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CHAPTER – I
INTRODUCTION
Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning to identify when you are under stress, what is stressing you, and different ways of coping with stress can greatly improve both your mental and physical well being.

Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person’s level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning. In this context, the term ‘stress’ refers only to a stress with significant negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selve, rather than what he calls eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise.

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Stress produces numerous physical and mental symptoms which vary according to each individual’s situational factors. These can include physical health decline as well as depression. The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle, stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-being.

Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily measurable, using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs.

Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health professionals and others, for self-help, which may help an individual reduce their levels of stress, provide positive feelings of control over one’s life and promote general well-being.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Selection of the problem or identifying it is the first step of research. The term “problem” means an issue to be examined. To formulate a research problem it is necessary to be creative and imaginative. The research topic is ”A study on stress coping strategies of the employees in Kothari Sugar Factory Kattur, Trichy”. The research problem of this study is to identifying the stress coping strategies of the employees. Every human being faces stress in personal life as well as in work life. In the current scenario, due to the many new technologies, mergers, different cultures, and changes in business environment, it is difficult for the individual to cope with the challenge. This leads to stress and consequently lead to poor performance in the work place, ill health etc.
1.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
The general objective of the study is to investigate the various aspects of stress among the employees in Kothari Sugar Factory Kattur Trichy District and the strategies adopted by them to cope with stress causing environment.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To know the personal profile of the employees as a background for the study of stress management.

To understand the factors associated with stress among the employees;
To study the employees’ perception of the organization and the level of satisfaction of their expectations.

To identify the major causes and consequences and the symptoms of stress among the employees.

To describe the stress management practices prevalent in the organization,
To offer some suggestions towards better stress management in the organization.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The present study will be helpful to the organization to determine the levels of motivation of employees. It put forth the wants of the employees of various levels related to their work place in the form of feedback and thus it helps the organization to promise interpersonal relations, appreciation, recognition of work and security of job which lead to the smooth in the organizational environment and better productivity. It is highly useful to the company in case of fixing incentives. It identifies the growth and development of employee. It is helpful for analysis the job relatedness, promotion etc.
1.6 UNIVERSE AND SAMPLING
Sampling is a process of selecting a representative part of the universe. There are different methods to select a sample from the universe. In the present study, the universe is the population of the study which is stratified into four departments namely Production, purchase & Sales, Maintenance, production unit includes (Manufacturing and Quality and control) Maintenance unit includes (accounts & finance safety etc.). A disproportionate random sample was used for choosing the sample respondents from each department. Total number of Universe in the organization is 369. From the universe the researcher has selected a sample of 100, representing 35% of the universe.

1.7 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION
Primary Sources: Primary data for the study is collected through a Questionnaire in the field.
Secondary Source: The secondary data is collected through books, journals, internet, articles and other studies.

The researcher has collected both primary and secondary data through questionnaire and published records respectively.
1.8 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION
The researcher has chosen the questionnaire method as the tool for data collection from among various available tools in research. The type of questionnaire selected for this study is a structured one and the respondents were requested to answer the questions. Since the respondents are the employees of Kothari Sugar Factory India limited. The researcher preferred the questionnaire method as a tool.
1.9 STATISTICAL TOOLS
Data collected from the field are edited and coded. The data were fed into the computer and are analyzed using SPSS Software and Statistical techniques. Statistical Methods are mathematical technique used to facilitate the interpretation of numerical data a secured from the samples. Hence the researcher proposes the use of tools such as frequency distribution, percentage, one way ANOVA, T- test and Chi-Square test for analyzing and interpreting the data.
1.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study on stress coping strategies conducted at (p) Kothari Sugar Factory ltd Company has the following limitations:
1. The researcher could not guarantee that all the respondents had given only their real feelings and responses without prejudice for the questions.

2. The result especially the finding of the study cannot be applied to other organization without appropriate modification.

3. Some respondents were too busy to answer. The questions were not properly understood and answered by them.

4. Time paucity and resource constraints are the other limiting factors of the study.

1.11 CHAPTERISATION
Chapter I – Provides an understanding of definition, nature of stress, causes of stress, levels & types of stress, stress at work place, types of stress etc and also includes scope of the study universe and sampling method, statistical tools. Limitations of the study ChapterisationChapter II – Includes the introduction, review of the related studies and the conclusion.

Chapter III – provides the profile of the organization and also geographical details of the study area besides the history of the company etc. values polices tagline mission and vision of the company etc.

Chapter IV – provides the presentation of collected data and interpretation using tables and verification of hypothesis.

Chapter V – presents the research findings, suggestion and conclusion of the study.
CHAPTER – II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Stress can destroy the mental stability of any individual. Whether a child, corporate man or housewife, people in all walks and stages of life deals with stress and its management. Stress is basically a condition that makes us uncomfortable and it could be due to various reasons like financial crunch, job loss, emotional and any other personal reasons.

It has a negative impact on the productivity of an individual and within no time interest levels dip. People stay occupied with some thoughts and getting out of it becomes difficult. At times people do not know that they could be in a position of life threatening stress. Stress could bring with itself a whole set of lifestyle diseases like blood pressure, diabetes and lack of sleep. In an attempt to get relief from such conditions people try to treat the individual ailments. However, they miss on the central root cause of reducing or treating the stress. It is important to understand that stress can never be eliminated but only reduced. While too much of stress can be life threatening and some stress is essential to drive performance, the mantra is not to eliminate but to manage stress effectively.
2.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Happell, Dwyer, T., Reid-Searl, K., Burke, K. J., Caperchionce, C. M., & Gaskin, C. J. (2013) said that ‘To identify, from the perspectives of nurses, occupational stressors and ways in which they may be reduced. Nurses commonly experience high levels of occupational stress, with negative consequences for their physical and psychological health, health-care organizations and community”. There is minimal research on reducing occupational stress. Method: Six focus groups were conducted with 38 registered nurses using a qualitative exploratory approach. Participants were asked to identify sources of occupational stress and possible workplace initiatives to reduce stress. Sources of occupational stress were: high workloads, unavailability of doctors, unsupportive management, human resource issues, interpersonal issues, patients’ relatives, shift work, car parking, handover procedures, no common area for nurses, not progressing at work and patient mental health. Suggestions for reduction included: workload modification, non-ward-based initiatives, changing shift hours, forwarding suggestions for change, music, special events, organizational development, ensuring nurses get breaks, massage therapists, acknowledgement from management and leadership within wards.

