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English 9 Honors Summer Reading Assignment
Name: Elaha Ahmed

A TALE OF TWO CITIES : Discussion Questions and Essay. All responses must be typed.

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Directions: You are required to choose and answer one of the two essay questions below. All questions/essays will be submitted to Turnitin.com on the first day of school. Be sure to save your work so you are able to retrieve and submit in class. Also, please provide a hard copy of this assignment on that day. You will not be allowed to print in class.

BOOK THE FIRST
Recalled to Life

Chapter 1—The Period

1. The first sentence in this novel is one of the most famous first lines in English literature. How is it and the paragraph that follows an example of parallelism?
The opening sentence of this novel is one of the most famous first lines in English literature, and that shows by the way it is structured. The first sentence follows an example of parallelism because the sentence structure of the part is comparable and balanced. Charles Dickens has used the same pattern of words, to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. Also, the author presents two entirely distinct ideas from each other through the use of antithesis. Though, the two different views compose in an equal grammatical structure. To be more precise, Dickens uses the antithesis of the notable characteristics of the before destroyed France. Subsequently, he formulates an even form to describe the connections between the English and the French aristocracy.

2. What does Dickens establish with his list of parallel contrasts?
With the use of parallel contrasts, Dickens establishes the idea that the era was a part of the turmoil. He shows that since there is a tremendous wealth gap, it creates a distinction between the classes. The parallel contrasts also point out that there isn’t only one contradiction, however, various of them, and reaches their superlative degree. Dickens further indicates the view that every era appears to form disputes, and it’s how humans work it out. The parallel contrasts also give a sense of the setting or the good and evil environment the characters of the story might find themselves in.

3. What is Dickens’ apparent opinion of list of complaints that the Continental Congress of 1775 sent to Parliament?
Dickens’ apparent opinion of the list of complaints that the Continental Congress of 1775 sent to Parliament refers to the charges that the Americans sent just before their surrender of freedom from English rule over America. Dickens is supporting the American side and thinks that their work is a sign of wisdom. However, Dickens also states in the book that the objections from the Americans “…have proved more important to the human race than any communications yet received through any of the chickens of the Cock-lane brood” (6). This quote reveals that Dickens think the document is significant, but it doesn’t attract as much attention from people at that time who is taken by the messages spread by a deficient in originality, such as a ghost.

4. What allusions does Dickens make to the approaching French Revolution?
In the book, Dickens provides plenty of allusions that make up to the approaching French Revolution. First of all, Dickens mentions the Woodman, Fate, who makes a structure with a sack and a knife in it, which known as the guillotine (it is a system that is made to kill the aristocracy during the revolution). It was a terrible time. Second of all, he writes about the Farmer, Death, and explains how the tumbrils are prepared to replace from carrying animals, to taking people to prison, and to their death. By the end of the chapter, there are details about the Musketeers firing on the mob, and the mob firing on the Musketeers. Those actions go against the rules, which stands as the main reason for the French Revolution.

5. What is foreshadowed in Dickens’ beginning this novel with a description of the period?
At the beginning of the novel with a description of the period, Dickens shows the conflicts and the connection of the setting to the situation of the French Revolution. Also, he writes the commencing part in such a way that it explains other alike potential revolts in the later periods. In simple terms, the context of the text symbolizes some other events that remain relatable to the French Revolution. Furthermore, the beginning foreshadows that the characters in the story will be affected by turmoil in that particular epoch.

Chapter 2—The Mail

1. How does Dickens begin his actual story?
Dickens start his actual story by describing the setting and the atmosphere. The tone of the story is dark with a little bit of anticipation building up. He commences explaining that in England, the Dover mail trainee proceeds to a big hill, on a November night. Dickens set a foreboding atmosphere of night and mist, which seemingly makes the coach, and his passengers a little bit of unsteady. He adds every detail about the Dover mail and his passengers’ experience and talks about their surroundings and the environment. He starts with the setting, some suspense, hazard, mysteries, and secrecy. There’s also the accounts of the Dover Road, the tough experience of trolling through the mud, the horses’ efforts to move, the loneliness, and sinister nature of making a trip to England.

2. Briefly identify Mr. Lorry and Jerry. What does the answer “recalled to life” suggest to the reader about the nature of Mr. Lorry’s business in Dover?
Mr. Lorry is a passenger on the Dover mail and works for Tellson’s bank. He’s going to Paris for some business issues. He’s explained as an introvert and keeps everything to himself. Jerry is a messenger who is assigned to Mr. Lorry and has jagged black hair and eyes which are unusual. The answer “recalled to life,” hint to the reader about the nature of Mr. Lorry’s business in Dover is that it’s mysterious and questionable. Jerry told to sent back the message “recalled to life,” and it makes him perplex. While Jerry travels back, he mentions that he would be “in a Blazing bad way, if recalling to life was to come into fashion” (14). Although, Mr. Lorry wishes about making a man alive from death so that he be “recalled to life.” The answer “recalled to life,” implies that in Mr. Lorry’s business, he will be bringing someone back to life.

3. What does Dickens achieve by his reference to The Captain and the fear and distrust of the travelers?
Dickens mentions The Captain as a tradesman by day who possesses the role of “The Captain” when it gets dark, meaning at night. The Captain transforms himself at night because he goes to kill his fellow tradesmen. By referencing to The Captain, Dickens establishes the point that fear and doubt is a concern in England at that time. The situation seems as if the neighbor you know can be a murderer, and no one can take into belief. Disbelieves and despair have got the better of England at that time, and Dickens achieves it through the persona of The Captain.

Chapter 3—The Night Shadows

1. What effect does Dickens achieve with his occasional lapses into first-person narration?
The effect that Dickens achieves with his random lapses into first-person narration is that he makes the reader feel interested in the story. When I’m reading the book in first-person, it makes me experience that the author is directly speaking to me, rather than discussing the characters. In general, the first-person narration forms an impact of really drawing the reader’s attention towards the story. It also presents an actual perception of the character, and what they are personally passing through. It provides the character’s emotional beliefs and opinions, rather than just progressing with the plot of the story.

2. Briefly describe the first dream Mr. Lorry has on the Dover mail?
The first dream Mr. Lorry has is about him at Tellson’s Bank where he investigates to know that all the bolts that stored are in its place. He also even visits all the storeroom to verify that everything that he expects is there and safe.

3. Consider the message Mr. Lorry sends with Jerry Cruncher. What is revealed by the imaginary conversation Lorry keeps repeating in his mind?
The message Mr. Lorry sends to Jerry Cruncher is “Recalled to Life,” which means to resurrect a prisoner after eighteen years. We know that Mr. Lorry keeps repeating an imaginary conversation in his mind, and that reveals he’s considered to figuratively get someone out of grave who’s ‘dead’ for eighteen years and bring them to meet a woman. He’s also intended to help someone to escape.

Chapter 4—The Preparation

1. What has Mr. Lorry told Lucie in order to get her to go to Paris with him?
Mr. Lorry comes to the Royal George Hotel and wastes a few time relaxing. He tells Lucie that her father Doctor Alexandre Manette is living whom she considers being dead. He also acquaints that they discovered her father, and now it would be her duty to take care of her him. There are remarks of how Lucie needs to return all the comfort to her dad and should go to Paris with him. Going to Paris is crucial for her because she needs to spend time with her father whom she doesn’t meet for almost eighteen years for thinking that he is no more. All the times and memories that she has abstained from being with him need to refill, and most significantly both of them has to deal with some businesses.

2. What hints are there in this chapter that Mr. Lorry’s secret mission resurrects some issues from his own past?
In the book, the way Mr. Lorry characterizes himself and behaves gives some hints. It seems as if Mr. Lorry is not entirely expressing himself and willingly trying to hold himself back. He also brings Lucie away from her family and tries to make her believe in something that she can never imagine. Also, the author wants the readers, meaning us, to put attention and spend our time on the trip to Paris. In this chapter, Dickens provides us that Mr. Lorry’s not known mission implies to something from his past through the use of a metaphor. In the book, it states, “When it was dark, and he sat before the coffee-room fire, awaiting his dinner as he had awaited his breakfast, his mind was busily digging, digging, digging, in the live red coals” (22). The phrase “live red coals” from this quote shows that Mr. Lorry starts to reflect on something because of his mission. We don’t know what happened in Mr. Lorry’s past, but through his deep reflection, we can tell that it was painful and sensitive.
Furthermore, as Mr. Lorry progresses his conversation with Lucie, it seems as if they both know each other from before. He shows compassion for Lucie, however, saying it is “strictly business.” The trip that Mr. Lorry is on contain dangers since he’s doing it without any credentials, entries or any memoranda. These things are a huge part of the business he executes.
3. What are the blank forms for consignment mentioned in this chapter? How do they contribute to Mr. Lorry’s need for secrecy and his use of the code “Recalled to Life”?
The blank forms for consignment is a document for a prisoner subject by the nobles giving authority to arrest without following any specific trials. The record doesn’t grant permission to prisoners to define themselves, and an aristocracy can imprison someone as long as they want. No opportunities are provided to someone to defend themselves. The blank forms contribute to Mr. Lorry’s need for secrecy and his use of the code “Recalled to Life,” by putting him at risk of getting caught and be punished. He’s probably doing something illegal without the concern of the nobilities, and it might cause him trouble if they come to know about him digging a man. It also puts him in danger of saving Lucie’s father since he’s in jail under the blank forms.

4. How do Dickens’ characters conform to the literary conventions of his day?
Dickens’ characters correspond to the literary practices of his time by being typical. In the book, the author mentions their nature, their looks, and the social placement that shapes them. Most of the characters represent the type of people expected to be in the story’s setting. The individuals are not complicated and refer to the way we see them be in classic genre books like this one.

Chapter 5—The Wine-shop

1. What do you think the spilled wine foreshadows in this chapter?
In the book, the author mentions the spilled wine in a very descriptive way. Dickens wants us to comprehend and believe in the changes that are coming up in the story. For instance, the spilled wine foreshadows the violence and the blood that will shed in the later years. As illustrated in the story, when the wine falls, it smears people’s faces and hands. Even to foretell and to show the imagery, Dickens describes in the book how one man writes blood on the wall using the poured wine. Mainly, the splash of the wine predicts the imminent future and the anger or inhumanity that will get the better of people as time passes.

2. What effect does Dickens achieve with personification in his chapter?
Dickens uses the perfect personification when he talks about hunger in his chapter. Dickens gives hunger some human qualities and shows it through different situations. In the book, hunger travels through the tall houses and settle itself on the wretch clothes hanging on the ropes. Hunger is assumed to patch with straw, rag, wood, and paper. It’s visible in every quality of tiny particle from the firewood. Hunger moves up to the filthy streets and into all the corrupt foods, such as the poor bread of a baker, dead-dog sausages, and even in husky potato fries. The way hunger personifies human traits shows suffering and the hard lives of the people in France at that time. Hunger creates an effect of knowing that people dwell a hard life where they are desperate to feed themselves to make life better.

3. What does the following passage from this chapter say about the character of Madame Defarge?
“…one might predicated that she did not often make mistakes against herself in any of the reckonings over which she presided .”
The following passage from this section tells about the personality of Madame Defarge is that she’s a person who has strong believes in herself. She’s brave, stubborn, determined, unwavering, perseverant person, sturdy with a harsh look on the face, but manages to have a sense of humor which makes her a beautiful person. Although for her outer look she makes it seem powerful for the world, she has a soft side inside her. From being funny to understanding feelings, she’s a nice person, apart from her toughness.

4. What information about Lucie’s father state of mind is revealed to Mr. Lorry during the climb up the five flights of stairs to Dr. Manette’s room?
During the climb up the stairs to Dr. Manette’s room, Mr. Lorry and Lucie comes to know a few things about him. Mr. Defarge tells Lucie and Mr. Lorry that Dr. Manette has changed a lot. He keeps himself away from everyone, and he always stays alone. They also find out that his state of mind has reached to such a point that he doesn’t relish his door to be open. He has stayed locked for a while, and his long experience has left him to hurt himself if a door is open. It’s a feeling that a prisoner gets whenever he’s asked to face the light by suffering through the darkness. The immediate transition from dark to light can make a tremendous impact on someone’s state of mind, as it did to Dr. Manette.

5. What is implied by the way the Defarges call the men “Jacques”?
The men that the Defarges call “Jaques” doesn’t truly have that name. They are known as “Jacques,” so that they can be unique and can get identified from the other revolutionaries. Even in the book, Mr. Defarge is called “Jacques.” Since he also called by that name can mean that he might play the role of the boss in their group. “Jacques,” can imply to a particular group and a name that separates them from others.

