This proposal is my original work and has not presented for any diploma course in any other institution.
GORETY ACHIENG ONYINO
I confirm that the work reported in this proposal has been carried out under my supervision and has been submitted under my approval
I dedicate this proposal to my beloved husband who supported me both emotionally and financially throughout the process. Also, to my son who gave me his humble time and encouragement during my studies.
The writing of this proposal was made possible by the almighty God, my college lecturers and colleagues who helped me to discuss the research topic. Special thanks to my supervisor, Mr. Erastus Mwangi who helped me identify the subject problem and all variables associated to it. I also thank my typist and my school head teacher, Madam Nancy Gitau for giving me permission to go out and collect data. May God almighty bless u abundantly.
The study was carried out mainly to find out the effect of feeding programme on learning of children in ECDE centers in Nakuru West sub county.
The sub-county has a large population which comprises of many children in ECDE. The population consists of mixed social status, that is, the rich, middle class and poor.
The sample size for the study is 10 ECDE centers, two public and the rest private. It was based on random sampling in order to avoid biasness.
The data collection method involved questionnaires and interviews administered on parents and members of the community. It was analyzed by use of graphs, tables and percentages.
The study found out that feeding programmes and learning have a direct relationship, that is, available and favorable feeding programmes promote and encourages learning in ECDEs.
TOC o “1-3” h z u CHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc517333286 h 71.0Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc517333287 h 71.1 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc517333288 h 81.2 Purpose of Study PAGEREF _Toc517333289 h 81.3 Objectives of the Study PAGEREF _Toc517333290 h 91.4 Questions of the Study PAGEREF _Toc517333291 h 91.5 Significance of the Study PAGEREF _Toc517333292 h 91.6 Limitation of the Study PAGEREF _Toc517333293 h 101.7 Assumption of the Research PAGEREF _Toc517333294 h 10CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc517333295 h 112.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517333296 h 112.1 Origin PAGEREF _Toc517333297 h 112.2.1 Types of School Feeding Programmes PAGEREF _Toc517333298 h 122.2.2 Importance of School Feeding Program PAGEREF _Toc517333299 h 132.2.4 Frequency of School Feeding programs PAGEREF _Toc517333300 h 142.2.4 School Feeding Program and Learning of Children PAGEREF _Toc517333301 h 152.2.5 Role of Parents in School Feeding Programs PAGEREF _Toc517333302 h 162.2.6 Challenges to School Feeding Programs PAGEREF _Toc517333303 h 182.3 Theoretical Framework. PAGEREF _Toc517333304 h 202.4 Conceptual Framework PAGEREF _Toc517333305 h 21CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc517333306 h 233.0 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517333307 h 233.1 Research Design PAGEREF _Toc517333308 h 233.2 Target Population PAGEREF _Toc517333309 h 233.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures PAGEREF _Toc517333310 h 243.4 The Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc517333311 h 24I.Observation PAGEREF _Toc517333312 h 24II.Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc517333313 h 24III.Interview PAGEREF _Toc517333314 h 243.5 Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc517333315 h 243.6 Validity of the Research PAGEREF _Toc517333316 h 253.7 Reliability of Research Instruments PAGEREF _Toc517333317 h 253.9 Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc517333318 h 25CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS OR DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS PAGEREF _Toc517333319 h 264.0 Data Presentation PAGEREF _Toc517333320 h 264.1 Academic Qualification of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc517333321 h 264.2 Effects of Feeding Program on Learning PAGEREF _Toc517333322 h 28Effects of Feeding Program on Enrollment PAGEREF _Toc517333323 h 29CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION PAGEREF _Toc517333324 h 315.0 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc517333325 h 315.1 Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc517333326 h 31
CHAPTER ONEBackground of the studyAccording to psychologists, the growth and development of a child mainly depends on nutrition of the mother before and after birth, especially during the breast feeding period. (Hemerington Parke, 1999). Nutrition refers to the process through which the body makes use of the nutrients present in food taken. The nutrients obtained are necessary for growth. Therefore, the need for proper nutrition in early stages of growth is fundamental and cannot be ignored. Moreover, inadequate nutrition before and after birth, during the first six years of life can seriously interfere with the holistic development of the child.
