobility race.
In the second position, in terms of the number of EV sales, is the US.
For the first time in 2015, the global electric vehicle fleet surpassed 1 Mn, which was later doubled in 2016.
In line with this growth, the market is expected to have more than 10.8 Mn units by 2026, as per a survey by BIS Research. Across the globe, some of the key players are Tesla Inc. (U.S.), BYD Company Limited (China), Volkswagen AG (Germany), Nissan Motor Corporation (Japan), and Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (Japan) among others.
Notable EV components manufacturers include Samsung SDI (South Korea), Automotive Energy Supply Corporation (Japan), LG Chem. (South Korea), Panasonic Corporation (Japan), and Continental AG (Germany), etc
1.4 The Necessity Of Robust Support Infrastructure
Just like conventional vehicles rely on petrol pumps or gas stations for refuelling, the mass adoption of electric vehicles mandates a robust charging infrastructure. Also called electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), the EV charging stations are often installed by utility companies as on-street facilities. Others are situated at shopping centres, public destinations and even workplaces and can be operated by private companies.
EVSEs are currently classified as per the rate at which the batteries get charged. In fact, the charging times of plug-in electric vehicles are dependent on a number of factors: the level of depletion, its energy storage capacity as well as the type of EVSE. The charging process can take anywhere between 30 minutes (fast charging) up to 24 hours, depending on the specifications of the battery and the charger.
Currently, there are two main types of plug-in EV charging stations: AC and DC. An AC charging station supplies current to the on-board vehicle charger and typically offers 8 to 24 km range per 30 minutes of charging. A DC charging station supplies current directly to the car’s battery and can provide up to 129 km of electric range for every 30 minutes charge.
Fast charging (more than 40 kW), on the other hand, delivers over 100 km of a range within 10 to 30 minutes. Currently, it takes a little over an hour to fully charge a Tesla car at one of the firm’s supercharging stations. By switching out the battery pack, however, drivers could find themselves back on the road much sooner. This is essentially how the battery swapping system works.
The global EV charging infrastructure market is expected to skyrocket to $45.59 Bn by 2025.
Last year, for instance, Tesla filed a patent for a new battery swapping robot that can lift a vehicle and change its battery pack for a new one in just 15 minutes. This was in line with the company’s vision to make almost nonstop travel during long road trips possible with electric cars.
With the growing popularity of electric vehicles, the global EV charging infrastructure market is expected to skyrocket to $45.59 Bn by 2025, as per a report by Grand View Research. Within this sector, the fast charging segment is poised to witness the fastest growth, with an estimated CAGR of around 47.9% from 2017 to 2025, the report by Grand View Research predicts.
As of December 2017, there were an estimated 20,178 EV public and private charging sites in the US, of which around 86.9% were available to the public. Japan, on the other hand, has more than 2,800 DC fast charging stations.
According to a study by IHS Inc., the number of EV charging units will increase exponentially from 1 Mn units in 2014 to more than 12.7 Mn units in 2020. Additionally, approximately 10% of EV charging stations globally will be in the public or semi-public domain by 2020.
1.5 Why EV Adoption Is Crucial For India
Home to one of the largest automobile industries in the world, India currently contributes a major percentage of the global car sales. Public transport continues to be the primary mode of transport in tier II, tier III cities and rural regions. Given that over 1.2 Mn deaths occur in the country every year as a result of air pollution, according to a report by Greenpeace, the transition to more eco-friendly and renewable sources of energy is the need of the hour for India.
In light of the growing pollution problem, the Government of India, over the last few years, has been increasingly promoting alternative mobility solutions, chief among which are electric vehicles. Because they are powered by electricity and not fossil fuels, EVs are relatively emission-free and therefore, hold the key to India’s burgeoning air pollution issue.
Along those lines, the government unveiled the “National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020” in 2013, under which it has rolled out a slew of initiatives and programmes geared towards accelerating the adoption of electric vehicles in India. The plan, essentially, aims to deploy around 7 Mn hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the country by 2020.