Chapter 6—The Shoemaker

1. What makes the faintness of the Shoemaker’s voice so horrible?
The weakness of the Shoemaker’s voice is dreadful because he has held imprisoned for a long time. According to the text, “It was not faintness of physical weakness, though confinement and hard fare no doubt had their part in it” (42). With there existing no other souls in the closed room, the Shoemaker spends his time alone. He has recently been out of the prison, and it might be wrong to think him to be strengthened and energized. So much have happened to him, and his chance of not being able to raise his voice made him hopeless, to even lose the human voice, and thinking of hurting himself if he finds a door open. His voice shows discouragement and a tone of someone recalling his friends before dying. Dr. Manette affected by solitude and disuse has made his beautiful voice turn into a weak stain. Overall, confinement left him badly damaged.

2. What is significant about the Shoemaker’s name?
The significance of the Shoemaker’s name is that it’s his cell number and the address of the Bastille. It’s hundred and five north tower. Dr. Manette doesn’t know his real name because Mr. Defarge calls him by his cell name. He has lost such mental stability that he no longer sees himself as a human. His current name tells how he forgets his name, and how people distinguish him to be anything, except a human. For the reason of him staying alone, he cannot imagine anyone calling him out, and primarily by his real name. Imprisonment took away all his humanity and left himself to erase his former identity.

3. What detail finally begins to bring the Shoemaker to his senses?
First of all, as shown in the book, the Shoemaker almost lost most of his senses for spending enough time in the closed room. Mr. Defarge and Mr. Lorry investigates the Shoemaker and discover some changes. When Lucie enters the room, she bends down to hug her dad, and her golden blonde hair reminds him of something. The Shoemaker has stored some blonde hair in a scrap of rag around his neck. The blonde hair of Lucie reminds Dr. Manette of his wife’s hair. Though, later he figures out that Lucie is too young to be his wife.

4. How does Lucie begin to meet stereotypical expectations of an ideal woman?
Lucie begins to meet stereotypical expectations of an ideal woman by showcasing her style that matches with the people of her era. Also, she has a beautiful heart when it comes to interpreting the world around her. She is not that independent and has tender emotions. We can see her as a despondent person, who is worried about other people, and more importantly critical issues. Lucie has her particular ways, and she doesn’t change them. She inspires other people, and with her innocence, she gives all to others. Her habits stop her to get influenced by any abrogating events that roam around her. In overall, she’s a lovely, contemplative, and caring girl.

BOOK THE SECOND
The Golden Thread

Chapter 1—Five Year Later

1. What is Dickens suggesting with the following: “In this respect the House was much on a par with the Country; which did very often disinherit its sons for suggesting improvements in laws and customs that had long been highly objectionable, but were only the more respectable”?
Dickens suggesting by the following quote is that the House (Tellson’s Bank) reference to the Country as a whole and that it cannot make any changes to its values and traditions. The Tellson’s Bank is very self-important when there are demurs of making changes. Therefore, if anyone wants to alter anything about them, they might be labeled as a renegade or would be punished. The customs of Tellson’s Bank is profoundly acknowledged, and everyone is expected to devote the same respect as given to the Country. Thus, any odds standing against it is considered intolerable. Tellson Bank sentences anyone to death who does the smallest of crime and takes pride in its long maintained history. Primarily, dark and small rooms, smelly, ugly, and not having the modern technologies. However, they think those things make it respectable.

2. What is implied by Jerry’s anger at his wife’s “flopping,” the mud on his boots and the rust on his hands?
Mr. Cruncher, who is also known as Jerry in the story, gets angry when his wife prays for his ability to feed them without his consent. He refers to his wife’s doing as “flopping,” and forbids her to do it again. He even tells his son, who is also called Jerry, to inform him if she does so. Jerry’s behavior implies that he has some shame for doing something illegal to provide for his family. Not only that, the mud on his boots and the rust on his hands show that he might have a secret. His traits create suspense, and an air of mystery surrounds him, as his characteristics reveal.

3. What effect does Dickens achieve by the scene in the Cruncher home?
In the Cruncher’s home, Dickens reveals the temper of Mr. Cruncher over Mrs. Cruncher, which somewhat shows the family violence and forms a mystery. The suspense is mostly based on the night job of Mr. Cruncher and about his characteristics, both physical and mental. There’s also some comic satisfaction as Mr. Cruncher and Mrs. Cruncher argues and drags their son Jerry into it. There are more funny remarks when Jerry threaten her mom by using the line, “You are going to flop, mother. – Halloa, father!” (59). Mrs. Cruncher cannot pray as Mr. Cruncher forbids her and Jerry is just having some fun frightening her mom to stop praying.

Chapter 2—A Sight

1. What is Jerry Cruncher’s opinion of execution by quartering?
Jerry Cruncher’s opinion of execution by quartering seems to be logical. He thinks that sentencing a man to death is enough. They don’t have to go so far and even cut the man into pieces. He feels as if the procedure is too hyped up and barbaric. As stated in the test, “That’s quartering,’ said Jerry. ‘Barbarous!” (62). He also thinks it’s very out of control and harsh to spile a man.

2. For what crime is Charles Darnay on trial?
Charles Darnay is on trial for being guilty of the treason case. He acts as a spy between France and the colonies. For this one, he’s arrested in England and brought to Old Bailey court, where he is standing for hearing whether the execution of quartering is on him or not.

3. When, according to their testimony, did Dr. Manette and Lucie meet Charles Darnay?
According to their testimony, Dr. Manette and Lucie met Charles Darnay five years ago on a boat. When they were bringing Manette home, they encountered each other. At that time, when they met, Charles Darnay was returning from doing secret business on the same boat as they were on.

4. With the other popular “entertainment” does Jerry compare attending a trial? How do the two compare?
The other popular “entertainment,” Jerry compare attending a trial is the insane asylum in Bedlam, where people gather to watch the mentally disabled individuals for fun. The Old Bailey court and Bedlam compare because people spend money on it to watch something entertaining. However, the court is much dearer than the insane asylum. And therefore, all the doors are well guarded in the court, except the social doors from where the criminal gets in, is left wide open.

Chapter 3—A disappointment

1. Briefly outline the charges the Attorney General presents against Mr. Darnay.
The accuses the Attorney General offers against Mr. Darnay mainly based on treason. Attorney General describes how Charles Darnay is a traitor and what evidences they have. Firstly, he gets blamed for coming back and forth to France during the time of the American revolt. We know through history that the Americans has got guidance from the French people. Therefore, any aid for France looked as treason at that time. Also in the judiciary, Charles Darnay declines to say anything about his encounter in France. He doesn’t say much about his work and keeps it a secret business. However, the truth starts to spark out when Attorney General decides to be informed by a witness who gets a paper from the prisoner’s particular items.

2. How does Mr. Solicitor-General try to discredit John Barsad testimony?
Mr. Solicitor-General tries to discredit John Barsad testimony by basing on the points that he has been to the debtor’s prison. He has cheated dice, and when he’s asked to question that relates to Darnay, they find that he owes him money. Mr. Solicitor also accuses John Barsad, of making the incriminating papers, on the prisoner.

3. How does Mr. Solicitor-General try to discredit Roger Cly’s testimony?
Mr. Solicitor-General tries to discredit Roger Cly’s testimony by basing on the facts that he is a thief and is good friends with John Barsad. Cly and Barsad might have made the scheme to trap Charles Darnay.

4. In what ways is Miss Manette’s testimony against Mr. Darnay both helpful and damaging to his case?
Miss Manette shares loads of information about Mr. Darnay. Miss Manette has an impartial view and speaks only truth. One side of her that is helpful to Darnay would have to be the talking about how mature and responsible Mr. Darnay acted towards her father’s condition. She says kind and humble words about Mr. Darnay and describes him as a gentleman. The other side of her that is damaging to his case would have to be disclosing the fact that he was in France with them. Miss Manette describes how Darnay declines to discuss anything about his secret business in France. She says how she saw him talking to two Frenchman and him voyaging under an implied name. Not only that, she tells, even more, Mr. Darnay discusses American revolution with her.

5. How does Mr. Carton help Mr. Stryver cast doubt on the testimony of the witness who was in the Dover mail with Mr. Lorry five years earlier?
There is a note given to Mr. Stryver by Mr. Carton which recommends him to query if the witness could find any resemblance between Mr. Carton and Charles Darnay. In fact, through the note, everyone notices that there’s a tremendous similarity between the two men, and so it cast doubt on the testimony of the witness who was in the Dover mail with Mr. Lorry five years earlier. In the end, the uncertainty is only possible with the help of the note that Mr. Carton gives to Mr. Stryver.

6. What is revealed about Mr. Carton’s character by his behavior toward Lucie and Mr. Darnay?
In my perspective, Mr. Carton is a character that is not yet fully revealed. He is a complex character, and somehow it feels as if he’s hiding his better side. In the book, we can see that Mr. Carton is acting humble and gentle towards Lucie. Though, he is a little bit rude to Charles Darnay. However, he might have a positive side to him because he gives hope to Darnay and says that the luck is in his favor that the judge is taking so long to announce the final verdict. Therefore, we don’t know what Mr. Carton wants, and his character is not understood so far.

7. One of the major themes in this novel is the idea that resurrection is possible. How does this theme apply to Charles Darnay’s acquittal for treason?
We know that Charles Darnay is having his trial for treason. When someone accused of that crime, people consider them to be dead before the final verdict gets announced. However, Charles Darnay is acquitted and is declared free of all charges. Therefore, Darnay is recalled to life and proves the theme that resurrection is possible.

Chapter 4—Congratulatory

1. Briefly describe Mr. Stryver. How does he use Mr. Carton?
After Darney gratefully responses back to Lucie’s praises, he turns to face Mr. Stryver. Mr. Stryver is a little more than thirty but looks twenty years older than he is. In the conversation with Mr. Darnay, he takes all the credit for Darnay’s discharge. Stryver is loud, bluff, fake man, and understands how to manipulate himself. He is also unkind towards Carton and gives him no appreciation for his work towards Darnay’s acquaintance.

2. Why is Carton so rude to Darnay?
By nature Carton is ill-mannered, bad-tempered, and a careless person. He’s so mean towards Darnay Darnay because he’s a calm, innocent, and collective person who is cared by Lucie. They both resemble each other, but Carton is jealous that Darnay is using his talents and have sympathies from Lucie. Carton has feelings for Lucie, but he doesn’t admit it, which causes the jealousy.

3. What does Carton confess to himself after meeting with Darnay?
After meeting with Darnay, Carton confesses to himself that he dislikes himself and have an admiration towards Darnay. He is somewhat jealous but appreciates how Darnay is and molds his life.

Chapter 5—The Jackal

1. What is the secret to Stryver’s success as an attorney?
Mr. Stryver knows how to shoulder himself and has experience about his business. He is also able to take all the credit, as he does it for Darnay’s case, only because of Carton. Behind all his success as an attorney, Carton is responsible as he is the jackal, which means he does menial tasks for others. Also, through this chapter, we know that Carton works for Stryver, and they went to the same school. Carton doesn’t have any ambitions and only works which result in Stryver’s success as an attorney.

2. Briefly describe how Carton looks when he is working at Stryver’s desk.
Carton is intelligent than Stryver and works diligently. He doesn’t have any aspirations and only focuses on the work that he is assigned. At Stryver’s desk, Carton concentrates and pays full attention to his work. He drinks and uses wet towels to stay focus than ever. The moist towel keeps his brain cool as it’s on his head. He even loosens his dress to relax. Carton is Stryver’s jackal, as he does what asked of him.

3. What do we learn about Carton’s childhood? What does Carton blame for his miserable life?
From childhood, Carton is a person with no determination and dreams. For this reason, and even he is smart, he used to do the homework of his classmates. He’s a grown-up man now, but he has the habit, and so he does work for Stryver. For not doing anything for himself, Carton blames his luck for being negative and making his life miserable.

4. What is the significance of people’s calling Carton Stryver’s jackal?
People calling Carton Stryver’s jackal shows the importance of Carton working for others and not having any own desires in life. In the book, Stryver is the lion who takes all the credit, but Carton as a jackal kills and gathers the food. Everything ties back to an old saying of jackal doing all the work, and the lion receiving the praises.

5. What predominant character traits of Carton’s are revealed in this chapter?
In this chapter, the main character traits of Carton are to help others, being unconfident, and blaming bad luck for his miserable life. Also, the two overall characteristics are to be alcoholic and underachiever.