George, d.r., Dellasega C., Whitehead, M. M., &Bordon, A. (2013) explained that “Student anxiety and doubt about academic performance in the early years of medical school have been well documented. Stress management programs can be helpful but are challenged by shortages of time, personnel, and resources”. Therefore, popular online social networks such as Facebook may offer an innovative strategy for addressing student stress and supporting coping. This pilot study explored whether first-year medical students could benefit from a stress management intervention based exclusively on Facebook. During orientation week at Penn State College of Medicine, participants were randomly assigned to a Facebook stress management group that addressed problematic issues during the first semester. The intervention took place during the first eleven weeks of medical school. A multi-method evaluation of the intervention was completed using descriptive statistics for demographics and frequencies and qualitative procedures for focus group data. This online strategy may also be of benefit to other health professionals and students from other health disciplines.

Wan, P. Y. K. (2013) explained by “this study explores mid-level supervisors’ perceptions of their sources of work stress and ways of coping with it. It reports the results of in-depth interviews with 40 pit supervisors and managers in Macao casinos. The results reveal that role ambiguity, work overload, and a high level of customer demands and unreasonable complaints are the work stressors that are commonly experienced by casino supervisors and employees in other hospitality sectors alike. Additional work stressors experienced by the casino supervisors are also identified, such as the inability or unwillingness of subordinates to perform, surveillance by senior management, overly harsh company policies, and a punitive atmosphere”. Like employees in other hospitality settings, casino supervisors are found often to use their personal resources and social networks to cope with stress. Suggestions for managerial measures to prevent and reduce stress problems are offered.

Xiang, F., & Liu, B. (2012) says ‘Knowledge workers have become the key forces of the human resource in real estate industry. In the context of restructuring, the intensified market competition makes the external stress confronted by companies increasingly enhance, which compels the companies to put organizational transformation in practice. And the changes related with working inherent characteristics firmly affect workers’ psychological contract and work stress”. By way of managing psychological contract, controlling work stress within a reasonable range has far-reaching effect on corporations’ strategic development. With exploratory factor, confirmatory factor and regression analysis, this paper finds that psychological contract of knowledge workers in real estate industry consists of three dimensions: transaction, obligation and development. The transaction dimension and the obligation dimension respectively have negative and positive effect on work stress. The effect of the transaction dimension on work stress is greater than that of the obligation dimension. Thus, this paper concludes a model to match psychological contract dimensions with work stress, and brings forward policies and suggestions to manage work stress for real estate industry knowledge workers.

Nguyen, L. D., Boehner, T., &Mujtaba,B. G. (2012) Said that Today’s working adults often display different leadership orientations, as well as moderate to severe levels of stress depending on the situation and various demographic traits. In order to explore the stress, task orientation and relationship orientation variables of German people, this study examined the differences of 232 respondents in Germany based on their gender, age, and public sector work experience. The results showed that respondents had dissimilar scores on their leadership orientations. These findings are useful for expatriate managers and professionals who work with German-born workers. Besides, relevant literature on the German culture, suggestions and implications for future studies are presented. The present study aimed to examine and compare job stress and coping behavior of Australian and German physicians. Methods: The present study was designed as a cross-sectional comparison using questionnaire data of 310 German and 256 Australian hospital doctors. The questionnaires contained items on demography and self-rated subjective coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Brief COPE Questionnaire were used to analyze national differences in coping behavior.

Ipsen, C., ; Jensen, P.L. (2012). explained by, “Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work”. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed. They represented different stakeholders in five Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three engineering consulting companies. The stress interventions applied are short-term and focus on the individual; consequently, they affect long-term prevention, which focuses on changing the organizational and managerial circumstances. Finally, the in-depth analysis shows that the organizational factors in the organizational design are not aligned, which consequently has an unsolicited effect on both daily activities and the human factors.
Ganster, D. C., Kiersch , C. E., Marsh, R.E., ;Bowen, A. (2011) explains about stress management. Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. The literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being are received. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain types of performance-based reward systems, such as piece rate pay, cause increases in psychological and physiological stress. Such findings are mirrored in non experimental studies as well, but the causal mechanisms for such effects are not well understood. It is argued that reward systems generally deserve much more attention in the work stress literature, and identify several mediating and moderating variables worthy of study.

According to Lipinska-Grobenly (2011) “This current study investigates the relationship between the endorsement of masculine and feminine gender role orientation in accordance with Bem’s indices and both personal resources and coping with stress. Role orientation in accordance with Bem’s indices and both personal resources and coping with stress. Materials and Methods: The Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised, the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Personal Competence Scale were completed by 308 employees of a city transport company (123 females and 185 males). By 308 employees of a city transport company (123 females and 185 males). Results: reveal that androgynous individuals, masculine women and masculine men, possess stronger psychological resources compared with undifferentiated and feminine individuals. And feminine individuals. Masculinity is a significant positive predictor only in problem-oriented coping. Problem-oriented coping. Conclusions: These findings may have implications for the conservation of personal resources as well as for stress management interventions. Well as for stress management interventions.

According to Selart, M., &johansen, S. T. (2011) defined that “Across two studies the hypotheses were tested that stressful situations affect both leadership ethical acting and leaders’ recognition of ethical dilemmas. In the studies, decision makers recruited from 3 sites of a Swedish multinational civil engineering company provided personal data on stressful situations, made ethical decisions, and answered to stress-outcome questions. The results are important for the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of an organization, especially with regard to the analysis of the stressors influencing managerial work and its implications for ethical behavior.