Realising the potential of EVs, the Indian government has also announced plans to make the country a 100% electric vehicle nation by 2030. To that end, in January 2017, the central government said that it would bear up to 60% of the research and development (R&D) cost for developing the indigenous low-cost electric technology.
National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP) 2020, essentially, aims to deploy around 7 Mn hybrid and all-electric vehicles in the country by 2020.
Having already floated two global tenders for the procurement of up to 20,000 EVs,the government, under the leadership of PM Narendra Modi, is now planning to extend financial support of up to $1.3 Bn (INR 8,730 Cr) under the second phase of FAME India.
While think tank NITI Aayog has created a special task force to come up with suggestions for the Union government, in a bid to make the transition to electric vehicles more seamless, various state governments have unveiled or are in the process of launching dedicated policies on EVs.
In September 2017, for instance, Karnataka became the first Indian state to roll out its Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage Policy. Similarly, in October, the Telangana government prepared a draft policy on electric vehicles, with a focus on benefits for EV manufacturers.
Among the other states that have rolled out – or are in the process of launching – policies on electric vehicles are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Uttar Pradesh and others. Interestingly, Gujarat, WB, UP, Rajasthan and Maharashtra clocked the highest number of EV sales during FY2016-17, according to a report by the Society of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (SMEV).
As per the findings of the study, Gujarat topped the list with sales of just over 4,330 units. WB appeared in the second place with sales of 2,846 units, followed by UP which sold a total of 2,467 electric vehicles during the said period. Rajasthan reported sales of around 2,388 EV units, while Maharashtra came in fifth with sales of 1,926 units.
“In addition, 25,000 e-vehicles were sold across India between 2016-17. The study was conducted on all electric two-wheelers and four-wheelers which were sold during 2016-2017 and are successfully running in the mentioned states,” stated the report.
In another study, ASSOCHAM and EY claimed that the electric vehicles (EV) market is expected to record double-digit growth rates with the rise in sales volume annually in India till 2020. The survey titled ‘Electric mobility in India: Leveraging collaboration and nascency’, further said that despite electric vehicles not being mainstream, stricter emission norms, reducing battery prices and increasing consumer awareness are driving EV adoption in India.
1.6 Electric Vehicles: The Future Of Mobility
Globally, automobile exhaust is one of the biggest contributing factors of pollution, especially air pollution. While the environmental impact of electric vehicles is somewhat obvious, there are other advantages to electric mobility solutions that conventional fossil fuel-powered vehicles don’t have.
Keeping that in mind, here is a rundown of the some of the major advantages and disadvantages of electric vehicles over regular petrol or diesel-fuelled cars.
Here are the key advantages Of EVs:
No Fuel, Cheaper To Maintain
Because electric cars are powered by electricity and not gasoline, it drastically reduces the monthly spendings of car owners. According to Bloomberg, the consumption of fossil fuels by automobiles currently stands at 23 Mn barrels per day. However, with the increased popularity of EVs, the global gasoline consumption in the passenger vehicle segment will drop significantly within the next five years, as per a report by the International Energy Agency.
Although the initial cost of electric cars is quite higher than that of conventional vehicles, in the long-run, it is actually cheaper to own and maintain EVs. Ergon Energy states that the electricity needed to chargean EV is, on an average, around a third of the price of petrol per kilometre, especially in developed countries.
Similarly, a battery electric vehicle (BEV) contains fewer components than a conventional petrol/diesel car, making servicing and maintenance a lot cheaper than petrol and diesel-powered vehicles.
More Eco-Friendly, Lower Carbon Footprint
Given that the number of air pollution-related deaths have been on the rise lately, switching to electric cars, especially when it comes to public transport, could potentially reduce carbon emissions, thus slowing down climate change and global warming.
In fact, electric cars are 100% emission free as they run on electrically powered engines. Consequently, they do not emit any toxic gases or smoke that could adversely affect the environment. In this count, all-electric cars – particularly the ones powered by renewable energy – are much better than hybrid cars.
However, in this regard, it should be noted that the source of electricity is also of importance in case of EVs. If the electricity is produced through environmentally-damaging means like coal power plants, which is often the case in developing countries, the environmental benefits of electric cars ultimately get negated.