Chapter 6—Hundreds of People

1. Miss Pross’ complaint about “hundreds of people” is an example of what figure of speech?
When Mr. Lorry visits Doctor Manette’s house, he has a conversation with Miss Pross. Often in the discussion, Miss Pross complaints and exaggerates “hundreds of people,” which is not literal. As the phrase is a rhetorical device, and so it is an example of hyperbole. Therefore, the phrase implies to suitors, which meaningless in its own words, for it is an overstatement.

2. Why do the visits of these “hundreds of people” bother her?
The “hundreds of people,” or the suitors bothers Miss Pross because she loves Lucie dearly, and she knows they will come to marry her. Miss Pross doesn’t want anyone to take her away for she’s jealous by unconditional love for her.

3. Who is Solomon?
In the novel, Mr. Lorry’s inquiries into Miss Pross’s personal history establishes the fact that Solomon is Miss Pross’s brother. Solomon was a heartless person who strips all of Miss Pross’s possessions and leaves her in poverty for evermore. Miss Pross thinks that Solomon was a perfect fit for Lucie if he hadn’t made this mistake in life.

4. What questions does Mr. Lorry ask Miss Pross concerning the Doctor and his shoe making tools?
As the discussion between Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross progresses, he starts to shift the topic to Doctor Manette and asks questions about him. Mr. Lorry tries to find out if the doctor knows anything about how he got imprisoned, or who did it. He also inquires if the doctor recalls his time in prison and if he enforces his grown habit of shoemaking.

5. Why is Dr. Manette afraid to remember the past?
Dr. Manette’s past is mostly the imprisonment. He might be terrified to remember the dark, silence, and lonely moments that remind him of the time in prison. To satisfy up those strains, Dr. Manette did shoemaking in jail. Now that he is free, so he afraid to recall his past because he might begin to make shoes again. The habit of shoemaking might bring his memory to the worst moments of his life in prison.

6. What is suggested by Sydney Carton’s story about the prisoner’s letter found in the Tower of London?
Sydney Carton, in a descriptive way, explains a story about the prisoner’s letter found in the Tower of London. After he finishes with his story, Dr. Manette looks ill and terrified. However, he soothes his daughter by saying that it is because of the large raindrops. Dr. Manette reacting to Carton’s story in such a way implies that the doctor might have left a clue of why he got imprisoned and what occurred to him.

7. Comment on Dickens’ use of foreshadowing at the end of this chapter when Lucie, Carton, and Darnay discuss the crowds in the streets of London.
Foreshadowing is giving clues about the future and creating suspense. In the book, Dickens discuss the crowds in the streets of London to foreshadow the mobs of the French Revolution. The people show the chaos and the troubles that will make the tranquil London to a violent one. To comment, the use of the literary device is effective with being lengthy. It also leaves a dramatic impact which might intentionally put to capture the live audience and grasp their attention.

8. What are the two significant meanings of the title of this chapter?
The two primary meaning of the title of this chapter implies the violence that will uprise, and the characters imagine of war. And in the battle where hundreds of people would die. It might also tie with the idea of who might come and go out of the characters’ lives. The title “Hundreds of People,” could also mean the exaggeration that Miss Pross makes about so the number of suitors expected to come in to marry Lucie.

Chapter 7—Monseigneur in Town

1. What tone does Dickens achieve at the beginning of his chapter? How does he achieve it?
At the commencing of this chapter, the tone that Dickens create is derisive. The atmosphere is as if someone is making fun of others in a cruel way. In the book, Dickens shows how Monseigneur gets feed hot chocolate by four servants. He also explains their rich belief of going to heaven through the dresses of people. The condition and behavior of the aristocrats of French have quite a difference if compared to the poor. They have total power and doesn’t hesitate to torture the indigent people. Only for money, the nobles can shut the reality and choose to mock people. Dickens essentially shows the excess of the rich to make a comical tone.
2. Who is the Farmer General, and what is his relationship on the Monseigneur?
The Farmer General belongs to a high-class association where he lives by paying high taxes. Instead of having plenty of money for many generations, the Monseigneur was becoming poor. Therefore, when he comes to know that the wealthy Farmer General wants to join in with a reputed family, and Monseigneur takes the advantage. He bestows her sister and makes her marry Farmer General. So, later in the book, we know that Farmer General is the brother in law of Monseigneur.

3. What has passed between Monseigneur and the Marquis?
The Monseigneur think himself as the Lord. No one can say or do anything above him. He’s the vendor of the wine shop. In public, Monseigneur tackles with Marquis and scorns him. The matter reaches to such an extent that Monseigneur forbids to pay attention to Marquis. Marquis throws a gold coin at Monseigneur, but it comes back to him, and he can’t figure out who did it. Probably Monseigneur, also known as Defarge, does it and leaves from there.

4. Read the following passage. What do you think the water on the fountain may symbolize in this story?
“The water of the fountain ran, . . .so much life in the city ran into death according to
rule, time and tide waited for no man, . . .all thing ran their course.”
The water of the well might symbolize the violence, and the horrific moments the aristocrats of France are about to face. The running stream of the fountain and people going after death show that they will lose their tolerance over the wealthiest. Soon, blood will shed, and everything will have to come in control, maybe through the hands of the revolutionists. Some poor luck is awaiting the nobles of France, and so far Dickens have maintained suspense, and building the anticipation for the breakdown of resistance, which the water of the fountain signifies.

Chapter 8—Monseigneur in the Country

1. Why is the Marquis annoyed with the Mender of roads?
The Marquis goes on a voyage from Paris to the country estate of Evrémonde. Four post-horses and two postillions guard him. As he makes through the dark area by passing the effective sunset which dips down as he proceeds to the village, he faces a man. The man is known as Mender of roads, who is caught by Marquis to be looking at the back of the carriage when others look at him as he passes. Marquis calls on Mender of roads and inquires about his gaze. Later, he finds out through him that there was a man who was hanging on his vehicle. Marquis becomes annoyed that Mender of roads didn’t inform him quickly about the unknown man’s presence on his carriage, while he witnessed the whole incident happening.

2. How did the poor woman’s husband die? What does she want from the Marquis?
After Marquis deals with the Mender of roads, he gets stopped by a woman. The woman informs Marquis about his husband’s death in a very sympathetic way, and also explains that he died of hunger. As Marquis being the cruel man, he doesn’t pay that much attention and asks what he can do for her. The carriage strolls away, as the lady requests Marquis to put a piece of wood or stone to mark her husband’s grave. However, Marquis doesn’t help the woman and ignores her as his vehicle carries on to its destination.

3. What family connection is suggested at the end of this chapter?
At the conclusion of this part, the family association implied is Charles Darnay being the Marquis’ nephew and heir. When Marquis comes to his chateau, he promptly checks if Darnay arrives from England, or not. Once Charles is there, they both have a long conference, and we can see that they both are seen to share their philosophies with each other. However, they don’t injure each other, but the way they talk with each other seems offensive. Through this, we know that they somewhat dislike each other as they can’t agree on any matter. Especially, when it gets to the issue of how the aristocrats should treat others; Both of them have a distinct point of view on this.

Chapter 9—The Gorgon’s Head

1. What is the family relationship between Charles Darnay and the Marquis?
In the chapter, we get to know more about Charles’ family background. So far we know that Charles is Marquis’ nephew, which then makes Marquis Charles’ uncle. Marquis and Charles’ father is twin brothers. The Marquis surely knows much about their family history, and so does Charles. However, they both don’t seem to share the same philosophies and looks like they dislike each other.

2. What evidence is there that Darnay suspects the Marquis contributed to the treason charges he faced in England?
As Charles and Marquis have a conversation, they both likely to find out about things they don’t know and shares their confessions. Darnay tells Marquis how he was on the edge of death, for business purposes, and how he comes out. Darnay recognizes his business and asks Marquis if he helped the English to suspect his trip to France. Marquis doesn’t answer to it, and therefore, we don’t know the answer to Charles’ confession and his thinking that his uncle might have a hand to trap him.

3. What were the reasons for Darnay’s frequent trips to France that resulted in his charges of treason?
Charles Darnay has gone through a court case for treason that nearly kills him. The court questions about his trips to France and secret business. The final verdict allows him to live once again. However, the tours that put him in trouble are useful ones. Charles frequently visits France to maintain the family business. Also for the deep feelings, he has towards his mom. He wants to do something for his dead mom and the constant voyages to France only make that possible.

4. What important information is alluded to in the following passage?
“I believe that if you were not in disgrace with the Court, and had not been overshadowed by that cloud for years past, a letter de cachet would have sent me to some fortress indefinitely.”
“We have done wrong?” repeated the Marquis, with an inquiring smile, and delicately pointing, first to his nephew, then to himself.
“Our family; our honourable family, whose honour is of so much account to both of us, in such different ways. Even in my father’s time, we did a world of wrong, injuring every human creature who came between us and our pleasure, whatever it was. Why need I speak of my father’s time, when it is equally yours? Can I separate my father’s twin-brother, joint inheritor, and next successor, from himself?”
“Death has done that!” said the Marquis.
“And has left me,” answered the nephew, “bound to a system that is frightful to me, responsible for it, but powerless in it; seeking to execute the last request of my dear mother’s lips, and obey the last look of my dear mother’s eyes, which implored me to have mercy and to redress; and tortured by seeking assistance and power in vain.”
The significant information suggested in this passage is that the Marquis describes how the way their family treats other people makes them rich in their time. Marquis explains that the family honor values to both him and Charles. Therefore, their family tradition is to injure and do wrong to people, who come into their family pleasures. Though, he reveals how both of them looks at their family satisfaction in distinct ways. Marquis points out that death has made the successful person he is after his father. However, Charles admits that they have left him to face the harsh truth of torturing people, and he is responsible for it, though powerless in it. His mother tells him to follow mercy and integrity; however, he is suffering to seek guidance. All in all, until Marquis is alive, people will be tortured, and their pleasures will be gone, only to maintain his wealthy life.

5. Why does Darnay plan to abandon the property of his family when he inherits it from his uncle?
Somehow throughout the story, we know that Darnay and Marquis both dislike each other. While they talk, Charles mentions that he decides to leave the property; however, he gets it from Marquis. He says that plenty of problems surrounds the property and though it may look gorgeous, it has some great troubles. The chateau reminds him of oppression, mishandling, a piece of waste, and the wails of starvation and misery. He can feel the tolerance of people that are going to break through and fall hard on the nobles of France, and if that includes Marquis, it is.

6. In the following passage from the story, to what mystery is Darnay alerted to his uncle’s behavior”
“As he bent his head in his most courtly manner, there was a secrecy in his smiling face, and he conveyed an air of mystery to those words, which struck the eyes and ears of his nephew forcibly.”
In the following passage from the story, Darnay is alerted to the mystery of his uncle having a relationship with Dr. Manette. We can say that because the only secretive thing except his uncle’s behavior has to be his business and Dr. Manette’s imprisonment. We can also say that it has nothing to do with the trade because of Darnay already thinks Marquis has a hand to trap him. Only the matter of Doctor Manette and Lucie can strike him as he has a deep relationship with them, and mostly he loves Lucie.

7. What does the redness of the rising sun shining on the outside of the chalet suggest?
The redness of the mounting sun glowing on the exterior of the chalet hints that blood will pour and violence awaits. In the future, as time goes on, murder and killing will take place, which will have the color of the bright red of the sun. No one can then stop the burst of intolerance and fairness will be demanded.

8. What does the note attached to the knife tell the reader about the identity of the Marquis’ murderer?
The note on the knife has a message that is to drive someone fast to his tomb, and it’s from Jacques. Earlier in the book, we know that the members of the Defarge’s wine shop called by that name. Even, Defarge has that name. Therefore, we can conclude that the murder of Marquis gets done by someone from the Monsieur Defarge’s vendor shop or his society. He has the total control of it.

Chapter 10—Two Promises

1. How does Darnay earn his living in England?
After Marquis dies, Charles goes back to England. Over there, he tutors and earns money by teaching French language and French literature. He establishes as a higher teacher and reads with the young men, the communication English. Such teachers as him were hard to find at that time, and people respect him. Therefore, with honor and providing knowledge, he prospers in England.

2. What are the two promises suggested by the title of this chapter?
The first promise that the title of this chapter suggests is Darnay’s promise to Dr. Manette that if he marries Lucie, he will never separate him and Lucie. He knows how much Lucie loves him, and therefore, he will not come between the father and daughter relationship. He’s also aware that Lucie has grown up without any parents, and getting to spend time with his father after a long time, can mean much to her. The other promise is from Dr. Manette to Darnay that he will convince and praise him to Lucie.