According to Costa,G. (2009) said in this article “Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources that may have a negative impact on workers’ health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieved to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social factors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.

Yu M. C. (2009) said that, “This study explores employees’ perception of organizational change and how those perceptions are shaped by trust and stress management strategies. Four hundred and five analyzable surveys were received from employees of four Taiwanese governmental departments undergoing change. These surveys were conducted within the Ministry of National Defense, the Coast Guard Administration, the National Police Agency, and the National Fire Agency. Results showed that organizational change had a significant negative influence on employees’ trust and job involvement. As a result, it is suggested that stress management workshops be instituted within an organization undergoing change in order to provide strategies for stress relief and to improve employees’ organizational identification and job involvement.

Leung, M.-.,CHAN ,Y.-., & Yu, J. (2009) defined by “Construction projects involve multistakeholders (e.g., architects, structural engineers, surveyors, contractors, suppliers, etc.) completing a large number of unpredictable tasks in a complex process within a limited period of time. Construction project managers (C-PMs) are the key persons in achieving project success throughout the construction process, as they are responsible for planning the construction program, organizing human resources, controlling operations and the budget, and forecasting probable difficulties. Hence, C-PMs always encounter a great deal of stress in construction projects. Apart from the subjective feelings experienced by individual C-PMs, C-PMs may also feel objective stress due to the deviation between their actual abilities and their expected abilities on tasks or projects. To understand the integrated relationships between the various stressors and stresses of C-PMs, a survey was conducted of 108 C-PMs in Hong Kong. This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationships between stressors and stresses (both subjective and objective). The study reveals seven stressors of C-PMs in the industry. Based on the results of a correlation coefficient, an optimized stressor–stress structural equation model is established.
Viljoen, J.P., and Rothmann, S. “Occupational stress, ill health and organizational commitment (2009).The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupational stress, ill health and organizational commitment. A survey design was used. The sample (N=353) consisted of academic (n=132) and support staff (n=221) at a university of technology. The Organizational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET) and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The results showed that different organizational stressors contributed significantly to ill health and low organizational commitment. Low individual commitment to the organization was predicted by five stressors, namely work-life balance, overload, control, job aspects and pay.

Schmidt, Denise Rodrigues Costa; Dantas, RosanaAparecidaSpadoti; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci and Laus, Ana Maria. In their work title on “Occupational stress among nursing staff in surgical settings”(2009)This descriptive, correlation, and cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the presence of occupational stress among nursing professionals working in surgical settings and to investigate relations between occupational stress and the work characteristics. The Demand-Control Model proposed by Karasek was used to evaluate occupational stress. The sample was composed of 211 nursing professionals from 11 hospitals located in the city of Londrina-PR, Brazil. A questionnaire regarding socio-demographic and professional data and the Job Stress Scale were applied. Data was collected from April to November, 2007. Among the participants, most were auxiliary nurses (62.6%), women (86.7%), and married (54.0%). The average age was 40 years.
Amir shani and Abraham pizam in their article “work-related depression among hotel employees” conducted a study on the depression (2009) Given the putative cost of work-related depression, this article reports the results of a pilot study conducted among hotel employees in Central Florida. The study finds an initial indication of a small but noteworthy incidence of depression among workers in the hospitality industry. The article explores the antecedents and possible origins of depression, as well as critical issues related to depression in the workplace, particularly its effects on organizations and employees. The findings indicate a need for greater organizational awareness of depression.

J.E. Agolla in his research article titled “Occupational Stress Among Police Officers: The Case of Botswana Police Service”, (2009) has conducted a study among the police to find out work stress symptoms and coping strategies among the police service in Botswana.This study reveals that the police work stressors are; getting injured while on duty and the use of force when the job demands to do so, etc. The coping strategies were identified as exercising, socializing, healthy eating or diets, career planning and employee training.

Li-fang Zhang conducted a study titled “Occupational stress and teaching approaches among Chinese academics” (2009) the primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching approaches. Participants were 246 faculty members from a large university in Guangzhou in the People’s Republic of China, who completed the Approaches to Teaching Inventory, four scales from the Occupational Stress Inventory?Revised (assessing role overload, role insufficiency, psychological strain, and rational/cognitive coping), and the Self?rated Ability Scale. Results suggested that after the participants’ self?rated abilities were controlled for, the combination of role overload and the use of rational/cognitive coping was conducive to the conceptual?change teaching approach (both intention and strategy), and that role insufficiency negatively predicted the conceptual?change teaching strategy. The implications of these findings for university academics and for university senior managers are discussed.

Connolly, John F and Willock, Joyce and Hipwell, Michele and Chisholm, Vivienne in their research titled “Occupational Stress ; Psychological Well Being following University Relocation” (2009) Stress is experienced by employees at work when they perceive that they may not able to or struggling to fulfill the expectations of their employer. The purpose of this study was to find the causes of occupational stress in food industry, its effects on employees and their health, and the different methods used by employees to counter it in the food-chain industry. Work-related stress is a major part of an employee’s professional life, and when it comes down to the intensely competitive food-chain industry this stress magnifies to a newer level. The food-chain industry is expanding very rapidly and as new competitors are entering the market regularly, employees need to put in extra effort to satisfy customers which of course creates immense stress and requires a lot of stress management skills.
Chang-qin Lu; Oi-ling Siu; Wing-tung Au; Sandy S. W. Leung in their article titled “Manager’s occupational stress in state- owned and private enterprises in the People’s Republic of China” (2009) hasPrivatization that has taken place in the People’s Republic of China has brought about improved profitability and effectiveness of enterprises. However, it is not known whether employees’ occupational stressors and strains in private enterprises would differ from those in state-owned enterprises. This study aims to examine the major sources of manager’s occupational stress in private and state-owned enterprises, and comparing the intensity of these stressors and strains. The relationships between stressors and strains were also investigated in both economic sectors. The questionnaires were completed by 234 managers in state-owned enterprises and 179 managers in private enterprises from eight cities of the PRC.The questionnaires were used to measure sources of stress, job satisfaction, and physical and psychological strain.
Christopher j Rees, David Red fern, (2009) said that acknowledges that the subject of occupational stress has become a major workplace issue Suggests that employers may expect training and development specialists to play an increasingly prominent role in tackling stress within the workplace. Identifies a general lack of a consensus about the nature and causes of stress. Uses core HR activities to provide examples of how different perspectives of occupational stress can be identified. Highlights that training and development specialists can play an important role in ensuring that a balanced and eclectic approach to occupational stress is adopted in the workplace.

