The concept management arose around the turn of the 20th century with the dawn of the industrialised society (Northouse, 2016). Northouse (2016) further argues that the purpose for the development on the concept management was to address the chaos in organisations and to make organisations more effective and efficient. The primary functions of management namely planning, organising, leading and controlling was defined by Fayol in the 1916’s (Northouse, 2016).
The Dilbert comic strip used as the introductory quote to this chapter is silent about management. Does it mean that leadership and management have similar or different functions in an organisation? The following definitions were offered since the 1990s by various authors as outlined by Cole ; Kelly (2015). Brecht in 1957 refers to management as a collective process consisting of planning, control, coordination and motivation. Management is consequently an operational process initially best dissected by analysing the managerial function. Hellriegel, Jackson and Slocum (2005) claim that management involves certain competencies to ensure the successful fulfilment of the organisation’s goals and objectives. These six competencies are communication, planning and administration, teamwork, strategic action, global awareness and self-management. The five essential managerial functions are planning, organising, staffing, directing, leading, and controlling Koontz and O’Donnell in 1984 (Hellriegel, Jackson ; Slocum, 2005). These definitions, which have been developed since the early 1900s, indicate a change in importance of the functions of management rather than a change in the principles of management. These definitions also emphasise leadership as a crucial function of management.
Armstrong (2012) states that the aim of management is to accomplish a predetermined plan to achieve certain objectives by principle values that have been established. He further adds that these predetermined strategies are completed via others. Van Zyl and Dalglish (2009) argue that the concept management entails the activities of planning, organising and controlling of the administrative aspects of an organisation. Management entails the managing of resources and activities towards the goal of the organisation (Badenhorst et al., 2003). Cole and Kelly (2015) state that management is concerned with the transformation of resources through input because their definitions refers to the resources and activities involved to convert these resources to achieve the goals of the organisation.