3. What promise concerning his part does Darnay make to Dr. Manette?
Charles talks and confesses about Lucie to Dr. Manette. They make two significant commitments to each other. The promise that Charles gives concerning his past to Dr. Manette that he will expose his original identification and name on the morning of the day he marries Lucie.

4. What does Dr. Manette’s reaction to Darnay’s attempts to reveal his true identity suggest?
When Charles Darnay goes ahead to tell about his true identity to Dr. Manette, he stops him and wants him to say it on the morning of the day of his marriage with Lucie. Dr. Manette reacting like this confers that he might know about Charles originality. Now, he desires to hear from him when the right time comes, and he thinks patience and wait will favor the issue.

5. What further evidence is there that Dr. Manette is disturbed by the prospect of a marriage between his daughter and Charles Darnay?
Dr. Manette seems agitated when Darnay comes to talk to him about Lucie. He doesn’t make that much eye contact with him. After Lucie comes home from shopping, she finds Dr. Manette in his room where he is making shoes. Manette only goes back to his habit of shoemaking when his upset. Therefore, this explains that the proposal from Darnay for Lucie doesn’t quite excite Manette, rather flusters him.

Chapter 11—A Companion Picture

1. What does the title of this chapter suggest?
The title of chapter 10, “Two Promises” suggests Charles perspective and proposal of marriage for Lucie. It states the promises Darnay and Manette make to each other regarding Lucie. However, the title of chapter 11, “A Companion Picture” is about Stryver’s view on marrying Lucie. Darnay and Stryver know each other well, and it becomes a friend’s prospect of wanting to marry Lucie. It’s another aspect of spousal.

2. How does Stryver’s attitude toward marriage differ from Darnay’s?
In the story, Stryver is a man who aims for prosperity. He contemplates that Lucie should be pleased to get a marriage offer from him. He deliberates highly of himself, and he is well off of being different. The marriage to Lucie is to gratify himself as he is an egoistic man. Stryver doesn’t love Lucie as Darnay and considers everything part of his business. On the other hand, Darnay adores Lucie by his heart, and he has even laid his proposal to Dr. Manette. He’s not going to betray Lucie as he is a follower of integrity as it is his mother’s last demand for him to obey before she dies.

3. Why does Stryver suggest that Carton consider finding a wife for himself?
After Stryver notifies about his marriage with Miss Manette, he says that Carton lives hard, doesn’t understand the value of money, and time would come when he will be ill and miserable. Hence, Stryver recommends Carton marry a nurse or landlady who will take care of him. Somebody who has limited property and doesn’t give a painful time. Someone who’s lodging-letting way will be the kind of him, and by that Stryver finishes off, and requires Carton to think.

Chapter 12—The Fellow of Delicacy

1. What does Mr. Lorry say to Stryver to discourage him from proposing marriage to Lucie?
We perceive that in the previous chapters, Darnay goes to Dr. Manette and presents his proposal, and confesses his feelings for Lucie. Hence, when Stryver informs Mr. Lorry that he will offer Lucie his hand, he gets discouraged by him. It’s probable that Mr. Lorry knows about Darnay’s suit, and promptly notifies Stryver that he will go, and check before he does anything. If Miss Manette declines the offer, in general, Stryver, Dr. Manette, and Lucie would have a critical relationship, and it would be painful for all. By that, Mr. Lorry heads towards Dr. Manette’s house to check.

2. How does Mr. Stryver handle the situation when Lorry comes to visit him later that evening?
When Mr. Lorry comes to visit him later that evening, with the conclusion that Miss Manette wouldn’t marry him, Stryver acts differently. It seems as if he grasped the situation before Mr. Lorry tells him about it. He represents himself to be comforted that Lucie is not going to marry him, and pleads to began everything in any way. By declaring that Lucie is a woman who can’t make decisions, Stryver sets himself aside and moves away from the scene.

3. Who is the Fellow of Delicacy suggested in this chapter’s title?
Stryver is “The Fellow of Delicacy” as suggested in the chapter’s title. He is a person who in the eyes of the world an extrovert and best option for Lucie to marry. Everyone considers him significant. Although, from the inside, he is an egoistic and heartless person. He thinks highly of himself and underestimates Lucie, which means he’s selfish and has no love for her. He only eagers to please himself and lacks the perception to examine his surroundings.

4. Is Mr. Lorry’s role in Stryver’s proposal consistent with his claim that he is nothing more than a “man of business”?
No, Mr. Lorry is not consistent with his case that he is nothing more than a “man of business.” We comprehend through his behavior in Stryver’s offer for marriage to Lucie. Mr. Lorry also operates for the Manette’s family and have raised Lucie since she was ten years old. He has a deep bonding and involvement with the Manettes. He takes care for and can’t let anything harm them. Hence, he’s incompatible with his remark of a “man of business.”

Chapter 13—The Fellow of No Delicacy

1. Why does Carton say that he is grateful that Lucie does not love or want to marry him?
On one August night, Carton decides to confess his feelings to Lucie. In a drank state, he goes up to her room and tells her how much he loves her. He even mentions that he feels fortunate to have met her, and gratitude her to make him content every day, and for bestowing compassion towards him. Despite all this, Carton doesn’t want Lucie to marry him and be part of his misery. He confirms to her that he will always be there for her and the person she brings to her life. Though, he can let her go down with him and commit such a crime for his love.

2. What secret does Carton ask Lucie to keep as the “last confidence” of his life?
After Carton confesses his feelings to Lucie, he asks Lucie to keep this communication a secret as the “last confidence” of his life. With plenty of courage, he tells about his affections, and he wants to appreciate, and remember this. Though he doesn’t have the guts to change in a dignified way, he is proud of his one thing and desires to spend his eternity in it.

3. What might the promise Carton make in this chapter foreshadow?
Carton offers the promise that he will always love Lucie and be beside her. His commitment foreshadows that he will one day die only to assist her. We know that Carton can give his life for Lucie’s happiness and so might be the case. According to the text, “that there is a man who would give his life, to keep a life you love beside you!” (159) However, until now it is only a clue and will remain in suspense.

Chapter 14—The Honest Tradesman

1. What is Jerry Cruncher’s secret occupation that results in mud on his boots and rust on his fingers?
Earlier in the chapters, we had no idea what Cruncher does. Now, we know that the mystical mud on his boots and rust on his fingers is from the work he does secretly. He is a resurrection man or a grave robber, and he digs up anew graves. Even his son, also known as Jerry, sees his dad operating the job and runs away in fear that the corpse is after him. Jerry Cruncher takes the dead bodies and sells it to doctors and medical students for research, and also examinations.

2. List three examples of mischief in which the crowds following Roger Cly’s funeral engage after the casket is buried. Why does the mob finally disperse?
We know that there is a chaos that takes place within the people regarding the funeral of Roger Cly. Soon, the turmoil turns into a crowd, which then turns into a mob. After the formation of the mob, they firstly break windows. Secondly, they rob the houses in their society. Thirdly, they pull apart the houses known as summer houses. Nevertheless, the masses and the clashing ends when they hear about the announcement that the guards are coming. It doesn’t take time to form a gathering, yet silence covers the place as before.

3. Why do you think Jerry wants to be Resurrection-Man? What does the phrase “no fish for breakfast” suggest about the success or failure of Mr. Cruncher’s nighttime occupation?
When young Jerry finds his father digging up a grave at night, he glares at it interestingly. He runs away when he contemplates that the corpse is after him. While the next day, when junior Jerry goes out with his dad, he asks him about a resurrection man. His dad explains to him that it’s a man dealing with dead bodies. After listening to everything, Jerry confirms his dad that he wants to become a resurrection man when he grows up and make it his occupation. On the opposite, the “no fish for breakfast” reveals that Cruncher doesn’t successfully send a dead body to the doctor, and so he lives without any payment he needs.

4. What does the absence of a body in the grave suggest?
The incident where a mob creates for the funeral of Roger Cly shows the matter is significant. The crowd causes massive destruction, but they stop as soon threaten of guards uprises in the air. On that event, Cruncher’s attention falls on to rob Cly’s body. When he goes to dig the corpse, he finds nothing and gets no extra payment as he can’t send one to the doctor. The absence of Cly’s grave reveals that he is not dead, and has escaped. The funeral and burying him was merely an act.

5. Who is/was Roger Cly, and where have we met him before?
Roger Cly is a police spy. He has last been in Darnay’s trial case for treason in England. He acts as a prosecutor and assists to get out Darnay from all the charges that were on him.

Chapter 15—Knitting

1. How do you know that the Mender of the roads is a revolutionary? Where does Monsieur Defarge take the mender of roads?
The Mender of roads is getting caught by Marquis and explaining him about the man he sees hanging on his carriage. We know that Marquis accuses him of not telling him promptly about the man’s presence on his vehicle. The mender of roads can be a revolutionary because of Monsieur Defarge calls him Jacques. Moreover, Monsieur Defarge guides the mender to the upstairs room, or the cell room, where Dr. Manette was and used to make shoes after his discharge from prison. It is the same room where Mr. Lorry, Lucie, and Defarge have a conversation and sends him with his daughter to live a comfortable life.

2. Who is the tall man described by the mender of roads? What is his crime? Why do the people of the village have hope that he will not be executed?
The mender of roads explains the tall man who is known as Garpard. Gaspard is the father of the child that Marquis kills on his voyage, and intentionally. Also, he is the same man who kills Marquis and takes the revenge of murdering his infant. After killing Marquis, Gaspard goes into a mountain and hides there. However, it seems he’s not aware of the petition that the people send to the king. The appeal states that Gaspard abolishes the noble Marquis because he becomes insane after his child’s death by Marquis.

3. Why is the method of Gaspard’s execution particularly cruel?
The king doesn’t care about Gaspard’s life and doesn’t understand why he murders the Marquis. In spite of the petition, Gaspard hanged on a forty-foot scaffold and not just on any ordinary places, but right over the fountain that everyone uses. The dripping blood and the body, in general, pollutes the water of the well. It also scares women and children who live nearby. Overall, the punishment is horrific, and the body is in terrible condition.

4. What do the Jacques mean when they vote to register the Marquis’ Chateau and “all the race”?
If anyone known as the Jacques, they are revolutionaries and part of the Monsieur Defarge’s plan to end all the nobles. The three of the Jacques wants Defarge to have a written report of Marquis’ death, and the other sufferings they are going to make people go through. They mean that the Marquis is death, and his chateau and complete family is going to get destroyed. They had a lot of tolerance, and now it’s their time to take the revenge.

5. What does the following metaphor say about Monsieur Defarge’s plans for the Mender of roads: “Judiciously show a dog his natural prey, if you wish him to bring it down on day”?
The metaphor means that Monsieur Defarge is going to use mender of the roads at the right time. The mender already poorly treated by Marquis, and surely he has the rage to get all the nobles. All the people of France miserably torture by the aristocrats, and now, Monsieur Defarge and revolutionaries planning to put an end to this. Defarge intends to bring mender of the roads to the king and his court. By that, he will recognize them and execute his job as a revolutionary to overthrow the power when everything goes as they planned.

Chapter 16—Still Knitting

1. Why does Madame Defarge register John Barsad as one of the men who is marked for death in her knitted registry of names?
In the story, we know that Madame Defarge and John Barsad have a moderately tight conversation. Throughout the conference, Barsad seems suspicious, and they find out that he is English. He’s also nearly old and has dark hair. He’s pretty tall and has a sharp thin face. That shows that Madame Defarge doesn’t take that long to judge people, and immediately she assumes that he can be a spy for the French government, she knits his name in the registry. That means that he will be sentenced to death and punished by the revolutionaries.

2. What does Madame Defarge do to alert the other customers that a spy has entered the wine shop? What does the spy say that upsets Monsieur Defarge?
To alert the members of the wine shop and the other customers that a spy has entered the wine shop, Madame Defarge neatly fastens a rose on her head attire. The spy notifies Monsieur Defarge that Lucie and Charles are marrying each other, which makes him upset and shock. Defarge knows the Manette family well enough and is close to them. Hence, he wishes that Lucie and Darnay stay out of France when Madame Defarge registers Darnay’s name for death. She confirms to him that the Marquis’ family members need to die. Upon all this, Lucie doesn’t know his husband’s true identity that he’s part of the Evrémonde family.