. Pal, S., and Saksvik, P. In their article titled “Work-family conflict and psychosocial work environment stressors as predictors of job stress in a cross-cultural study” (2009) They conducted a study on job stress on 27 Norwegian doctors and 328 nurses and 111 Indian doctors and 136 nurses. The result was that work-family conflict was not predictive of job stress in Norwegian doctors, but work-family conflict, high job demands, and low flexibility in working hours predict job stress in Norwegian nurses. For the Indian sample, job stress was predicted by high family-work conflict and low social support in nurses and low job control in doctors.
D.R. Rutter and M.J. Lovegrove in their research titled “Occupational stress and its predictors in radiographers”, (2009) The purpose of this study was to establish the level of occupational stress in UK NHS radiographers, and to examine its causes. A total of more than 1600 radiographers sampled nationally completed a postal questionnaire. Four groups were represented – mammography, diagnostics, radiotherapy, and ultrasound – and both junior staff and superintendents were examined the questionnaire measured role ambiguity, role conflict, work problems, social support from colleagues, and perceived stress. Levels of perceived stress were high in all four groups. The mean was significantly lower in the mammography group than the others, however, and junior staff reported lower levels than superintendents. Role ambiguity, role conflict and work problems all contributed significantly to stress, but the effects were sometimes buffered by social support from colleagues .Richardson, K. M., and Rothsetin, H.R. in their article titled “Effects of occupational stress management intervention programs” (2008) A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effectiveness of stress management interventions in occupational settings. Thirty-six experimental studies were included, representing 55 interventions. Total sample size was 2,847. Of the participants, 59% were female, mean age was 35.4, and average length of intervention was 7.4 weeks. The overall weighted effect size (Cohen’s d) for all studies was 0.526 (95% confidence interval = 0.364, 0.687), a significant medium to large effect. Interventions were coded as cognitive-behavioral, relaxation, organizational, multimodal, or alternative. Analyses based on these subgroups Within the sample of studies, relaxation interventions were most frequently used, and organizational interventions continued to be scarce. Effects were based mainly on psychological outcome variables, as opposed to physiological or organizational measures.
Nagesh, P. and Murthy, M. S. Narasimha in their study titled “Stress Management at IT Call Centers” (2008) this study indicate that eight out of 10 employers fail to manage work-related stress. Health and safety executives identify six factors that contribute to workplace stress as: demands of the job, control over work, support from colleagues and management, working relationships, clarity of role, and organizational change (Management Services, 2004). The assessment of value of workplace stress will indicate the strength and the weakness of the organization. This paper analyses the various factors that cause stress and to what degree. The paper also suggests measures in the form of training to enable organizations and individuals to manage stress at workplaces in general and IT call centers in particular. The paper is based on a study carried out in respect of a few selected IT call centers.

Mäki K, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Keltikangas- Järvinen L and Kivimäki M. in their study titled “Work stress and new onset migraine in a female employee population” (2008) they examined whether work stress, as indicated by the job strain model and the effort–reward imbalance model, predicts new-onset migraine among 19 469 female employees with no history of migraine at study entry. A baseline survey between 2000 and 2002 assessed work stress and demographic factors. Self-reported newly diagnosed migraine was measured at follow-up between 2004 and 2005 and 1281 new cases of migraine were detected. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, socioeconomic position and depression at baseline, no association between job strain and migraine was found. In contrast, high effort–reward imbalance was associated with slightly increased risk of migraine at follow-up, odds ratio 1.23 (95% confidence interval 1.04, 1.45). The proportion of new migraine cases attributable to high effort–reward imbalance was 6.2%. If the observed association is causal, our findings suggest that high effort–reward imbalance might function as a modifiable risk factor for new-onset migraine.

Kopp, Maria S; Stauder, Adrienne; Purebl, Gyorgy; Janszky, Imre; Skrabski, Arpad. In their research paper titled “Work stress and mental health in a changing society” (2008) The aim of this representative study in the Hungarian population was to analyze the association between work-related factors and self-reported mental and physical health after controlling for negative affect and hostility as personality traits. The effects of job related factors on Beck Depression Score, WHO well-being score and self-rated health (SRH) were analyzed in a representative sample of 3153 male and 2710 female economically active Hungarians.  In both genders negative affect was the most important correlate of depression, well-being and SRH, whereas hostility was closely associated only with depression. Job insecurity, low control and low social support at work, weekend work hours, job-related life events and dissatisfaction with work and with boss were independent mental health risk factors, but there were important gender differences.
Katherine Pollak. Eisen. George J. Allen. Mary Bollash and Linda S. Pescatello in their book titled “Stress management in the workplace: A comparison of a computer-based and an in-person stress-management intervention” (2008) Work stress contributes significantly to corporate health costs. Numerous corporations have implemented worksite stress-management interventions to mitigate the financial and personal impact of stress on their employees. Cognitive-behavioral stress-management interventions can reduce both perceived and physiologically measured stress. Traditionally, these interventions have been delivered in small, instructor-led groups. Outcomes from a stress-management intervention provided via an instructor led versus a computer-presented format were compared through a randomized, controlled design. Brief relaxation procedures presented in both formats led to highly significant reductions in immediately-reported stress. Comparison through randomized controlled design of stress management and intervention provided by an instructor-led group and computer presented format, has resulted in significantly higher attrition in computer based presentation format.

. Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, and Ursula in their article “School-Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study” (2008)This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and self-efficacy prior, immediately after as well as 3 months after the intervention. Three hundred and twenty adolescents (ages 10–14 years) participated in the study. Whereas both experimental conditions did not differ substantially in baseline scores, the experimental group scored higher on perceived self-efficacy compared to the control group at the follow-up assessment. Age-dependent intervention effects suggested that early adolescents primarily benefited from the treatment. Although the effects must be replicated using a randomized design, the current findings reveal that the program does strengthen important protective factors for the psychosocial development of adolescents.

Gbolahan and Gbadamosi in their research titled “Stress at Work: Any Potential Redirection from an African Sample” (2008) Research on workplace stress has generated a massive interest and following in the management and behavioral literature in the Western world, but not much data has come out of Africa. This study explored the relationship among Perceived stress, Perception of sources of stress, Satisfaction, Core self-evaluation, Perceived health and Well being. Survey data was collected from 355 employees in Botswana. Result from descriptive data and correlation analysis indicates significant links between Perceived stress, Satisfaction, Core self-evaluation and Well being. Overall, much of our findings are consistent with what has been reported in the literature. Managerial implications of the findings were discussed.

Christopoulos, M. And Hicks, R.E. in their article titled “perfectionism, occupational stress and depression among Australian university students”. (2008) this study examined the role perfectionism plays in University students by investigating its relationship with occupational stress and depression in the context of an Australian university student population. 116 students were recruited through convenience and snow-balling sampling method. Students completed the General & Biodata Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost et al., 1990), the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (Osipow, 1998), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (Lovibond&Lovibond, 1995). As expected maladaptive perfectionism significantly correlated with occupational stress and depression; however, unexpectedly adaptive perfectionism did not correlate significantly with occupational stress and depression.
Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Klaghofer, R; Stamm, M; Siegrist, J; Buddeberg, in their book titled “Work stress and reduced health in young physicians: prospective evidence from Swiss residents” (2008) Job stress, investigated by the effort–reward model in various working environments in different countries, has been widely reported, yet studies addressing physicians are lacking. The present study investigated the perceived job stress, its association with the amount of working hours, and its impact on young physicians’ self-reported health and their satisfaction with life during residency. Stress at work in young physicians, especially when being experienced over a longer period in postgraduate training, has to be a matter of concern because of its negative impact on health and life satisfaction and the risk of developing symptoms of burnout in the long run.

Sang, Katherine J. C.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Ison, Stephen G. Intheir research titled. “Gender: a risk factor for occupational stress in the architectural profession” (2007)There is significant evidence that those working in construction are at risk of poor health and well?being due to long working hours, job insecurity, poor work–life balance, low professional worth and temporary teams. There is also a disparate body of evidence which highlights the discrimination experienced by women working in the construction industry. A self?completion questionnaire was used to assess job satisfaction, physical health problems, work–life conflict and turnover intentions. Female respondents reported significantly lower overall job satisfaction and significantly higher levels of insomnia and constipation, work–life conflict and turnover intentions. Although further work is needed to understand the causal relationships between variables and the nature of the female architects’ dissatisfactions and concerns, the suggestion that women working in the architectural profession are at risk of poorer occupational health and well?being than their male colleagues will be of concern to a profession seeking to embrace diversity.

Mikolajczak, Moïra; Menil, ClémentineLuminetOlivier in their article “Explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence regarding occupational stress: Exploration of emotional labor processes” (2007) This paper aims at understanding the processes explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) regarding occupational stress. The study focuses on a widespread occupational stressor: emotional labor (EL). EL refers to the act of managing emotions and emotional expressions in order to be consistent with organizational ‘display rules’, defined as the organizationally required emotions during interpersonal service transactions. As these display rules interact with employees spontaneous feelings, they regularly induce a clash between inner/real and required feelings. Different strategies exist to cope with this dissonance, with either beneficial or deleterious outcomes regarding psychological and physical health. The hypothesis underlying this study was that individuals varying in the level of trait EI would use different EL strategies, with different outcomes in terms of burnout and somatic complaints. Implications of these results for research, theory and practice are discussed.

Upson, John W.; Ketchen Jr., David J.; Ireland, R. Duane in their article titled “Managing Employee Stress: A Key to the Effectiveness of Strategic Supply Chain Management” (2007) The authors draw upon their extensive supply chain research and experience to model supply chain success. The model highlights the potentially dangerous role of stress among supply chain members, and how this stress can be addressed. After identifying supply chain activities that create employee stress, we discuss how certain executive initiatives can reduce stress. These initiatives are designed to assist employees in thinking strategically and embracing new responsibilities. We conclude that by using the suggested initiatives, both employees’ quality of life and the organization’s performance can improve
Elisa f topper (2007) has entitled in the article it aims to help people understand the impact that stress has on library employees and the library as an organization. This article is based on literature reviews and commentary on this important topic that is not frequently addressed in the library as workplace. Library workers are under stress and the library as an organization needs to provide training in how to deal with this issue. Strategies for reducing stress are outlined. This article identifies stress in the library workplace and the importance of stress on employees and will be of interest to those that work within that field.

Wated, Guillermo; Sanchez, Juan I., in their research titled “Role of Accent as a Work Stressor on Attitudinal and Health-Related Work Outcomes”,(2006) the research has indicated that perceived discrimination can be a powerful work stressor influencing employees’ outcomes beyond well-documented work stressors such as role ambiguity and role conflict. However, the incremental predictive validity of perceived discrimination based on foreign accent as a work stressor remains poorly understood. It was proposed that perceived discrimination based on accent influences employee outcomes such as job satisfaction and work tension above and beyond role ambiguity and role conflict. Data from 114 Hispanic employees who speak English with an accent supported this prediction. The moderating roles of group identity, self-efficacy, and perceived control in the process were examined. None of the proposed coping mechanism buffered the impact of perceived discrimination based on accent on employee outcomes.
. Richards, David; Bee, Penny; Barkham, Michael; Gilbody,Simon; Cahill, Jane; Glanville, Julie. In their research article “The prevalence of nursing staff stress on adult acute psychiatric in-patient wards” (2006) Concerns about recent changes in acute in-patient mental health care environments have led to fears about staff stress and poor morale in acute in-patient mental health care staff. To review the prevalence of low staff morale, stress, burnout, job satisfaction and psychological well-being amongst staff working in in-patient psychiatric wards. Systematic review. Of 34 mental health studies identified, 13 were specific to acute in-patient settings, and 21 were specific to other non-specified ward-based samples. Most studies did not find very high levels of staff burnout and poor morale but were mostly small, of poor quality and provided incomplete or non-standardized prevalence data. Multi-site, prospective epidemiological studies using validated measures of stress together with personal and organizational variables influencing staff stress in acute in-patient wards are required.