Less Noise Pollution, Smoother Ride
Since they are devoid of internal combustion engines and, in general, have less number of components, electric vehicles tend to be more silent than conventional vehicles. This, in turn, helps in curbing noise pollution, especially in crowded urban areas.
As an added advantage, electric motors, being lighter, offer a smoother drive with higher acceleration over longer distances than cars running on fossil fuels.
Now, let’s look at some of the disadvantages of EVs:
Range Anxiety, Lack Of Charging Infrastructure
Despite the massive technological advancements, EV charging infrastructure remains inadequate in most parts of the world. Furthermore, most electric cars have a range that falls between 150 to 175 km on a single charge. This, inevitably, gives rise to range anxiety among car owners.
In the absence of charging points, especially during low-distance drives, there is the risk of being stranded, which albeit can be avoided through battery swapping. However, for widespread adoption of EVs, governments around the world need to be more proactive in building a robust and well-connected charging infrastructure.
Long Charging Times
As mentioned above, the charging process of EVs can take anywhere from 30 minutes (in case of fast charging) up to 24 hours, depending on the capacity of the battery and motors. Most, however, take around four to six hours to be fully charged, which is several times longer than the time it takes to refuel a petrol/diesel car.
Lower Battery Life, High Battery Costs
The batteries currently used in electric vehicles have a lifespan of only around three to 10 years, depending on the make and model. The lower battery life often serves as a hindrance that affects the performance of electric cars. The higher costs of batteries, which are caused by the insufficient supply of raw materials, add to this problem.
2.1 Research Objective
Primary Research Objective:
To study the perception of the potential consumers for electric and hybrid vehicles in four-wheeler automobile industry
Secondary Research Objective:
To know why electric and hybrid vehicles could not get enough consumer attraction
To study willingness of consumer for considering electric and hybrid vehicles
To study the initiative taken by the Government for promoting electric and hybrid vehicles
2.2 Research Methodology:
Research Design: Quantitative research will be carried out with the help of questionnaire
Research Type: Descriptive / Exploratory
Population: Present car users and future consumer
Sampling Type: Non-Probability Sampling
Sampling Technique: Convenience Sampling
Sampling Size: Around 100 respondents
Data collection: Primary data for this study will be collected from the survey of the consumers. Secondary data will be collected from the internet to know about electric and hybrid vehicles and government policies.
2.3 Scope and Significance of the Project:
The study will be conducted in four major cities of Gujarat, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Surat, Vadodara in order to determine future prospect of Electric and hybrid vehicles
This study will be limited to mentioned cities only and findings will not be generalized to other parts of India.
2.4 Type of research and Research Design
Quantitative Research – Quantitative research generates numerical data or information that can be converted into number, only measurable data are being gathered and analysed in this type of research.
Qualitative Research – Qualitative research generates non-numerical data. It focuses on gathering mainly verbal data rather than measurements. Gathered information is then analysed in an interpretative manner, subjective, impressionistic, or even diagnostic.
Research design specifies the method and procedures for conducting a particular study. A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of the data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to their search purpose with economy in procedure.
Descriptive Research Design
Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with described the characteristics of particular individual. In descriptive as well as diagnostic studies, the researcher must be able to define clearly, what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods for measuring it along with a clear-cut definition of population he wants to study. The research design must make enough provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability, with due concern for the economical completion of the research study.
2.5 Data Collection Method
Primary Data – Primary data means data that are collected by different techniques like questionnaire, Depth interview, Survey, etc. In this project, primary data has been collected by means of questionnaire.
Secondary Data – Secondary data means data that are already available i.e.: they refer to the data which have already been collected and analysed by someone else. The secondary data involved in this project has been gathered from the literatures and internet.
2.6 Limitation of the Study
The sample is and sample size has been limited due to time constraint.
All the observation and recommendation will be made on the feedback obtained from survey.