3. What is the “structure yet unbuilt” mentioned in the following passage? Why do you think Dickens makes reference to it at the end of this chapter?
“So much was closing in about the women who sat knitting, knitting, that they their very selves were closing in around a structure yet unbuilt, where they were to sit knitting, knitting, counting dropping heads.”
Madame Defarge and the other revolutionaries are keeping a count on how many nobles they want dead, through the use of knitting. The “structure yet unbuilt,” is where the rebels gather themselves to take their revenge, is the guillotine machine. The author mentions the structure guillotine at the end of the chapter to reveal what fate awaits the aristocrats of France, including Charles Darnay, who comes to France at this raging time. The guillotine machine helps to cut heads of humans, and this symbolizes that death is destined for the rich people of France.

4. How does the description of the wine shop emphasize the poverty of the residents of Saint Antoine?
The wine shop should be in a poor state because of Dr. Manette was living in the upstairs room, where he used to make shoes. The room was dark with no light, and Manette was lonely as the room always stayed close. The wine shop has little electricity and a few chairs in the store. Moreover, Madame Defarge always seems to be around the counter, which shows the size of the wine shop, that it is small. Not only that, Dickens describes how there are flies around the wine shop, and this explains the miserable condition and the dirtiness of the dwellers of Saint Antoine.

Chapter 17—One Night

1. What does Dr. Manette mean when he says that for his daughter to have no knowledge or memory of him would be worse than being dead?
While Dr. Manette was in the cell room in the wine shop, he always used to ponder how his child would be. He imagined his child to have a life which is not as him, and far better and organized. Also, he expects that his daughter, Lucie, knows about him. If she didn’t, it would mean that he never existed in the world. That would be far worse than death to him because of he then wouldn’t consider himself a human who was once a husband and a father in the world.

2. Why do you think Lucie check in on her father while he is sleeping the night before her wedding?
The night before Lucie marries Darnay, she checks her father to see if he’s not sick, and not making shoes. When she notices that her father is healthy, not panicking, not remembering his imprisonment times, not measuring the ground, and not sounding dull, she determines to marry Darry. Lucie understands that when her dad stays natural, he presumably agrees with the issue on hand, and so she welcomes to partner Darnay.

Chapter 18—Nine Days

1. What is the subject of Charles Darnay and Doctor Manette’s private conversation on the morning of Lucie’s wedding?
As one of the promises, Charles Darnay makes to Dr. Manette is to speak about his true identity on the day of the morning of his marriage to Lucie, so he informs him. The private conversation is Charles telling Dr. Manette about his relationship with the Marquis and his reasons for dwelling in England. He also hints about his secret business and the dangers that can befall on him. Charles says that he is one of the Evrémonde, and the revolutionaries might come to kill him. Manette worries about Lucie but listens to what Darnay has to say.

2. What is suggested by the fact that Dr. Manette begins to make shoes after Lucie’s wedding?
After Lucie’s wedding, Dr. Manette starts to make shoes again. That happens for his thinking about what Darnay tells him. Therefore, this reveals that his imprisonment in the past has something to do with the Marquis. Probably the Marquis was involved and did something that he remembers. Now, he is converting all his worries and concerns in the form of shoemaking.

3. How does Mr. Lorry decide to ease Dr. Manette out of his relapse?
Miss Pross and Mr. Lorry panics and worries when they find Dr. Manette making shoes again. In Dr. Manette’s order, Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross burn and throws away all the shoemaking tools and everything that is Manette’s habit and reminds him of his imprisonment times. Through doing this, Mr. Lorry with the aid of Miss Pross guides Dr. Manette out of his regression.

Chapter 19—An Opinion

1. What is Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross’ plan once they realize that Dr. Manette’s is awake on the tenth morning and no longer making shoes?
After Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross throws away all the shoemaking tools by the orders of Dr. Manette, they find the result of their action. Dr. Manette doesn’t see his essentials for making shoes, and so he stops, probably forever. When Manette wakes up on the tenth morning, Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross pretend that everything is normal as usual up to the time for breakfast. They plan that if they find Manette natural and operating, Mr. Lorry would try to speak to him about his regression and the reasons for him to go back to making shoes.

2. Mr. Lorry carefully discusses Dr. Manette’s condition with the old man. What three questions does Mr. Lorry ask Dr. Manette to answer in the course of the discussion?
As Mr. Lorry and Miss Pross plan to talk to Dr. Manette about his regression, Mr. Lorry goes for it. During the conversation, Mr. Lorry questions Manette if his setbacks might get him in the upcoming days. So, they know and prepare themselves. Secondly, he queries if the relapses come from exhausting and bothering about issues. Subsequently, the third question relates to why Dr. Manette considers of not looking at his shoemaking essentials, and why he wants to throw them out. However, later in the book, we get to know that not finding his supplies for forming shoes eases his concerns.

3. Why does the doctor resist the idea of giving up his shoe making tools?
Dr. Manette doesn’t agree on the idea of removing his essentials for shoemaking because if he sees them getting thrown out, he will panic and go after to look for them. He has grown the habit of forming shoes, since his imprisonment times, and it makes him feel safe. He marks the point that it’s his reason for endurance, and not feeling frightened. It has been with him through his ups and downs for so long that it is his friend now.

4. Under what conditions does the doctor agree to the removal of the shoe making tools?
Dr. Manette informs Mr. Lorry that it’s difficult to watch his shoemaking tools, his companion, to get removed and thrown away. Though, he accepts to the extraction of the shoemaking processions only one condition. And that is to relocate them when he’s not around, and out of his presence and notice they should complete the task.

Chapter 20—A Plea

1. Why does Carton ask Darnay for his friendship?
Carton declares to Lucie that he loves her, and swears that he will do anything for her pleasure. He also states that he would exuberantly appreciate the person he chooses in her life and value her choice. We know that Darnay and Lucie marry each other, and in earlier chapters, Carton doesn’t have positive communications with Darnay, and so to redeem and to have the authority to visit their place infrequently, he yearns to make Darnay his friend forever.

2. Why does Lucie ask her husband to be especially patient and kind with Sydney Carton?
Lucie knows how Craton feels about her and recognizes his warmness. We know that Carton possesses as a cold and rude person from outside, he is a human and has a soft heart from inside. Consequently, she asks his husband to give Carton proper attention and care in spite of all his flaws. Lucie knows that if Darnay is generous to Carton, he can see the kind side of Carton.

3. What practical purpose would Charles Dickens have for having Lucie make this request?
Lucie requests Darnay to be generous towards Carton because of the promise he makes to her when he comes to confess his feelings to her. Carton wants Lucie to have the same compassion for him after marriage, and allow him to stay a companion to her. The possible plan of Charles Dickens to have Lucie appeal to Darnay is because it suggests readers to the pledge Carton confirms to Lucie.

Chapter 21—Echoing Footsteps

1. Rather than advance the plot significantly, Dickens uses this chapter for what literary convention?
Dickens doesn’t progress the plot in this chapter because he establishes a background to structure out the upcoming plot. He describes and provides information to make sure the reader understands everything and is on track to move with him to the future coming events that require somethings to know in advance.

2. What occurs on July 14, 1789?
On July 14, 1789, Monsieur Defarge, Madame Defarge, and the revolutionaries unite and form a mob. Defarge guides the mob to attack Bastille, and there they do their business. The crowd of rebels barges into the prison and frees the prisoners who have long held imprisoned without any trial by the discourteous nobles of France.

3. What is suggested about Defarge’s search of 105 North Tower?
Defarge looks for something on the hundred and five North Tower which is the address of the cell room in his wine shop. Defarge explores around exhaustedly, and it suggests that his quest has something to do with Dr. Manette. We know that when Dr. Manette asked for his name, he used to tell his room address where he spends his eighteen years, and it was 105 North Tower. Hence, Defarge is hunting because he speculates Dr. Manette has written letters and conceal them in the tiny room.

4. How was this search foreshadowed earlier in the book?
In chapter six of this book, Defarge mentions some letters that he thinks buried in the Tower of London. At that time, he only talks about it, but as he seeks for the notes in Dr. Manette’s room and quest of the Bastille, it reveals how this foreshadowed beforehand.

5. What is the significance of the echoes the Manettes, Darnay’s, Carton, et al hear from the corner of Soho? How are Lucie’s and Carton’s reactions to the echoes different?
The echoes of the footsteps that the main characters listen are of people running away from the upcoming demolition and the terrifying storm that seems to come. Some personas only hear those echoes because people will demand security from them, and the violence, symbolizes the French Revolution that takes place. Also from the revolution itself, some people will ask for shelter.

Chapter 22—The Sea Still Rises

1. Briefly describe The Vengeance.
The Vengeance is a woman who’s in command and a leader under Madame Defarge. She is a fierce woman who works as a grocer and is a mother of two children. She follows Madame Defarge and is very harsh, wicked, and a violent killer in the group of the revolutionaries. She’s afraid of nothing and firmly believes in the destruction of the nobles.

2. Who is old Foulon, and why is he marked for death by the Defarges? What happens to his son-in-law?
The old Foulon is a heartless monarchy ruler who doesn’t care about people, and how they starved. He is a heartless person, who even once asked people to consume grass. He torments the ordinary people and appears as one of the cruel aristocrats of France. The Defarges is on a mission to sentence death to all the nobles of France since they can’t tolerate their injustice anymore. Therefore, Foulon whose one like that is marked for death by the Defarges whose also known as the revolutionaries. Also, Foulons’ son-in-law gets murdered in a way that seems frightening. He killed by positioning his head on a pike, which implies another structure to abolish someone, besides the guillotine.

3. How do the killings by the peasants of Saint Antoine impact the lives of the poor and hungry peasants?
The murders by the peasants of Saint Antoine doesn’t quietly impact the lives of the unstable and hungry people at the beginning of the revolutionary, but the friendship and fellowship grow as the peasants struggle together as a consequence. They share the same motivation and intention to make their lives better, and it is reflecting on them to stay strong, withstanding the fact that they don’t need much when they are together.

Chapter 23—Fire Rises

1. Who is the man in wooden shoes? What does he do?
In the book, the man in the wooden shoes described as a member of the Defarges or another way known as the revolutionary. He is the one who’s responsible for setting the Marquis’ château on fire. The house of the Marquis burns and the servants inside asks for help when nobody shelters them and thinks it’s better off of burning and turning to ashes.

2. Who is Monsieur Gabelle? How does he escape the people of his village?
The Monsieur Gabelle is noble of France who collects the taxes. He avoids the people, who become rebels, by spending the night on the roof of his house. He recognizes that the revolutionaries want to abolish him, and so to protect himself, he sneaks into a safe place of his residence.

3. Why do you think the mender of roads and the other village people decide to light candles in all of their windows?’
They have already set the prisoners free from the prison and kills some of the nobles they knit on their list. However, now they want to show how powerful they are by lighting candles in all of their windows. Through the lighted candles, they desire to illustrate the fact that they firmly support the revolution.

Chapter 24—Drawn to the Loadstone Rock

1. What is the significance of the title of this chapter?
In France, there are many precious and valuable rocks. For this chapter, Dickens uses the loadstone rock which refers to a powerful magnetic rock. The prominence of the title of this chapter is to show that the loadstone rock indicates France and as an attraction, Darnay will fall for it. Hence, Darnay will come for his death in France, and so the revolutionaries don’t have to bother much.

2. Why is Mr. Lorry traveling to France? Who is he taking with him?
Mr. Lorry makes a voyage to France because he needs to keep safe some significant documents and papers for the bank he works for, the Tellson’s Bank. He decides to take Jerry Cruncher along with him because he knows him well, and can protect him as a bodyguard.

3. What naive reasons does Darnay give Mr. Lorry for desiring to return to France?
Darnay receives a written letter, from the person called Gabelle, who is playing the role of Darnay in France. Gabelle notifies him that he’s confined and needs help. For this reason, Darnay decides to go to France, and consult what the revolutionaries want. Amidst all of this, Mr. Lorry worries about him, Lucie, and their children, when Darnay points out that he has the confidence, that he can change the peasants to be less harsh, in this time of the outbreak. Providing this simple idea, Darnay departs for France.

4. What does Mr. Stryver think of the mysterious Marquis St. Evrémonde?
There are plenty of people as Mr. Stryver who doesn’t know anything about what happened to Marquis. For this reason, he finds Marquis St. Evrémonde mysterious and suspenseful. Hence, he makes the opinion that Marquis is a frightened fellow who bequeaths his property and chateau for the mob to destroy. Mr. Stryver probably doesn’t know that he gets murdered by one of the Jacques.