Raidén, Ani Birgit; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Neale, Richard H. intheir study on “Balancing employee needs, project requirements andorganizational priorities in team deployment” (2006) The ‘people and performance’ model asserts that performance is a sum of employee ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO). Despite extensive evidence of this people-performance link within manufacturing and many service sectors, studies within the construction industry are limited. Thus, a recent research project set out to explore the team deployment strategies of a large construction company with the view of establishing how a balance could be achieved between organisational strategic priorities, operational project requirements and individual employee needs and preferences. It is suggested that a resourcing structure that takes into account the multiple facets of AMO may provide a more effective approach for balancing organisational strategic priorities, operational project requirements and individual employee needs and preferences more appropriately in the future
Noblet, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D. conducted a study on “The role of workplace health promotion in addressing job stress” (2006). The enormous human and economic costs associated with occupational stress suggest that initiatives designed to prevent and/or reduce employee stress should be high on the agenda of workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes. Although employee stress is often the target of WHP, reviews of job stress interventions suggest that the common approach to combating job stress is to focus on the individual without due consideration of the direct impacts of working conditions on health as well as the effects of working conditions on employees’ ability to adopt and sustain ‘healthy’ behaviours. The purpose of the first part of this paper is to highlight the criticisms of the individual approach to job stress and to examine the evidence for developing strategies that combine both individual and organizational-directed interventions (referred to as the comprehensive approach). There is a risk that WHP practitioners may lose sight of the role that they can play in developing and implementing the comprehensive approach, particularly in countries where occupational health and safety authorities are placing much more emphasis on identifying and addressing organizational sources of job stress.
Kushnir, Talma; Melamed, and Samuel in their study titled “Domestic Stress and Well-Being of Employed Women”. (2006)Family researchers have suggested that shared decision control is important for coping with stressful demands at home, whereas occupational stress theorists view personal decision control as an essential coping resource. We studied the effects of home demands, personal decision control, and shared decision control at home on burnout and satisfaction with life, using Karasek’s job-demands-control model to gauge home stress and its outcomes. Participants were 133 mothers employed in secretarial and managerial jobs. We hypothesized that shared control would correlate more strongly with burnout and satisfaction with life than would personal control. In multiple regression analyses, demands had independent main effects on both outcomes. Shared control significantly predicted satisfaction with life, but not burnout, and personal control predicted neither. It is suggested that in families (as in teams), shared decision control may be a more potent coping resource than personal control.
Keeva, and Steven in their article titled “Depression Takes a Toll” (2006) Keeva, and Steven 39 in their article titled Depression Takes a Toll (2006) deal with the high rates of mental depression among lawyers in the U.S. Studies which highlighted the depression problem among lawyers are cited. It discusses the suicide of Judge Mack Kidd of Austin, Texas. It explores the role of occupational stress in depression among lawyers. Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan 40 in their titled Occupational stress, organisational commitment, and ill-health of educators in the North West Province (2006) discussed to determine the differences between occupational stress and strain of educators in different biographical groups, and to assess the relationship between occupational stress, organizational commitment and ill-health.
Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan in their titled “Occupational stress, organisational commitment, and ill-health of educators in the North West Province” (2006) discussed to determine the differences between occupational stress and strain of educators in different biographical groups, and to assess the relationship between occupational stress, organizational commitment and ill-health. A sample of 1170 was selected and Organizational Stress Screening Tool and a biographical questionnaire were administered. The results show differences between the occupational stress, organizational commitment and ill-health of educators of different ages, qualifications and associated with different types of schools.
H., Azlihanis A.; L., Naing; D., Aziah B.; N., Rusli in their titled “Socio-demographic, Occupational And Psychosocial Factors Associated With Job Strain Among Secondary School Teachers In Kota Bharu, Kelantan” (2006) The teaching profession is an occupation at high risk for stress. This research attempted to determine the prevalence of stress and the associated factors contributing to stress among teachers in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 580 secondary school teachers in Kota Bharu District. The instrument used to carry out the study was adopted and modified from the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Part I consisting non-job factors (socio-demographic characteristics) and Part II consisting of psychosocial factors contributing to stress. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out. The prevalence of stress was reported as 34.0%. Seventeen point four percent of teachers experienced mild stress. Age, duration of work and psychological job demands were significantly associated with stress level. This study indicates job-related factors did not contribute much to stress among secondary school teachers. Non-job-related factors should be further studied to determine methods for stress reduction in teachers in Malaysia.