The provision of essential nutrition aims at promotion of good health recognized as constituting the foundation of proper growth of children (Moest, 1998). Various researchers assert that a child’s fastest growth; physically, mentally and socio emotionally characteristics takes place during the first six years. Moreover, children are found to be most vulnerable to environmental influences. Furthermore, its traumatizing that growth deficiencies that occur during pre-school years are difficult and sometimes impossible to reverse. Hence, according to this argument, attention to raise pre-school enrolment and quality is paramount. Therefore, the process should provide numerous opportunities that are focused on improving the nutrition and health of 0-6 years’ age group. Thus, it is clear that, improved and essential nutrition and health is a necessary condition for proper growth and development. In Kenya and all over the world, children who undergo inadequate nutrition are prone t deficiency diseases due to a poor immune system.
Improved nutrition and health are viewed necessary condition for increasing enrolment, reiteration and learning achievement in preschoolers (Moest, 1998). In Philippines, for instance, children with good nutritional status were found to be able to concentrate better in school. Moreover, they scored significantly higher in mental ability test.
Studies carried out in America and India to assess full impact of malnutrition on human intelligence and on the functional capacity of the brain show that children who were severely malnourished are often miserable, pathetic, irritable, disinterested in their surroundings. Furthermore, they show many other symptoms of poor mental activities.
1.1 Statement of the ProblemThe research will be carried out in west sub-county ECDE which consists of both private and public schools ECDE centers. In the area, for every one public early child development education center, there us ten private schools. In Kenya, the issue of nutrition and health of children has been of great concern. At a UNESCO 1990 meeting, Kenya reported that the government has many years of experience in running pogrammes that address the education health needs of school age children. Moreover, they included policies, extended access to different levels of schooling, school feeding programmes by the communities and government. In 1990, the Government of Kenya invited UNESCO to assist MOE and MOH. In improving child growth and development, there is need for the county Government of Nakuru to address health and nutrition concern for school age children in the study zone between 0-8 years which will in turn increase their attention span thus better learning. The research aims to determing the effect of feeding programmes on learning.
1.2 Purpose of StudyThe purpose of the research is to investigate the effects feeding programme has in learning in Nakuru West Sub-county. For over five years since the introduction of feeding programmes, there has been significant increase of preschools in the study arear which has greatly influences the need for this research.
1.3 Objectives of the Study- To determine the existing programmes in ECDE in Nakuru West Sub-county area.
– To determine the impact of the feeding programme on learning
– To find out the extend that the feeding programme affects frequency of school attendance in the area.
– To determine the role the community play in the provision of feeding programme in the area.
– To suggest more affordable and convenient ways to improve the feeding programmes in the schools in the study zone.
1.4 Questions of the StudyTo what extent does feeding programme affect learning?
To what extend does the feeding frequency in pre-schools affect the academic performance of the children?
What is the role of the community in promoting feeding programme?
How does the quality of food served tin pre-schools affect the children’s learning?
How does the feeding programme affect the enrollment of children in ECE centers?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The beneficiaries of the study are M.O.E, parents, teacher and community. Hence, the finding of the research will help the society in improving the nutrition of their children during early years. Moreover, they will get to know the pros of good nutrition and cons of inadequate nutrition hence it will raise awareness and reduce ignorance to such a fundamental issue. Furthermore, they will be able to link good nutrition to cognitive development which will in turn promote learning.
1.6 Limitation of the StudyThe following are the inhibitors encountered during the research.
Shyness- some children were not able to express themselves freely as they were shy and also because of the age difference. It made it difficult to get all the information needed.
Some parents were not willing to share information while others were hard to reach due to inaccessibility.
Some head teachers were biased and did not give the correct account of their diet on the school menu.
There was time limitation since the researcher had to be in school from Monday to Friday.
There was the problem of financial constraint since the research required moving from one school to another hence incurred transport cost which were relatively high.
1.7 Assumption of the ResearchThe study will be based on the assumption that all the questionnaires will be returned, the weather will be favorable, the respondents will be supportive and would provide accurate information.
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionThis chapter entails the review of related literature obtained from various resources. That is, relevant material to the effects of nutrition on learning in early childhood development education.
Moreover, it consists of explanations of the pros of good nutrition and disadvantages of poor nutrition in children. Well balanced food is important in all communities and in every child as it is important for growth and development. Furthermore, it influences every aspect of human growth, that is, emotionally, physically and mentally.