(1) ELECTRIC PROPULSION AND ENERGY STORAGE
Most hybrid hardware subsystems and components with exception of energy storage devices have been matured to an acceptable level efficiency performance and reliability. The energy stored in the HEV storage unit is much smaller than that in the EV unit. It is also clear that the power capability of the batteries designed for HEVs is much higher than those designed for EVs. However, batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles require both high energy density and high-power capability based on the driving requirements. The other significant technical challenges include higher initial cost, cost of battery replacement, added weight and volume, performance and durability.
Mehrdad et al (1997) presented a design methodology for EV and HEV propulsion systems based on the vehicle dynamics. This methodology is aimed at finding the optimal torque-speed profile for the electric powertrain. The study reveals that the extended constant power operation is important for both the initial acceleration and cruising intervals of operation. The more the
motor can operate in constant power, the less the acceleration power requirement will be. Several types of motors are studied in this context. It is concluded that the induction motor has clear advantages for the EV and HEV at the present. A brushless dc motor must be capable of high speeds to be competitive with the induction motor. However, more design and evaluation
data is needed to verify this possibility. The design methodology was applied to an actual EV and HEV to demonstrate its benefits.
Keywords : Hybrid electric vehicle, Motors, Power
Bartlomiej et al (2003) provided the evaluation of driving power and energy requirements for automotive vehicle. A survey of most promising applications of electric and hybrid vehicles in cities with commercial line solutions was given. Evaluation of vehicle’s energy, when is referred to urban driving cycles, reflects an important diversification of the average and maximal power requirements. Simulation results of a small car equipped with advanced fuel cell converter and supercapacitor storage bank have indicated the power flow between these sources at normalized urban driving conditions.
Keywords : Energy, Power
Markel and Simpson (2006) proposed that, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology holds much promise for reducing the demand for petroleum in the transportation sector. Its potential impact is highly dependent on the system design and the energy storage system. They discussed on the design options including power, energy and operating strategy as they relate to the energy storage system. They studied the design options including power, energy, and operating strategy as they relate to the energy storage system. Expansion of the usable state-of-charge window will dramatically reduce cost but it will be limited by battery life requirements. Increasing the
battery power capability will provides the ability to run all-electrically more often but it will increase the cost. Increasing the energy capacity from 20-40 miles of electric range capability provides an extra 15% reduction in fuel consumption but also nearly doubles the incremental cost.
Keywords : Transportation, Charge, Battery
(2) ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
Karl (2005) developed a methodological approach to combine a technology assessment of the major subsystems of a personal electric vehicle with a technical model of vehicle performance in order to estimate the cost and mass of a vehicle for a given set of functional requirements. Personal electric vehicles offer several potential benefits to consumers and to society including lower transportation costs, reduced trip times and lower environmental impact. Personal electric vehicles are technically feasible now. However, suppliers have not yet arrived at a set of practical vehicles that best match technical feasibility and consumer demand. Part of the challenge is to understand the relative trade-offs among cost, weight, range and other dimensions of vehicle performance. His article estimates the technological frontier defined by these trade-offs. This frontier illustrates what is likely to be technically possible. The question of what is commercially feasible remains. However this question will be answered by suppliers and consumers in the marketplace in the coming years.
Keywords : Technology, Performance, Feasible
Jonathan et al (2008) examines the key forces driving and resisting strong market growth of E2W, what is causing these forces and how these forces are inter-related using FFA methodology. Through this analysis, we conclude improvement in E2Ws and battery technology is a driving force that can be partially attributed to the open-modular industry structure of suppliers and assemblers. This type of structure was made possible by the highly modular product architecture of E2Ws, which resulted in product standardization and enhanced competition amongst battery technologies. Growing air quality and traffic problems in cities in part due to rapid urbanization has led to strong political support for E2Ws at the local level in
the form of motorcycle bans and loose enforcement of E2W standards. There are softer signs of national support for this mode in part due to national energy efficiency goals. Public transit systems in cities have become strained from the effects of urbanization and motorization, which has stimulated greater demand for ”low-end” private transport.