Coetzer, and W.J.; Rothmann, S. In their article titled “Occupational stress of employees in an insurance company”, (2006) The objectives of this study were to assess the internal consistency of the ASSET, to identify occupational stressors for employees in an insurance company and to assess the relationships between occupational stress, ill health and organisational commitment. A cross-sectional survey design was used. An availability sample (N = 613) of employees in an insurance company was used. An Organisational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET) was used as measuring instrument. The results showed that job insecurity as well as pay and benefits were the highest stressors in the insurance industry. Two stressors, namely job characteristics and control were statistically significant predictors of low organisational commitment. Physical ill health was best predicted by overload and job characteristics. Three stressors, namely work-life balance, overload and job characteristics best predicted psychological ill health.
Botha, Christo; Pienaar, and Jaco in their titled “South African correctional official occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths” (2006) The objective of this study was to determine the dimensions of occupational stress of employees of the Department of Correctional Services in a management area of the Freestate Province of South Africa. A further objective was to investigate the role of psychological strengths, namely, work locus of control and affect, in the experience of occupational stress. A cross-sectional design was used. A simple random sample (n = 157) was taken. The correctional officer stress inventory was developed by means of factor analysis, and the work locus of control scale and the affectometer two were administered. Results indicated that an external locus of control and negative affect contribute to the experience of occupational stress. The most severe stressors for correctional officials have to do with a lack of resources.
Bernhart, and Molly in their article, “Work intensity showing up in stress, employee attrition”, (2006) focused the intensification of work by employers to increase productivity with fewer employees, where human A great deal of fear is now creeping into the workplace and there’s a good reason for it. We’re running out of younger, skilled, entry-level workers.” – Edward Gordon, president of Imperial Consulting and author of “The 2010 Meltdown: Solving the Impending Job Crisis.”This is not a new observation. Experts have been spreading theories on an impending skills gap left by retiring baby boomers for some time now. But the Society for Human Resource Management’s 2006 Workplace Forecast shows that HR professionals are taking such warnings seriously. SHRM’s report shows the graying employee population is the most important demographic 2006. Those surveyed say the aging workforce, retirement of a large number of baby boomers around the same time and demographic shifts leading to a shortage of skilled workers are some of the issues likely to have a major impact on the workplace. When the employee forecast was consolidated into a list of top 10 trends, one could have predicted rising health care costs, retirement of baby boomers and outsourcing to make the list, but one new trend was not so predictable: “Work intensification as employers try to increase
Barzilai-Pesach, Vered; Sheiner, Einat K.; Sheiner, Eyal; Potashnik, Gad; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana in their research work titled “TheEffect of Women’s Occupational Psychologic Stress on Outcome of Fertility Treatments”, (2006) The objective of this study was to examine the possible association between women’s occupational stress and outcome of fertility treatments. A prospective cohort study was performed, including a consecutive group of 75 working women with a female fertility problem attending fertility clinics between the years 1999 and 2000. A structured questionnaire measuring burnout, job strain, and job satisfaction was used. Workload was assessed by number of working hours and shift work. Women who perceived their job as more demanding were less likely to conceive (relative risk RR, 0.6; 95% confidence interval CI = 0.42-0.96). Actual workload, measured by full-time versus part-time job, was found among women who conceived to be significantly associated with less likelihood to successfully complete a pregnancy (RR, 0.3; 95% CI = 0.11-0.96). An inverse association was found between perceived higher workload and conceiving. The likelihood to deliver after fertility treatment was associated with less working hours.

Akerboom, and S.; Maes S. in their paper titled “Beyond demand and control: The contribution of organizational risk factors in assessing the psychological well-being of health care employees.”, (2006) The job demand–control(–support) model is frequently used as a theoretical framework in studies on determinants of psychological well-being. Consequently, these studies are confined to the impact of job characteristics on worker outcomes. In the present study the relation between work conditions and outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, psychological distress, and somatic complaints) is examined from a broader organizational perspective. This paper reports on an analysis that examines both the unique and the additional contribution of organizational characteristics to well-being indicators, beyond those attributed to job characteristics. A total of 706 care staff from three public residential institutions for people with mental or physical disabilities in the Netherlands took part in this research. To assess organizational risk factors a measurement instrument was developed, the organizational Risk Factors Questionnaire (ORFQ), based on the safety-critical factors of the Tripod accident causation model. Factor analyses and reliability testing resulted in a 52-item scale consisting of six reliable sub-scales: staffing resources, communication, social hindrance, training opportunities, job skills, and material resources.
Adriaenssens, Liesbeth; De Prins, Peggy; VloeberghS, and Daniël. In their work titled “Work Experience, Work Stress and HRM at the University”, (2006) Current research on stress among academic university staff indicates that occupational stress is alarmingly widespread and increasing (Kinman/Jones 2004; Winefield et al. 2003; Bamps 2004; Tytherleigh et al. 2005). Therefore the work environment needs to be examined and more specifically organisational specific characteristics, like HR-practices. In line of Timmerhuis (1998), we believe that management of human resources in the academic sector is very useful and necessary. The aim of our study is to investigate (1) the well-being (job stress and job dissatisfaction) of academic staff at the University of Antwerp, (2) the specific factors of the work environment who have an impact on employee well-being, and (3) the interaction between HR practices and employee well-being. (4) Finally, suggestions of improvement of the work environment are to be formulated. In order to meet this purpose, we designed a conceptual model, based on the stress model developed in the Institute for Social Research (ISR) (University of Michigan), and on the HR-model of Peccei. The elements most likely to cause job stress, according to our participants, were workload and time pressures, uncertainty, lack of feedback and social support. Further, it appeared that the HR-related job characteristics cause job dissatisfaction: perceptions on participation, assessment, reward and support have an impact on job satisfaction of the academic staff. Finally, suggestions of improvement of the work environment were mentioned.

Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, and Charles R 48 Conducted their study titled “Compassion Fatigue and Psychological Distress among Social Workers: A Validation Study”, (2006) Few studies have focused on caring professionals and their emotional exhaustion from working with traumatized clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF). The present study had 2 goals: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a CF scale, and (b) to examine the scale’s predictive validity in a multivariate model. The data came from a survey of social workers living in New York City following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Factor analyses indicated that the CF scale measured multiple dimensions. The authors discuss the results in light of increasing the ability of professional caregivers to meet the emotional needs of their clients within a stressful environment without experiencing.