School feeding programme refers to the provision of food to school children. It may be in two forms; one is where the children are fed by school or the where families are given food if their children attend school. The programme was launched in 2000 by American president Bill Clinton as a global food for education initiative. The aim of the programme was to reduce hunger strikes in school children. Additionally, it was a measure to promote enrollment of more children in school as the food was used as an attractive agent. Also, it was to make sure that children get at least one nutritious meal in a day for healthy growth and development.
In Kenya, feeding programme has been implemented since 1980’s. however, there has been varied degrees of success in different parts of the country. The programme has been used mainly to incentivize the enrollment and retention of all children in school especially girls. Since the feeding program introduction in Kenya, it has been guided by the philosophy “A hungry child cannot learn”. Moreover, it was mainly using locally produced foods from the national cereals and produce board. Nevertheless, the program alone was not sufficient in proving food for all schools in the country. Hence, the government encouraged development partners to join in and assist in the feeding venture. Various organizations came out and assisted the government such as the World Food Program (WFP). In the year 1981, WFP and the Kenyan Government started a school feeding programme which was a joint venture between the two. Its long term objective was to help Kenya achieve a universal primary education (UPE) in ASAL regions. Furthermore, the programme channeled the food assistance to both pre-schools and primary schools. The immediate objectives of the joint venture were to maintain regular attendance rates in schools, increase attention span of learners through provision of school meal, increase enrollment in pre-schools and primary schools.
2.2.1 Types of School Feeding ProgrammesThere are two main ways to distribute food through school feeding programmes, they include: on-site meals and take-home rations. School feeding programmes (SFP) provide meals or snacks to school children on the site, whereas take-home rations (THR) are provided to school children for consumption at home. Under SFP, the food provided to school children can either be prepackaged or cooked on site. The benefit of the food provided under the school feeding programs is conditional on the attendance of the child on that specific day that the food is being provided. Hence, an advantage of the SFP is that it serves as an incentive for children to attend school on a daily basis to receive meals, whereas to receive the benefit of the THR, children need only to attend a specified minimum number of days. Moreover, the food served at school is usually nutritionally dense and can be easily fortified with additional nutrients that may be scarce in local diets, such as iron or vitamin A and E. also, targeting is broad in that all the children at the school are fed; it would be difficult to discern between children of different socio-economic status (SES) within a school setting and likely disruptive to the educational experience if some children were fed while others were not. The food provided may be in form of prepackaged processed food such as nutritional biscuit or cooked on site.
There are a number of ways that food for the feeding program may be procured. Until the recent past, food for the program mainly came from donations from develop countries in the form of food aid and delivered through organizations such as the World Food Program (WFP). More recently, more emphasis on local, that is, national or community level, procurement has been taking place. For instance, local, national level, value-added production has become more frequent in countries such as Bangladesh where wheat flour donated through WFP was processed by seven local firms in a competitive bidding process to produce the fortified biscuits used in Bangladesh feeding program. Similarly, in the Brazilian HGSF model as much food as possible is sourced from local communities to keep down costs and support local agriculture. Among the three options described in the model, SFP where children are served cooked meals on site has the greatest potential for supporting local level agricultural activities through the procurement of fresh produce; and hence most amenable to the “home grown school feeding” model. In the case of THR and SFP based on pre-packaged food snack or beverage, the program may have to rely on a functional food processing sector at the regional or national level to meet the program’s needs.
2.2.2 Importance of School Feeding ProgramIt helps children from poor home to get at least one nutritious meal. For instance, in among the poor, there is often not enough food at home, and most schools in developing countries lack canteens and cafeterias. Hence, school meals are a good way to channel vital nourishment to the poor children.
Having a full stomach helps children to concentrate better in their lessons.
The feeding program in schools helps boost regular attendance in schools. Parents are motivated by the promise of their children getting at least one nutritious meal a day to send their children to school instead of keeping them at home to work or look after their siblings. For instance, in the poorest countries in the world, school meals program can double pre-school enrollment in one year. Moreover, among the key beneficiaries are girls, who otherwise may never have been given the opportunity to learn.
The feeding program apart from helping combat poverty in the long run, it also helps reduce diseases. It provides a platform for directly addressing child health and nutrition, for example through deworming schemes. Moreover, it can also serve as a platform for other health inventions.
In its TRH projects, WPF provides basic food items, often including a sack of rice and a can of cooking oil to families who send their children to school.