Keywords : Market, Urbanization, Traffic
Nan and Michael (2009) developed a database on all transport modes including passenger air and water and freight in order to facilitate the development of energy scenarios, and assess the significance of technology potential in a global climate change model. Transportation mobility in India has increased significantly in the past decades. This has contributed many energy and environmental issues, and an energy strategy that incorporates efficiency improvement and other measures needs to be designed. An extensive literature review and data collection has been done to establish the database with a breakdown of mobility, intensity, distance, and fuel mix of all transportation modes. Energy consumption was estimated and compared to aggregated transport consumption reported in IEA India transportation energy data. Different scenarios were estimated based on different assumptions of freight road mobility. Based on the bottom-up analysis, they estimated that the energy consumption from 1990 to 2000 increased at an annual growth rate of 7% for the midrange road freight growth case and 12% for the high range road freight growth case corresponding to the scenarios in mobility, while the IEA data only show a 1.7% growth rate in those years. Ultimately, however, energy-related environmental impacts, particularly climate change, are a global issue. They hope that continuing research applying the approach presented above contributes to the understanding of global energy-related emissions and toward strategies of their reduction.
Keywords : Energy, Environmental, Consumption
(3) A multi-level perspective on the introduction of hydrogen and battery-electric vehicles
Alternative vehicles powered by electricity or hydrogen hold the potential to solve a number of challenges that relate to automobile use, such as climate change, deterioration of local air quality, security of energy supply, and high fuel prices. This article addresses the question as to how a transition to vehicles powered by hydrogen or electricity could take place. Recognizing that transitions result from joint development of technology and society, a co-evolutionary, multi-level perspective is adopted. The perspective is used to analyze the dynamics of the relationship between car manufacturers and consumers and developments that put pressure on this relationship. Building on the analysis, two sets of scenarios for a transition to battery-electric and fuel cell vehicles are identified. In one set of scenarios, tightening emissions regulation stimulates carmakers to scale up experiments with alternative vehicles, moving them into the commercialization phase. In the other set, rising fuel prices prompt carmakers to first extend their current product line-up with plug-in versions, and later with battery-electric and fuel cell vehicles. The two scenarios have different implications for the actors involved and for the requisite supporting infrastructure.
Keywords : Fuel cell vehicles, Battery-electric vehicles, Socio-technical pathways
Geert P.J. Verbong is an associate professor in Technology and Sustainability Studies at TU/e. His specialisation is in the field of energy systems and renewable energy. His recent publications include a book on the history of renewable energy in the Netherlands (2001) and the Dutch Energy Research Centre (2005). He teaches courses on Technology Assessment, Scenario Methodology, Strategic Niche Management, Energy Policy and Governance in the Science Technology and Society program and the MSc program Sustainable Energy Technology (SET) at TU/e, with a focus on energy systems, renewable energy and energy policy. He is a core member of the Dutch Knowledge Network on System Innovations or Transitions.
(4) Cost-effective electric vehicle charging infrastructure siting for Delhi
Colin J R Sheppard, Anand R Gopal, Andrew Harris and Arne Jacobson
Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) represent a substantial opportunity for governments to reduce emissions of both air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The Government of India has set a goal of deploying 6–7 million hybrid and PEVs on Indian roads by the year 2020. The uptake of PEVs will depend on, among other factors like high cost, how effectively range anxiety is mitigated through the deployment of adequate electric vehicle charging stations (EVCS) throughout a region. The Indian Government therefore views EVCS deployment as a central part of their electric mobility mission. The plug-in electric vehicle infrastructure (PEVI) model—an agent-based simulation modeling platform—was used to explore the cost-effective siting of EVCS throughout the National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India. At 1% penetration in the passenger car fleet, or ~10 000 battery electric vehicles (BEVs), charging services can be provided to drivers for an investment of $4.4 M (or $440/BEV) by siting 2764 chargers throughout the NCT of Delhi with an emphasis on the more densely populated and
frequented regions of the city. The majority of chargers sited by this analysis were low power, Level 1 chargers, which have the added benefit of being simpler to deploy than higher power alternatives. The amount of public infrastructure needed depends on the access that drivers have to EVCS at home, with 83% more charging capacity required to provide the same level of service to a population of drivers without home chargers compared to a scenario with home chargers. Results also depend on the battery capacity of the BEVs adopted, with approximately 60% more charging capacity needed to achieve the same level of service when vehicles are assumed to have 57 km versus 96 km of range.