5. What other reasons does Darnay have, besides Gabelle’s plea, for wanting to return to France?
Darnay perceives that violence and terror have spread all across France. He believes he should have gone quicker and explained himself precisely about changing his social status. His born as one of the Evrémondes, but he’s completely different. Also, he accuses himself of not going earlier and protecting his property and people like Gabelle, who works for him. Mainly, he wants to stop all the misunderstandings that people have about him, and tell them about his idea of disposing of his holdings. He hopes that those things might convince the revolutionaries to have them end all the carnage.

BOOK THE THIRD
The Track of a Storm

Chapter 1—In Secret

1. What is significant about the fact that Darnay is placed under escort as soon as he arrives in France?
The breakthrough of violence of regular people gets the better of France. The revolution spreads vastly and the chances of violence uproars in the air. During this rebellious time, we know that Darnay makes a voyage to France in hopes of ending the revolution. However, the situation gets out of hand, and Darnay secretly put into prison as soon he reaches to France. That indicates that the revolt has gone out of hands and supporters have increased. As a fact, Darnay cannot escape because of his identity and will have to shred blood out of the hands of the revolutionaries.

2. What decree is passed by the revolutionary government of France the same day that Darnay leaves the safety of England to travel to Paris?
After the revolutionaries take control of everything, new laws originate. A decree initiate states that all emigrants should abandon the country and the rebels can take control of the property. They will sell the processions and leave nothing that relates to the emigrants. The decree follows up by mentioning that when the alien returns, they will get sentenced to death by the officials in charge. The cessation of life will hold under the guillotine, where the taken prisoner’s head will get chopped off.

3. Why does Defarge refuse to help Darnay by contacting Mr. Lorry at Tellson’s bank?
Defarge is the leader of the Republic group that people supports and have expectations to end all the nobles. Defarge knows that Darnay belongs to the Evrémonde group, whose legacy known as some aristocrats that mistreated regular people. Therefore, Defarge cannot take Darnay’s side as he has to stay loyal and supportive towards his people, and so accuses Darnay’s uncle to make Dr. Manette imprisoned.

4. In the prison, why does Darnay compare the aristocrats jailed with him as ghosts?
When Darnay has taken to La Force, he sees many other aristocrats whose suffering in jail. The prisoners seem to him as ghosts because their true identity as nobles doesn’t show and the existence is gone. The revolutionaries torture them to death and turn their condition from rich to appearing as unsubstantial human beings. Amidst of all, Darnay appears in a fashion which exposes the look of the captives they once had to whereby they resemble now, as done by the revolutionaries.

5. What does it mean to be kept “In secret”?
In the book, the meaning of the phrase to keep someone “in secret” is not given directly. When Darnay given that punishment, everyone feels sorry for him to stay secret, and he becomes confused and strives to know what it is. “In secret” means isolated imprisonment. Therefore, Darnay’s punishment implies to stay alone in the jail, and we know they kept in a room, separate from the other prisoners and people.

6. How does Dickens remind the reader of Dr. Manette’s imprisonment that ended at the beginning of this novel?
When Darnay is alone in the room, he remembers Dr. Manette’s imprisonment, and through him, we get reminded of that that once mentioned at the starting of the novel. Darnay utters to himself that Dr. Manette made shoes and that creates an image of the time the Doctor held imprisoned.

Chapter 2—The Grindstone

1. What effect does Dickens create with the imagery of the people at the grindstone?
The people act crazy in joy. The regular people seems their dream to come true, meaning they captive most of the aristocrats, and soon going to take their revenge by sentencing them to death. In excitement, the people wear deranged clothes, and dance savagely, going wild and roaming around weirdly showing their determination to end everything with the revolution. Meanwhile, the entire scenery consists of red that demonstrates the blood and the brutality of the people. The imagery Dickens make explains the violence and the destruction of everything at the time of the revolution.

2. Why does Dr. Manette think he can help his son-in-law?
Dr. Manette confronts Lucie and tells her that he will bring back Darnay. Even in his words, he says it with such certainty and confidence that he will give his all to discharge Darnay. However, he has the determination to assist his son-in-law because he recognizes that he is a privileged and honored person for his eighteen years imprisonment in the Bastille formerly. People acknowledge him, and his service as a physician has helped many souls to survive.

3. What is the significance of the metaphor in the following passage?
“. . .the sun was red on the courtyard. But, the lesser grindstone stood alone there in the calm morning air, with a red upon it that the sun had never given, and would never take away.”
The essential of the metaphor in the following passage is that the grindstone fills up with red blood that doesn’t go away even when the sun continues to depart and move away. The sun gleams radiantly on the grindstone transmitting red shadows, but not leaving any marks on the grindstone as the blood. The sun also doesn’t wash the marks away.

4. What scene does the redness of the sun shining on the blood-stained grindstone echo?
The gleaming redness of the sun reflecting on the blood-stained grindstone echoes the violence and bloodshed that the revolution brings. It reverberates the death and the sound of thousands of prisoners who sentenced to death, and the heads that are cut off. Mainly, it echoes the day Marquis found death on a dirty drain which happened to fill with blood.

Chapter 3—The Shadow

1. What is “The Shadow” referred to in this chapter title? How is it an example of foreshadowing?
In the book, when Monsieur Defarge brings the note of Doctor Manette to Lucie, Madame Defarge and The Vengeance joins them. While they all have a conversation, Lucie reaches to Madame Defarge where she cries and begs her to save Darnay. However, Madame Defarge and The Vengeance doesn’t confront her, but casts a shadow on her and her little child, Young Lucie. That foreshadows that Lucie and Young Lucie will face dangers and troubles caused by Madame Defarge and The Vengeance in their lives.

2. What evidence is there that Mr. Defarge does not want to mark Lucie and her family for death but is doing it because of his wife?
Madame Defarge might look calm and steady, but she’s a savage and murderous woman. She wants revenge from the Marquis to destroy her family, and she knits all of their names. However, Monsieur Defarge seems to have a soft side, and he feels the grief of Lucie and her family. He doesn’t want to mark Lucie and her family for death, but he cannot back up for his wife. He bites his nails as Madame Defarge talks about sentencing Lucie’s family to death, but has to agree to fulfill his wife’s desires and take revenge for the sake of his wife.

3. What compliment does Lucie unwittingly pay Madame Defarge?
When Lucie notices that Madame Defarge is a fierce woman and wants danger for her, she mockingly says kind things to her. She tells her that she feels more scared of her than anyone else, though the unwilling to say it shows on her face.

4. Why do you think Dickens repeats the message of the shadow’s sinister nature two more times, once from Lucie and again from Mr. Lorry at the end of the chapter?
Dickens repeats the message because of the way he structures his novel. Dickens writes installments, and his work follows a pattern, as a series of fiction. He repeatedly needs to remind his audience of the background information and his work. The repetition of the shadows sinister also creates anticipation and foretell the upcoming, while emphasizing on the details.

5. What does Madame Defarge mean when she says, “It is the daughter of your father who is my business here.”
From the time Madame Defarge has a conversation with Lucie, she keeps her eyes on her. She makes her hatred so visible that even Lucie unwillingly pays her a compliment that she’s scared of her than others. Madame Defarge says that Lucie is her business because she firmly believes in her destruction, and desires to destroy her by remembering her face.

6. What is the significance of Madame Defarge identifying Little Lucie as “his daughter”?
Madame Defarge wants to show that she cannot spare the little Lucie because she is also an Evrémonde, and she can even kill her. She desires to take revenge from the entire Marquis family for destroying her family, and she yearns to finish the little Lucie in this case.

Chapter 4—Calm in Storm

1. What is the significance of the title of this chapter?
The title “Calm the Storm” shows the two main cessations the story takes in this chapter. The first serene happens when the plot and other actions pause to examine Dr. Manette’s reaction to Darnay’s imprisonment and how everything has changed in Paris. Starting from the surroundings to the people, and all people seem to know is violence and death. Heads getting cut off day today, and crafters making guillotines happily without expressing any emotion of pity. Dickens shifts his story, and after fifteen months, Dr. Manette becomes tranquil in the violent storm of the revolution.

2. Why does Dr. Manette believe his past imprisonment “all tended to a good end, . . .it was not mere waste and ruin’?
Dr. Manette is confident that he can use his dignity to save Darnay. He is a privilege and honored person for his imprisonment in Bastille for a long time. Now, he can use his horrible encounter to assist his son-in-law to bail him and influence him while he remains captive. He desires to use his hardship to have a positive impact on Darnay.

3. What aspect of Doctor Manette’s character is revealed in this chapter?
In the previous chapters, we have seen Manette as a vulnerable character and victim of his longtime imprisonment. He used to make shoes and grows a habit of it for his eighteen years of loneliness. Now, we can perceive a different perspective which exhibits that he is resolute and firm. That proves when Dr. Manette goes alone to save Darnay in the drastic time and reveals that he doesn’t break down in front of crowds.

4. List three of the jokes the people of the time made about the guillotine.
The revolutionaries take the guillotine seriously and use it to chop off the heads of the prisoners. The first joke the people make is the guillotine helps to heal head pain. The second anecdote states the idea that it stops hair from becoming shady. The third joke tells that the guillotine barbers shoes by being a social cutter.

Chapter 5—The Wood-sawyer

1. Where does Lucie go at three o’clock every afternoon?
Lucie weeps badly for Darnay and to see her condition in such a state, Dr. Manette tells her a place from where Darnay can see him but she can’t. Therefore, at every three o’clock afternoon Lucie stands at a place from where Darnay can probably watch her through the prison window. However, while waiting there, she faces the mender of roads who talks about guillotine to her and threatens to kill her.

2. Who is the “Samson of the firewood guillotine”? What does Lucie do to gain his good will?
The Samson of the firewood guillotine is the person who roams around Lucie at the spot she waits for Darnay to see her. He works somewhere over that place and strolls around at three o’ clock. The woodcutter speaks to Lucie about her danger and guillotine that makes her pay him money to keep quiet and only say positive things to her. She goes to try her luck and better will by paying him.

3. What is the Carmagnole, and why is Lucie afraid of it?
The Carmagnole is a revolutionary song that the rebels sing crazily, and it’s motivational for them. It encourages them to prosecute the violence they have begun. The song influences to capture members into the group angers their blood and strengthens their motives. The song encourages the revolutionaries to deeply think about everything and dance which increases the potentiality of violence and harshness. Lucie gets frightened by the song because she knows this is wrong, and fears of losing Darnay, and not being able to stop the revolution.

Chapter 6—Triumph

1. How does Dickens show how insensitive the Republic prisoners have become to the carnage all around them?
The prosecution or the prisoners going under trial doesn’t mean anything to the insurgents. They present themselves to the courts to hear out the prisoners, meanwhile, strives to develop a solid case against them, and so they can condemn them to death. They aim to take revenge on all the prisoners that they have imprisoned. Therefore, when Darnay’s name called before the judiciary, the rebels stay calm only for that brief moment. After that, they immediately say bye to him and abandons the place proceeding with their games and amusement for that night.

2. What evidence is presented by the following witnesses in Darnay’s defense?
We know that Darnay has nothing to do what the revolutionaries imagine he has. He desires to give up on his property, and clear the misunderstandings of the people, that although he’s a member of the Evrémonde, he’s an entirely distinct human than his uncle, Marquis. He pursues the path of integrity for his mother’s last words before she dies, and can perceive that the people have gone through a crisis. We can analyze Darnay’s attitude towards this when he speaks to Marquis and forms a sort of hatred for him.
To keep himself safe, Gabelle, who works for him plays the role of Darnay in England, but the revolutionaries captivate him. In the court, Darnay reveals that he receives the letter from Gabelle presenting the fact that he should come to assist him and get him out of prison. Even, Dr. Manette confirms that Darnay is a loyal husband, his friend, and has nothing to do with the England government because before he also got accused of treason, and successfully proven not guilty.

3. What is the “car of triumph” used to carry Darnay away from the prison? How does he feel while he is being carried by the mob?
After Darnay is released, he makes his way back to see off Lucie, little Lucie, and other people. He’s out of prison, and a car carries him to his home. While Darnay occupies in the vehicle, exploring around, he notices that the carrier has a chair with a red flag over it and a pike which has a red cap tied to it showing the procession of the revolutionaries. Considering that, Darnay perplexes and feels as if he’s in a court. Also, he envisions that the mobs take him to the guillotine to have his head cut off, rather than to a secure place, as his home.

Chapter 7—A Knock at the Door

1. What is inscribed on the door of Dr. Manette’s house?
The door of Dr. Manette’s house is significant because all the members that dwell in the house, their names are written on the door. And it might be critical to have names inscribed on the entrance, when so much is occurring to them, at this point of the revolution.