2.2.4 Frequency of School Feeding programs
The methods of the feeding program vary depending on the objectives of the program. Therefore, it is important to define the objectives of the program before choosing the targeting approach. For instance, if the objective is to reach out to most vulnerable groups, then the target may comprise of orphan and poor children. On the other hand, if the objective is to enhance school enrollment, the project may target areas with high food insecurities, high numbers of out-of-school children, high gender and social gaps in enrollment and poor retention of girls in schools. There are two commonly used approaches of targeting: geographical and individual.
It is often argued that when the size of the proposes SFP is small, then geographical targeting can effectively reach the poor segment of the population but as the coverage increases and becomes universal, a significant proportion of non-eligible children can sneak into the program hence raising the operational cost. Often rural areas are identified as more subject to poverty and food insecurities as compares to urban areas. Consequently, urban areas are overlooked when SFPs programs are targeted. However, rapid urbanization and growing numbers of slums in cities also made urban areas to have a high concentration of people living in extreme poverty. Thus, school feeding can also be introduced in such areas to support the poor children.
Having decided where to target SFPs, the next step is to decide which schools to select based on implementation criteria (minimum standards) and the standards are usually established in consultation with all stakeholders. Generally, schools that qualify for targeting should be more disadvantaged that others based on the measure of implementation criteria.
2.2.4 School Feeding Program and Learning of ChildrenFeeding programs affect learning of children in schools in three different ways; enrollment, attendance and concentration. For instance, school feeding programs motivate parents to enroll their children into schools. According to past research done, schools with a feeding program had more children enrolled than those that did not have the program. Moreover, it helps promote gender equalization by promoting more girls to be enrolled in school. According to WFP 2008 survey, the net enrollment rate for boys and girls increased from 77% in 2002 to 97% in 2007 in Kenya. The increase was due to two reasons; introduction of free primary education and provision of school meals. While gender ratio is close to parity with schools with feeding program, it suggests that school meals attract the most underprivileged female children in class and also draw hungry children to school on a daily basis. Therefore, it ensures that learning is passed to a lot of children.
School Feeding Programs and other nutrition and health based programs can act as a huge motivator for parents to ensure that their children attend school on a regular basis. The programs effectively reduce absenteeism and the number of school dropout. Therefore, the regular school attendance ensures that the pupils get education on a regular recommended time and in turn improve their learning. The improved learning is due to the fact that the number of days that a child attends school is related to cognition and performance. Furthermore, well-nourished children are believed to have higher concentration in class as compared to malnourished ones. The increased concentration in turn helps improve the overall learning of all children. As per a study done in Burkina Faso, it was observed that school canteens were associated with increased school enrollment, regular attendance, consistently lower repeat rates, lower dropout rates in disadvantaged provinces, and higher success rates in exams, more so among girls.
2.2.5 Role of Parents in School Feeding ProgramsSchools that depend on the community to organize and implement SFPs offer certain advantages. The advantages include: increasing the contact, and thus communication, between the parent and teachers, officials and other parties involved; giving parents the opportunity to become more aware of what goes on at schools; and serving to raise the value of education/the school for parents and the whole community.
Parents and communities tend to organize themselves to manage the food, store it and prepare it. This appears to be true even for communities with little or no prior organization and management experience. Community involvement contributes to program management, complementary activities, and –in the long term, program sustainability. WFP’s 2001 baseline and follow up surveys of its school feeding programs in 19 countries showed that 72% of parents were contributing financially or in the kind to the WFP-assisted school feeding programs, and 84% of the schools’ Parent Teacher Association (PTAs) included women members.
According to a study carried out, parents support via constructing the kitchen, paying the cooks, offering facilities like spoons, plates, and sufurias, offering materials like firewood, they may take part in kitchen cleaning activities and volunteering to serve the children. Moreover, through the feedback the study gathered, the parents encourage their pre-school children to eat at school. Also, it was important to note that the parents discussed the nutritional value of SFP with the school management occasionally. In regard to the contribution they make towards the program, the parents indicate they are charged once per term and that the amount is essential compared to the burden relieved from them; they only cater for dinner after school.