Keywords : Opportunity, Hybrid, plug in Electric vehicle
79.2% of the respondents are male and 20.8 % are female
81.2% of the respondents are between 21-40 age group and rest are in 20 or younger,41-60 and 61 or older
47.5% of respondents have Post Graduate and 41.6% have Graduate as education level
36.6% of respondents have household income between 3-6 lakhs, 35.6% of have less than 3 lakhs,15.8% have between 6-9 lakhs,11.9% have more than 9 lakhs
63.4% of respondents belong to Ahmedabad,19.8% belong to Surat,8.9% belong to Rajkot, 7.9% belong to Vadodara
Above graph shows no. of family members of respondents. 78.2% of them have 4-6 family members. 14.9% of them have 1-3 family members
Above graph shows the marital status of respondents.
78.6% of them are married.
23.8% of them are single
60.4% of respondents own a car
39.6% of them do not own a car
Out of 51 respondents who own car, 72.1% of them have only one car,18% of them own two cars and rest 9.8% of them own three or more cars.
Above chart represents the type of fuel consumed by cars owned by respondents.
83.8% of the cars run on either petrol or diesel. 26.5% of the cars run on CNG.
Out of All respondents, 86 are aware of electric car and 15 are not aware.
73 are aware of Hybrid car and 28 are not aware.
Out of all respondents,71 would prefer to buy electric car and 62 would prefer to buy Hybrid car
Out of all respondents 42 are very interested ,45 are interested, 15 don’t know and 5 are less interested in knowing more about electric vehicle.
For hybrid vehicles,52 are very interested, 38 are interested, 8 don’t know and 3 are less interested in knowing more about it.
Out of all respondents, 67.3% are not aware of FAME scheme and 32.7% are aware of it.
Internet (74.3%)is the most popular source, then Newspaper(46.5%),Television(25.7%) and Magazines (20.8%) are popular source for getting information about Electric or Hybrid vehicles.
78.2% of respondents said Family is the biggest factor influencing their buying behaviour , following it is Friends (53.5%) and Peer group (22.8%).
62 respondents are aware of Tata Tiago electric
Only 43 respondents are aware of Mahindra e-Verito58 respondents are aware of Tata Tigor Electric
Only 48 respondents are aware of Mahindra e-KUV
Only 42 respondents are aware of Mahindra e20 Plus
Evision, Reva and Tesla are some the other electric car models that respondents are aware about it.
58 respondents are aware of Toyota camry Hybrid
Only 41 respondents are aware of Toyota Prius
52 respondents are aware of BMW i8
Only 50 respondents are aware of Mahindra Scorpio MicroHybrid58 respondents are aware of Maruti Suzuki Ertiga SHSV
84.2% respondents believe Electric and Hybrid cars use can reduce global warming
55.4% respondents believe Electric and Hybrid cars can save a lot of money to the owner
39.6% respondents believe Electric and Hybrid cars can replace regular cars in terms of satisfying consumer needs
37.6% respondents believe Electric and Hybrid cars are very expensive
26.7% respondents believe Electric and Hybrid cars maintenance infrastructure is well developed
83.2% of respondents believe Positive environmental effect is the encouraging factor
51.5% of respondents believe New trend in technology is the encouraging factor
47.5% of respondents believe Low noise level is the encouraging factor
43.6% of respondents believe Economic in operation (Use) is the encouraging factor
29.7% respondents believe an electric or hybrid car should run 200-300km on a single charge. While 28.7% believe it should run 100-200km, 16.8% believe it should run 301-400km on single charge.
35.6% of respondents said govt. should provide Rs50,000- Rs1,00000 as subsidy to encourage them for purchasing electric or hybrid car.
Battery health over the life of the vehicle is the biggest concern for respondents
41.6% of respondents said that they are likely to purchase electric or hybrid car if it helps in reducing fuel bill.