2. Now that Charles is released from La Force, why do they not all return immediately to England?
After Charles released from La Force, he visits Lucie, little Lucie, and other people. Lucie places her head on Darnay, and they both embrace each other. Lucie becomes content to view that Darnay is safe, but her heart doesn’t correspond with her, and she feels afraid of losing Darnay again. However, Lucie cannot have the actual compensation of Darnay’s protection because it would be further perilous for them to all return instantly to England, immediately after Darnay’s dismissal from La Force.

3. Who comes to arrest Darnay again? Who has denounced him?
Once Darnay arrives at his house and encounters his family after a tedious time, they all bestow their pleasure and convenience. Though quickly they hear knocks on the door, and when they unlock the door, four men with red caps, the revolutionaries, come to confine him anew. Darnay queries why he’s getting imprisoned again, and who condemns him. One of the four men acquaints him that Monsieur Defarge, Madame Defarge, and the third person they cannot expose have charged against him. Accounting that, Darnay requires to lock up himself in prison again.

Chapter 8—A Hand at Cards

1. What is the relationship between John Barsad and Miss Pross? How has he harmed her in the past? Where has Sydney Carton seen him before?
When Sydney Carton and Miss Pross enters a shop, over there Miss Pross faces a man called John Barsad who is her brother. Miss Pross yells out to him calling by Solomon, and that panics Barsad. Miss Pross bestows her affection for him after conferencing him for a long time face to face and sobbing in pain as Barsad acts brutally with her. Even in the past, Barsad abandoned Miss Pross to destitute, and Carton observed him at Darnay’s initial trial asserting against him. Now, he operates for both the revolutionaries and the England government and doesn’t want the insurgents to discover out about his spying and his actual identity. Therefore, he permits Miss Pross to buy the wine promptly, and tell her to not look for him anymore if she desires no harm to befall on him.

2. List the three “cards” Carton holds which will force Barsad to help him with his plan to free Darnay.
Later in the book, we can witness John Barsad and Sydney Carton having a conversation about what can be done to liberate Darnay from prison. Barsad doesn’t desire to involve in that circumstance when Carton sets out three cards that he can apply against him to put him into a strain. The first card is that Barsad utilizing a fake identification. The second card is that formerly he has operated for the English government as a nobleman. The third card denotes out that Barsad can get speculated by the French Republic that he’s a detective for England. Therefore, if he doesn’t serve to release Darnay, they can expose him through this.

3. How does Jerry Cruncher help convince Barsad to cooperate with Carton?
Carton sets three reasonable cards against Barsad, and now Cruncher blends in to confine him even further to support their proposal to rescue Darnay. Hence, Cruncher reveals that Roger Cly is not dead because when goes to steal his body, he discovers nothing in the coffin except leaves and mud. So, Carton has sufficient testimonies, and cards against him to put him into a crisis, and yet his relationship with Cly can efficiently charge him as a spy. Eventually, Cly has to benefit Darnay to keep himself protected and get away from those perils.

Chapter 9—The Game Made

1. What reasons does Jerry Cruncher give to convince Mr. Lorry that it would not be fair of him to fire Jerry from his Tellson’s job just because he is a grave robber?
Mr. Lorry becomes bewildered and shock when he listens Cruncher sharing that Cly is not dead because he goes to steal his body, and in the coffin spots nothing except leaves and dirt. By unveiling that, Cruncher also exposes himself that he operates as a grave robber, which Mr. Lorry remarks are fronting the authorities of Tellson’s Bank, and he must resign from there. Nevertheless, Jerry convinces Mr. Lorry not to oust him because they have distinguished each other for a long time. Also, numerous of the doctors that Jerry sells the corpses to have a relationship with Tellson’s bank, and it would be perilous for Tellson’s Bank to lose excess of clients. Even, there can be circumstances, where the doctors can turn against Lorry, and everything might persist as a dilemma for him.

2. In what capacity does Barsad agree to help Carton?
Retaining the perils in mind, Barsad braces himself to support Carton saving Darnay to keep himself shielded. Barsad verifies that he can allow Carton seek in by hiding and let him find out if Darnay is living or sentenced to death. Barsad’s responsibility is merely to make Carton reach Darnay in prison without any surmises and threats, and from then on, everything depends on Carton to see what to do with Darnay, if he’s alive.

3. How is the theme of resurrection emphasized in this chapter? What is being suggested about Carton’s plan?
The theme resurrection mostly makes most of this book, and it broadens as the plot moves forward. Dickens also tries to show restoration through many character’s conditions and dealing with issues. When Carton’s father dies, Dickens explains that at the funeral there’s repetition of the devotions and verses which moderately foreshadows Carton’s plan to what he expects to do for Darnay. His father’s dead agitates him, and we know that Carton yearns to be a good man, and his idea is to resurrect his life for Darnay. And this is the greatest he can do to redeem for all his sins in his life, and he’s exhilarated that he takes this opportunity to do for someone who is as real as death.

4. Who is Darnay’s third denouncer, who was not named in the previous chapter?
When the four men with red caps, meaning the insurgents come to confine Darnay again, Darnay interrogates about the denouncers. One of the men from the four acquaints him that Monsieur Defarge, Madame Defarge, and the other they cannot share under authority has charged against him. Succeedingly, Darnay befalls to know that the third accuser happens to be Dr. Manette. When they expose it in the court, Dr. Manette disagrees as he becomes agitated.

Chapter 10—The Substance of the Shadow

1. What narrative technique does Dickens employ in this chapter?
The narrative device that Dickens corporates in this chapter are the flashback. The flashback benefits him to reveal his notes and points and keep it concise. The technique he uses was very famous in Victorian times.

2. Where has the doctor hidden his journal? How was the reading of this letter foreshadowed earlier in the novel?
Dr. Manette doesn’t want to speak about his experience in prison, and nobody queries him about that. Whenever he deliberates about it, he yearns to operate on his shoes and consider the requirement of finishing them. However, we know where Dr. Manette retains his journal because of the communication with Darnay, where he seems all panic and stress out when Darnay reveals about the letters he discovers in the Tower of London. Hence, Dr. Manette sneaks his journal in the chimney of the prison cell he held detained. Moreover, in the book, Monsieur Defarge investigates the old room Dr. Manette lingers in, and he checks when the storm hits Bastille. He always had doubts about Dr. Manette, and so he goes to examine the old chamber to detect if he can get a grip on something that can be useful to him.

3. Who are the two brothers who employ the doctor?
The two brothers that employ the doctor are the members of the Evrémonde family. It’s Darnay’s father and uncle.

4. Why does the woman in the journal count to twelve over and over as part of her feverish ravings?
The woman keeps on counting to twelve as a share of her feverish ravings because her husband died at twelve o’ clock.

5. What happens to the woman’s brother, father, and younger sister?
The woman tells everything to Dr. Manette while being in a weak condition. She describes how her entire family shattered by the Marquis. Her father departs away from a heart attack upon hearing the critical news that her child raped by the Marquis. Her brother gets severely stabbed by someone and passes away. Her younger sister, apparently Madame Defarge, carried to a place where she can stay shielded and safe.

6. What is the significance of the title of this chapter?
When Lucie encounters Madame Defarge, she urges her to rescue Darnay and advises her to feel and reflect the circumstance as a woman. Abruptly, Madame Defarge demurs that no one views at them when they suffer, and she can do nothing to support her. Consequently, she keeps her eyes on Lucie and little Lucie and deliberates to finish them. Notwithstanding, Madame Defarge refers to people ignoring the woman as her who suffers, Madame probably hints at her sister who gets raped by Marquis. The woman is her cherished sister and her life ended by the Evrémonde family, where their brothers also demolished by them. For this purpose, Madame Defarge develops a resentment for the Evrémonde family and providing substance and description of the shadow.

7. What does the wife of the Marquis want from the doctor?
There’s not enough known about the wife of the Marquis, but she wants from the doctor to discover and assist her younger sister. She feels disquieted about her and desires to know about her circumstances.

8. What does the wife of the Marquis fear?
The wife of the Marquis shudders about an abundance of things. The most significant problem is that she desires to redeem and reparation her husband’s sins, and the disruption he induced to people. She frightens that her husband’s consequences will occur on his son, and he will have a poor fortune and luck. So is the fact because that is what happens with Darnay in the story.

9. How was Ernest Defarge, the wine shop owner, connected to Dr. Manette before his imprisonment?
Ernest Defarge is the husband of Madame Defarge. He is patient with wild reflection. He perpetually speculates Dr. Manette and discovers the journal of him by investigating in the old cell room where he lingered. He even exhibits the journal in front of the court, to sentence Darnay to death, to make the retaliation of what his family did to Madame Defarge’s family. The wine shop owner, Ernest Defarge, was an assistant of Dr. Manette when he was young, and that’s how they connect with each other before Dr. Manette’s incarceration.

10. What does the doctor say in this journal that condemns his son-in-law to death?
In the court, Darnay becomes to discern the third person who accuses him, and it is none other than Dr. Manette. Nonetheless, it is not Dr. Manette’s fault, he wrote the journal quite earlier, but Defarge spots it and uses it for his advantages. In the diary, Dr. Manette charges the intact family of Evrémonde to their last race and indicates to the event when all the blunders they did and will redeem for it. He even wants them all to get condemned to death.

11. Ironically, who else in condemned by the Doctor’s journal?
By the reveal of the Dr. Manette’s journal, Darnay convicted to death. The way Dr. Manette denounces the entire family of the Evrémonde at the time he inscribed it, ironically through that now he condemns and puts Lucie and young Lucie’s life in peril.

Chapter 11—Dusk

1. What is the significance of the words Carton murmurs against Lucie’s cheek when he kisses her, “A life you love”?
In one of the earlier chapter, we know that Carton goes to Lucie in a drunken condition and confesses his devotion to her. The significance of Carton handling and whispering against Lucie’s cheek when he kisses her to make her recognize his love and bestows his tenderness for her. Carton wants her to acknowledge that she’s not alone, and there’s him who swore to her that he could give his life so that she can hold on to a life she cherishes and admires so much. Carton works adequately on his promise to regain Lucie’s content by hinting to release Darnay who she considers a life she loves.

2. What, most likely, is Carton’s plan to save Darnay? How has this been foreshadowed?
Carton’s plan to save Darnay revealed in several ways. In the book, Dickens indicates that Carton and Darnay have similar physical looks which assist Darnay to get away from death from the English trial, where he stood impeached of treason. Further, as Carton promises Lucie that he will give his life if he needs to Lucie to keep a life she loves, it refers to Carton shifting himself with Darnay and bequeathing his life. In particular, this can turn into reality because Barsad is subject to getting Carton to smuggle into the cell room where Darnay held incarcerated, and from there Carton presumably would lock himself and send Darnay back to Lucie for his commitment.

Chapter 12—Darkness

1. Why does Carton go to the wine shop?
Carton pays a visit to the wine shop to figure out and know if anyone resembles as Darnay or about.

2. What does he learn there about Dr. Manette, Lucie, her child, and Madame Defarge?
When Carton reaches the wine shop, he can glimpse the ferocity on the eyes of Ernest Defarge, Madame Defarge, and the other insurgents. They look stern and severe about what they bring to the prisoners and the surrounding around them. Carton realizes that Madame Defarge chooses to obliterate the complete family of the Evrémonde and desires to condemn all of them to death. We notice Madame Defarge’s contempt for the Evrémondes, but now Carton discovers it and gazes at the fiery eyes which radiating to take vengeance.

3. What final piece of the Defarge/Manette/Evremonde puzzle is finally revealed?
The most anticipate and the built suspense on the book gets ultimately revealed, and it confirmed that Madame Defarge is the younger sister of the woman who gets raped by Marquis, and she declares her hatred for the Evrémondes. We knew about it to coming since Dickens foreshadowed this event with plenty of information and the puzzle finally gets solved.

4. Why do the Defarges speak so freely in front of Carton?
When Carton enters the wine shop, he posses the role of an English man who doesn’t know how to speak French or understand the language. Therefore, as Carton makes the Defarges consider this, they talk conveniently and freely in front of Carton, and that’s when Carton discovers out that Madame Defarge wants to demolish the entire Evrémonde family.

Chapter 13—Fifty-two

1. What is the significance of the title of this chapter?
The notability of the title of this chapter shows that fifty-two people who condemned to death would die by their head chopping off in a guillotine machine, which also includes Darnay. They have to sacrifice their lives as the revolutionaries want. However, everyone desires to view Darnay’s death because he’s family have tortured the regular people more than other aristocrats.