The children liked the food given at school because it was adequate and of good quality. They preferred the school food as compared with the food they took at home where they had to share with their other siblings. The parents also agreed that the quality of food was good and healthy. Moreover, the parents noted that they understood the school menu where their children get porridge for tea break and rice/ugali with beans/meat and cabbages for lunch. Also, the parents noted that the SFP had impacted their children positively and gave out the following advantages of the program: offers their children a balanced diet that allows their children to read since they do not have to think about their lunch meal, offers a good base for concentration in studies and allows all children to view others equally as they all eat a common meal.
2.2.6 Challenges to School Feeding ProgramsWhile SFPs have a variety of positive impacts, there are some possible negative effects the programs can cause. For example, SFPs can increase the cost of schooling by requiring that communities provide fire-wood for cooking as well as other items such as fresh-fruit, vegetables, and condiments. Additionally, communities are also expected to provide people who can cook the provided meals and maintain stores of all the required food products, as well as kitchens and other fundamentals of meal provision. By causing a variety of needs and requirements to increase a given community, the net benefit to a community from school feeding programs may be reduced.
SFPs are very context-specific, and each community’s program has to be altered based on the demographics, geography, and other patterns within and outside the schools. For this reason, there are a variety of challenges that emerge in the creation and implementation of SFPs. In order to have a successful program, countries must determine if school feeding is the most effective program that can be offered to the target communities’ neediest children, define program goals and outcomes, select the type of food that will be served in a school, determine a method of procurement for the food, plan for management, implementation, and monitoring within schools, and plan for a variety of other concerns.
Because school feeding programs are community-specific, and require a great deal of planning, the sustainability of SFPs is a main point of concern for many countries. Countries are very limited on the demands placed on the staff, resources, and infrastructure required for school feeding programs and often has to rely on outside financial and personnel help to continue programs for a significant amount of time.
The ECD sub sector faces various gaps; challenges and weakness, in as far as enrolment, retention, completion, quality and transition are concerned. They are summarized including: lack of clear policies and guidelines in early childhood education as most government documents are silent on key issues such as terms of service for pre-school teachers, the modalities of partnership with NGO’s and other organizations and the establishment and registration of ECD institutions; The free primary education policy has become a major setback to early childhood education because many parents are refusing to enroll their children to early childhood education and wait to take their children to primary schools. They cite the costs in the ECD centers and the corresponding free education in the primary schools; There is little ownership of early childhood education programs by the government, and 90% of ECD programs are funded by donors while many are opened by communities and individuals who dictate the different curricular they prefer used in their different schools. This brings disharmony as children go through ECD systems yet go to primary schools which are dictated by one national curriculum. Furthermore, some of the ECD centers lack curriculum flexibility to accommodate local needs. Also, there is limited access to the formal education centers due to long distances from home to school. High infant mortality also makes children unavailable for school. Additionally, many pre-school teachers are not trained. Moreover, many parents – particularly in the rural areas – lack awareness on the role they should play in the formal early childhood development setups and many ECD centers lack adequate physical facilities, for example, some classes are conducted under trees, learning and teaching materials. Also, there is insufficient logistical support for monitoring and evaluation in some of the ECD center facilities for food preparing and serving to children.
2.3 Theoretical Framework.The study was guided by Vroom Expectancy Theory of motivation. The expectancy theory was proposed by Victor Vroom of Yale School of Management in 1964. Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, and not on needs. The theory states that the intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular manner is dependent on the intensity of an expectation that the performance will be followed by a definite outcome and on the appeal of the outcome to the individual. The expectancy theory states that for instance, an employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to a reward (Instrumentality). In short, Valence is the significance associated by an individual about the expected outcome. It is an expected and not the actual satisfaction that an employee expects to receive after achieving the goals required. Expectancy is the faith that better efforts will result in better performance and thus overall learning.
Tolman (1932) attributed the results of reinforcement to learning but not regarding reinforcement as a necessary condition for learning to take place. Pupils’ with hunger pangs will come to school to be free from hunger and at the same time acquire education. However, in Vroom’s theory, valence is the emotional orientations towards particular outcomes (rewards) or is the value a person attaches to the outcome to an individual. The school feeding program is an incentive (bait) to attract children to school and enable them to learn. Expectancy is a momentary belief concerning the likelihood that a particular act will be followed by a particular outcome (the belief that better efforts will result to better performance). Then instrumentality that good performance will lead to valid outcome. To pupils, expectancy is the (internal) belief that education will empower them to be free from pains of hunger and poverty in future. Therefore, school feeding program facilitates pupils to learn by solving short-term hunger and making them healthy to cope with class work.
2.4 Conceptual Framework
The relationship between school feeding program and children learning can be conceptualized as depicted in figure 2.1 as a three stage relationship. The school food would reduce hunger pangs and therefore lead to increased pupils’ learning. The pupils’ learning would include: increased enrollment, increased attendance, improved performance, increased class participation and reduced dropout. The conceptual framework for the study is presented in figure 2.1 below.
Figure 2.1 Influence of school feeding program on children’s learning in E.C.D.E centers.
133349-114300School feeding program
00School feeding program
19907249525Reduced hunger pangs
00Reduced hunger pangs
School feeding program is the independent variable while pupils’ learning (increased attendance, increased enrolment, improved performance, improved class participation and reduced dropout) is/are the dependent variables. Learning will be influenced by school feeding program as it acts as a strong motivating factor to the disadvantaged pupils and make them attend school and acquire education. Therefore, the incentive SFP lead to increased children’s participation in learning and finally achieve pre-school education. The framework illustrates that the pupil’s learning result from the school’s SFP which reduced hunger pangs hence leading to increased attendance, increased enrolment, improved performance, improved class participation and reduced dropout.
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionThis chapter presents the procedures that were used in conducting the study. The section focuses on research design, target population, sample and sampling procedures, research instruments, reliability of the instruments, data collection procedures and data analysis. The chapters are as follows below.
3.1 Research DesignResearch design is vital as it is what holds all the elements of the research project together. The study will adopt a qualitative approach research using descriptive survey to investigate the effect of school feeding program of learning. Descriptive survey design suited this study because it allows the researcher to gather information, summarize, present and interpret for the purpose of clarification.
3.2 Target PopulationThe study will concentrate on pre-schools within Nakuru West sub-county. The researcher decided to use ten ECCDE centers. The study will assess how ECDE centers respond to issues of child care survival and development as far as feeding programs are concerned. To generate data, parents, teachers, and children will be selected based on schools with feeding program and without feeding program.
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures
According to Koull (1984), sampling is a process by which relatively small number of individual or objects are selected and analyzed in order to find out something from an entire population. A combination of simple random and systematic sampling will be used to select the number of parents, teachers, and children for the study.
3.4 The Research InstrumentsObservationThe research will observe the environment which includes human physical environment. The researcher will see what actually happens in a real situation and record what she sees. This will give firsthand information.
The questionnaires must be relevant to the problem, short, clear and simple. The questionnaires will be in a logical sequence.
InterviewThis refers to face to face and one to one discussion. The interviewer will be able to gather about the respondents and environment which is useful in research
3.5 Data Analysis
The researcher decided to use tables and graphs so that people would be in a position to understand more about the research.
3.6 Validity of the Researchthe validity of an instrument represents the extent to which the instrument measures what it purports to measure. Validity of questions and other research instrument is validated by experts in the field of early childhood education who will be given the instruments to go through to avoid misinterpretation by respondents which could arise at the time of data collection.
3.7 Reliability of Research Instruments A pretest method will be used to test reliability of instruments before they are administered to assess their clarity. It will be done by administering them to a group of respondents and collecting the responses. Then after one week, the same instruments will be administered to the same respondents to compare the results of initial responses with the latter.
3.9 Ethical ConsiderationProcedure for data collection in order to carry out the study, a researcher permitted sought and obtained a letter from the St. Beth Nakso Education College. A cover letter stating the purpose and importance of responding was attached guaranteed participants’ confidentiality.
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS OR DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Data Presentation
As mentioned in chapter three, the study will be carried out by the use of questionnaires which the researcher handed out to the respondents to study. The researcher then interviewed the respondent on the day of collection as they filled questionnaires. The data will be analyzed and interpreted in the form of pie charts, frequency tables, graphs all of which will be used to draw conclusion.
The sample selected was out of ten institutions.
ECDE INSTITUTION TOTAL POPULATION SAMPLE POPULATION
Public primary schools 2 1
Private primary schools 8 5
4.1 Academic Qualification of RespondentsPre-school academic performance are influenced by most of the factors not only provision of school feeding programme, availability of adequate resources, academic qualification of pre-school teachers greatly influences learning.