2. How does John Barsad help Carton with his plan to save Darnay?
John Barsad meets his responsibility by letting Carton smuggle into the cell room where Darnay held enthralled, and where Carton injects a drug into Darnay’s body. Barsad serves to transport the unconscious body of Darnay out to the standing carriage from which Darnay has carried to a sheltered area. Chiefly, he aids with the rescue and holds Carton’s idea of him lingering the prison on behalf of Darnay and also bestowing his life. Barsad understands everything, but under perils, he appears as he should through completely sojourning hushed.

3. How does the plight of the seamstress illustrate one of the main flaws of the Revolution?
The seamstress is the person Carton encounters while heading for his death under the guillotine. The seamstress points out that she is innocent, but is falsely accused and has to die without fair justice. She also mentions that after poorly treated by the aristocrats, and learning from that, she doesn’t find any dissimilarities between the peasants who are now insurgents and the nobles who used to rule them. The seamstress discovers the peasants, now in charge of the revolutionaries, similarly unfair and have an incorrect justice system in their courtrooms. Carton looks up to the seamstress until the last moment because she wants him to be with her and the only person who figures that he’s not Darnay.

4. What effect is created by Dickens’ shift to first-person narration?
As Dickens promptly shifts to first-person, he makes the events seem more immediate. It also impacts the text to be more personal, and the conflict or the danger appears to get closer to the readers. Mainly, it increases the suspense and builds the anticipation, which makes the readers keep on reading with full attention, and gets us to feel attached to the story.

Chapter 14—The Knitting Done

1. Why does Madame Defarge visit Lucie before her husband’s execution?
Madame Defarge has her eyes on the intact Evrémonde family because of her resentment towards them and the aim of taking retaliation for demolishing her family. Madame Defarge is cognizant that Lucie will lament and cry for Darnay. While doing so, she reasonably would say something against the Republicans, and this is what Madame Defarge needs. She yearns to use those words against Lucie, and exhibit it in the court for her intention and benefits so that the insurgents also condemn Lucie to death for fronting them. Hence, Madame Defarge pays a visit to Lucie ere Darnay dies to assemble the shreds of evidence.

2. Why does Jerry Cruncher change his mind about his wife’s flopping?
Jerry Cruncher abruptly has a transformation of mind about his wife’s flopping because he becomes frightened of how he lives ad the way of life. He comes to some discrete realizations, and so his preferences about his life alter, while, some sojourns a part of his daily life. Hence, he begins to inspect life in a way that seems positive and finds his wife’s prayings strengthening rather than bothering.

3. What theme is suggested by Darnay’s escape and Miss Pross’ being strong enough to defeat Madame Defarge?
The theme implied by Darnay emerging and Miss Pross fighting and murdering Madame Defarge is that devotion is compelling than aversion.

4. What evidence of nationalistic pride does Dickens reveal in this chapter?
In this chapter, Dickens shows that Miss Pross, who is a British, fights and defeats Madame Defarge, who is a French. Hence, Dickens reveals British as nationalistic pride.

Chapter 15—The Footsteps Die Out Forever

1. The last words of this chapter are some of the most famous ever written: ” It is a far, far better thing that I do, than I have ever done; it is a far far better rest that I go to than I have ever known.” In what way is this statement true for Sydney Carton? Why do you suppose this has become such a famous last line from a novel?
We understand that Sydney Carton has accomplished nothing worthwhile in his life. His entire life is a ruin and has persisted as a drunker and inability to do something. By devoting his life on account of Darnay, he satisfies the promise he gives to Lucie and redeems the sins of his whole life. He deliberates that he should conclude his life with a positive deed, and so the Manette distinguishes him forever. He’s able to demonstrate that devotion is compelling than resentment and encourages to take an opportunity to do something for yourself. When Carton persists to die, he seems much proud of himself than his entire life and kens his destination is the better place he has never acknowledged. On the opposite, the last line is famous because of the application of poetry words, repetition, parallelism, and the human desires that get emphasized.

Elaha Ahmed
Ms. Lonergan
English 9 Honors
21 August 2018
Essay #2:
A Tale of Two Cities
In this world, there are two directions that one can walk into, it’s either right or wrong. In the book, A Tale of Two Cities, the author Charles Dickens notes the experience of the characters during the French Revolution. The French Revolution itself commences with the choices of people where they get into one of these directions, and within them lies two characters, Lucie Manette and Madame Thérèse Defarge. The two notable women that Dickens sets direct opposition to each other, using one of the literary techniques that are popular of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, he develops the overall theme in his book of good versus evil. In general, in A Tale of Two Cities, Lucie Manette and Madame Thérèse Defarge define one another through description and explains the theme of goodness versus evil by the hardships they face, the purposes they have, and by the choices, they make in their lives.
Before jumping right into the central points, it’s imperative to know about the two characters and how they define each other. For that means, the first character is Madame Thérèse Defarge, who is also known as Madame Defarge has some enthralling powers, which includes knitting and firm revolutionary convictions. Even from this aptitudes, the faults are being prominently radical and having no compassion. Madame Defarge’s husband is Ernest Defarge, and they both are revolutionaries, and fundamentally taking revenge for Madame’s fatal story, which makes her the lifeline of the revolution. Also, she doesn’t explore her nearby surroundings, and never stops knitting with a sharp expression on her face in the wine shop at Saint Antoine. The wine shop that she operates is not only a wine shop but a hub for the rebels. Apart from all this, before Dickens fully unveils about Madame, she has already become a beast. In the novel, she’s the immoral character.
On the other hand, Lucie Manette is the daughter of Dr. Manette and wife of Charles Darnay. She has golden hair, blue eyes, and she’s eighteen years old. She’s the total opposite of Madame Defarge, and solely refer to as an “angel.” Lucie’s strengths are being angelic, sympathetic, and being sparkling and perfect. The deficiencies are to be too idealistic and self-sacrificing. Lucie understands the people around her, and the three men Charles Darnay, Sydney Carton, and Mr. Stryver fall for her. Furthermore, Dickens mentions that Lucie is known as the “golden thread,” who spreads her devotions and courtesy to other people and this quality even aids to cure people, for example, Dr. Manette and Sydney Carton. In the story, Lucie represents the character of morality.
Lucie Manette and Madame Defarge are distinct characters; however, they both signify each other in various ways. In other words, Lucie, as she is, begs Madame for Charles’ discharge, when no affections come from her in return. Their relationship based on self-determination, and that’s how they take several turns in the story. The event of Lucie soliciting in front of Madame symbolizes each other in their ways, where one using the aid of wrongness, and other using pure love. As the time proceeds, they both develop contempt for each other in unconventional methods where Madame wants to kill people and Lucie demands for admiration. Generally, they both vehement in their fields, and are flat characters who don’t undergo any changes throughout the story. They have trust in their way of living, and that’s how they settle and discover themselves in comparable circumstances in their worlds.
First of all, the characters’ distinctions contribute to the theme through the challenges they confront. In particular, Madame Defarge’s family destructs by the Evrémonde family, where her older sister raped by Marquis, and this makes her father die of grief, and her brother stabbed for requiting her sister’s dignity (Dickens 367). On this basis, she doesn’t have a contentful childhood and plays a vital role to overthrow the aristocracy and practices being wrong. Conversely, Lucie Manette’s youth seems lonely without parents, but when she meets her dad after eighteen years, she conveys all her love to him and follows the trail of virtue. Not only that, Dickens supplements more information about them.
For instance, Madame Defarge suffers a plight of determining where to draw a line. She strives to seek justice for the outcome of her family and the end of Marquis just not sufficient for her. According to the text, “Tell the Wind and the Fire where to stop; not me” (Dickens 354). For this reason, she conducts viciously and suggests to sentence to death the intact Evrémonde family, which includes Charles Darnay, Lucie Manette, and even their young daughter Lucie has to die under the guillotine according to Madame.
Furthermore, Lucie sets aside all her inclinations and sacrifices all her necessities when she gets her dad, and she even adapts to a new country for him. As stated in the text, “Although the Doctor’s daughter had known nothing of the country of her birth, she arrived to have innately derived from it that ability to make much of little means, which is one of its most useful and most agreeable characteristics” (Dickens 97). Lucie manages to persuade herself into flawless heaven and embrace others with the intensity of her love. As a consequence of Madame and Lucie’s exertions, they function how they want, and ultimately, they gain the persistence in their lives.
Second, the two discrete characters demonstrate good versus evil through the intentions they have in their lives. To emphasize, Madame Defarge cannot deal with her sorrow and determines to disregard fidelity and generosity as she makes vengeance her purpose. Therefore, Madame orders for death, both the innocent and guilty people. Additionally, she witnesses the pain of the French commoners who endure so much, and it heightens her wrath and impulse to fight against the aristocrats. Hundreds of people die under the reckoning of Madame Defarge, and it leaves no regards to her. Alternatively, Lucie Manette attempts to make others better through her love. Such as, in Charles Darnay’s initial trial for treason, the crowd appears to have no mercy and wants the penalty of a quarter for Charles Darnay (Dickens 71). At that moment, when the spectators look at Lucie, her empathetic expression touches their souls and attracts to have a positive effect on Darnay’s case.
Another fundamental alteration that Lucie causes to someone is Sydney Carton. One day, in a drunken state, Carton goes up to Lucie and declares his tenderness for her. They both have a conversation, and through that, they make some promises to each other, where Lucie commits to him of not exposing the confession he did to her to anyone. Furthermore, Carton swears Lucie that he will bestow his life for her pleasure, and for the existence, she loves beside her. Along with that, Carton substantially demonstrates the transformations of him in the future and his remarkably kind of love (Dickens 154-159). Lucie is conscious that she cannot marry Carton, and so she becomes an ardent protector of his secret powers. Hence, Lucie’s decency and clean heart have an immense impact on others, making them deliberate about themselves and forms the longing to do with welfare in the world. Due to Lucie and Madame’s incentives that drive them to take their separate paths, whether it’s good or bad, their disparities reshape the judgments they make in their lives.
Third, the dissimilarities between them provide to the overall meaning of the book of good versus evil is by the decisions they make. To clarify, Madame Defarge is known as the controller of fate and functions as a strength of nature during the story. Her brutality acts as a force of the evil and urges others to be wicked. Her propensity for being impolite to people even encourages to rally ordinary women into assassinating and seek retribution. Madame is eminent at setting intense terror into people, and this explains when Lucie expresses that she feels more horrified of her than others and this taken as a compliment from Madame (Dickens 278). She yearns to be immoral and feels jubilant that people resemble her as one.
Additionally, Lucie chooses only to articulate the language of the home. When Lucie meets Madame Defarge, it appears that she can’t join her on the equal ground principally because she never reflects anything except her domestic dilemmas. Lucie favors to linger harmless amidst the carnage that encompasses her, and she faints before she’s able to prevent Sydney from switching his body with her husband in prison. Lucie departs for England and allows Miss Pross to manage the concerns with Madame Defarge, and then the event occurs when Miss Pross kills Madame.
By the conclusion of the novel, Lucie gets to apprehend about Charles Darnay’s true identity of being one of the Marquis, but yet, she doesn’t reject him and linger beside him giving all her love. Also, this can be proven because when Darnay held incarcerated in prison, Lucie stands in the place right in front of the prison’s window around three to four o’clock and waits, so that Darnay can view her and acknowledge the fact that she’s there for him. In particular, the preferences that Lucie and Madame make undoubtedly reveal their characteristics, and the direction they seem to follow.
To sum up, in A Tale of Two Cities, Lucie Manette and Madame Defarge defines one another by the information incorporated in the book, and contribute to good versus evil by the struggles they encounter, the determinations they have, and by the preferences, they make in their lives. Whether it’s by one’s strains, the justifications, or the decisions, people perpetually enter into the world of right or wrong, and that all comes from self-determination or the way someone leads their life. Hence, one can discern the influence of Lucie and Madame as they dominate their lives in their way, and by that analysis, one can tell whether they prevail under virtue or take the critical way out and becomes wicked. As per Elbert Hubbard, “Morality is the thing upon which your friends smile, and immorality is the thing upon which they frown” (Hubbard). When it comes to good versus evil, Lucie dwells a safe life for being moral, and Madame Defarge perishes away for being iniquitous.

Works Cited
Dickens, Charles. A Tale of Two Cities. Penguin Classics, 2011.
“Elbert Hubbard.” AZQuotes.com. Wind and Fly LTD, 2018. 28 August 2018.
https://www.azquotes.com/quote/781688

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