The table below shows the academic qualification of the teachers.
No ECDE Center Trained Certificate Trained Diploma Degree Untrained
1 A 2 1 0 1
2 B 2 1 0 0
3 C 1 1 0 1
4 D 2 1 0 1
5 E 1 0 0 1
6 F 1 1 0 2
Total 9 5 0 6
In Nakuru West Sub-County, there were more trained certificate teachers than diploma teachers. Many teachers have not trained up to degree level. Also, there were many untrained teachers.
The graph below shows the teachers’ academic level.
4.2 Effects of Feeding Program on LearningThe table below shows effects of feeding program on learning.
Center No. of pupils No. of pupils who acquire reading skills No. of pupils who acquire writing skills classification
A 100 50 10 10
B 50 20 20 10
C 20 10 5 5
D 60 15 20 25
E 30 15 15 5
F 40 10 5 20
Total 290 155 75 70
Percentage 77.5% 34.5% 35%
The researcher found out that schools with feeding programs acquired skills faster that without the feeding programs. There was cognitive development in these schools while schools without feeding program took a lot of time in leaning the skills.Effects of Feeding Program on EnrollmentThe table below shows enrollment of pupils in schools with feeding program.
Schools Boys Girls Total Percentage
A 35 25 60 34.1%
B 20 30 50 28.4%
C 20 35 55 31.31%
D 19 21 40 22.7%
Total 94 111 205 The pie chart below shows the percentage of enrollment in the different schools.
The table below shows the enrollment of pupils in schools without feeding program
Schools Boys Girls Total percentage
E 20 10 30 4.1%
F 8 12 20 1%
28 22 50 The researcher realized that there were many pupils in schools with feeding program than in those without since parents preferred schools with feeding programs than those without. The parents preferred the schools with feeding program because it saved their time in the morning as they rushed to work since they did not have to worry about their children’s lunch food.
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECCOMENDATION5.0 ConclusionThe study was meant to give an insight into school feeding in respect to learning in Nakuru West Sub-County. The study conducted the above on subjectivity so as to bring realistic data on the actual situation. The research proved sufficient evidence that learning depends on essential nutrition, that is food. This is evidenced on the fact that schools with a feeding program attained high number of enrollment compared to those without feeding programs.
The researcher realized that good nutrition increases the learners’ cognitive development as most children in schools with feeding programs were able to perform their activities very well as compares to the children in schools without feeding program. Moreover, in the schools that lacked feeding program, leaners got hungry and most of them could not concentrate in class due to hunger.
5.1 Recommendations The study suggested that the following must be effected.
There is a great need for the county government to partner with stakeholder to improve feeding program in Nakuru county in order to improve the quality of food or increase fruits in the diet since most schools did not provide fruits in their diet. The governor should ensure that every school has rules and compulsory school menu for proper nutrition during the early years.
This study looked into the academic qualification of teachers.
What is your gender?
Male ( )
Female ( )What is your age?
20-30 ( )30-40 ( )40-50 ( )
What is your highest academic qualification?
C.P.E/K.C.P. E ( )
K.S.E/K.C.S. E ( )
What is your highest professional qualificationCertificate ( )
Diploma ( )
Post diploma ( )
None ( )
3886199156845Indicate the range of leaners’ enrollments in your class
3838575151765Comment on children’s participation in class activities
2838450139700Comment on learners’ school attendance
Is there feeding program in your school?
Yes ( )
No ( )
2943225143510If yes, what is your role in the program?
292417515303400Is the food given to children balanced?
Interview schedule for children
Sex. Male ( ) Female ( )
4438649133985254317513398577152512446000Class School Residence
240030014668500What is the name of your school?
2628899150495At what time do you come to school?
249555113462000How far is your home from school?
2762250128905What do you often take for breakfast?
2875915132080What do you take at school during lunch?
2343150154305What is favorite meal at school?
Interview schedule for parents
What is your gender?
Male ( )
Female ( )
What is your religion?
Christian ( )
Muslim ( )
Married ( )
Single ( )
1571625128905What is your age?
What is your occupation?
Self-employed ( )
Laborer ( )
Employed ( )
247650012382500Range of income per month in Ksh3724274133350Comment on your child/children daily school attendance
Does the school offer any meal to your children?
Yes ( )
No ( )
2771775165735If yes, what type of food do they take in school?