Yates, and Iva in their research work titled “Reducing Occupational Stress”, (2005) the survey explains in detail that 40% of worker in a manufacturing company reported that their job was very stressful and another 25% expressed that this job was extremely increasing the stress towards their family life, this survey has identified various job conditions that can be adopted to maintain a stress less work life which leads to a stress less family life.
Stetz,Thomas A.; Stetz, Melba C.; Bliese, Paul D. In their article titled “The importance of self-efficacy in the moderating effects of social support on stressor–strain relationships” (2005) Occupational stress research offers inconsistent findings on the moderating effects of social support on the stressor–strain relationship. This study contributes to the research literature by examining how social support’s moderating effect is dependent on one’s self-efficacy. Ninety-six US military police soldiers completed two surveys 3 months apart. The results showed that three out of four regression equations had significant three-way interactions. Organizational constraints supervisor support self-efficacy had statistically significant interactions in the prediction of job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Organizational constraints co-worker support self-efficacy had a significant interaction in the predicted of psychological well-being. These interactions explained between 5% and 10% of the variance in the dependent variables. Social support buffered the stressor–strain relationship when self-efficacy was high and reverse buffered the relationship when self-efficacy was low. These results indicate that interventions aimed at reducing strains by increasing social support should consider an individual’s self-efficacy. Future research should consider incorporating content of communication to determine if high and low self-efficacy individuals receive or react differently to different types of communication contents.

Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Freeman, Amy in their research article titled “work stress, substance use, and Depression among young adult Workers (2005) In this cross-sectional study, main and moderated relationships between 5 job stressors and alcohol consumption, drug use, and depression were examined using data from a community sample of 583 young adults (mean age = 23.68 years). Analyses revealed a few direct associations between high job boredom, low skill variety, and low autonomy and depression measures and heavy alcohol use. There were no direct relationships between job stress and binge drinking, alcohol consumption, drug use, or heavy drug use. In a few cases, job stress-outcome relationships were moderated by intrinsic job motivation or gender. The findings supported a specificity-of-effects hypothesis and underscored the need for examining the processes linking occupational stress to substance use and depression
Van Vegchel, Natasja; de Jonge, Jan; Landsbergis, Paul A. Intheir article titled “Occupational stress in (inter)action: the interplay between job demands and job resources” (2005)This study addresses theoretical issues involving different interaction effects between job demands and job resources, accompanied by a thorough empirical test of interaction terms in the demand–control (DC) model and the effort–reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to employee health and well-being (i.e., exhaustion, psychosomatic health complaints, company-registered sickness absence). Neither the DC model nor the ERI model gives a clear theoretical rationale or preference for a particular interaction term. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted among 405 nursing home employees and cross-validated in a comparable sample (N?=?471). Results including cross-validation showed that only a multiplicative interaction term yielded consistent results for both the DC model and the ERI model. Theoretical as well as empirical results argue for a multiplicative interaction term to test the DC model and the ERI model. Future job stress research may benefit from the idea that there should be a theoretical preference for any interaction form, either in the DC model or in the ERI model. However, more research on interactions is needed to address this topic adequately.

Vakola, Maria; Nikolaou, Loannis In their article titled, “Attitudes towards organizational change” (2005) Occupational stress and organizational change are now widely accepted as two major issues in organizational life. The current study explores the linkage between employees’ attitudes towards organizational change and two of the most significant constructs in organizational behaviour; occupational stress and organizational commitment. A total of 292 participants completed ASSET, a new Organizational Screening Tool, which, amongst other things, measures workplace stress and organizational commitment and a measure assessing attitudes towards organizational change. The results were in the expected direction showing negative correlations between occupational stressors and attitudes to change indicating that highly stressed individuals demonstrate decreased commitment and increased reluctance to accept organizational change interventions. The most significant impact on attitudes to change was coming from bad work relationships emphasizing the importance of that occupational stressor on employees’ attitudes towards change. The results did not support the role of organizational commitment as a moderator in the relationship between occupational stress and attitudes to change.

Salmond, Susan; Ropis, Patricia E., In their research work titled, “Job Stress and General Well-Being: A Comparative Study of Medical-Surgical and Home Care Nurses” (2005) they analysed the job stress among medical-surgical and home care nurses in the U.S. According to them, high stress leads to negative work environments that deprive nurses of their spirit and passion about their job. Key factors contributing to workplace stress include team conflict, unclear role expectations, heavy workload, and lack of autonomy. The purposes of this study were to examine job stress among medical-surgical and home care nurses, and determine if high job stress predicted general well-being. A comparative, descriptive design was used. Findings support the need to examine workplace stressors and implement strategies to reduce overall job stress among medical-surgical nurses.
Ryan, P.; Hill, R.; Anczewska, M.; Hardy, P.; Kurek, A.; Nielson, K.; Turner, C. In their book titled, “occupational stress reduction” (2005) Work-related stress is a significant impediment to job satisfaction and healthy psycho-social functioning. It can alter the behaviour of the person involved and impair the quality of their life. In the European Union (EU), over the last decade, work-related stress has been consistently identified as one of the major workplace concerns–a challenge not only to the health of working people but also to the healthiness of their organizations. The study reported below attempted to address the issue of work-related stress through whole team training programmes, on a background of largely ineffective stress reduction training programmes offered to individuals within the workplace. This EU ‘framework 5 Quality of Life’ project focused instead on tackling the organizational level through training of mental health teams in five countries. The findings have significant implications to the conceptual, methodological and everyday organizational practice levels of tackling this central issue to the health of the workplace.

Oliver, A.; Tomás, J. M..Ansiedad y Estrés In their research work titled, “Consequences of Work Stress” (2005) this study empirically tested the two broad hypotheses of Warr’s vitamin model: non-linear effects of working conditions on well-being, and moderator effects of personal characteristics on these relationships. The results did not support the non-linear hypothesis of Warr’s model, and the support for the moderator effects of personal characteristics on the stressors-well being is weak.
Noblet, Andrew; Teo, Stephen T.T.; McWilliams, John; Rodwell John J. In their research work titled, “work characteristics predict employee outcomes for the public-sector employee” (2005) The wide-ranging changes that have occurred in the public sector over recent years have placed increasing demands on public-sector employees. A survey of employees within a relatively commercially-oriented public-sector organization in Australia was used to test a demand-oriented generic model of employee well-being and a variety of situation-specific variables. The presence of support at work and the amount of control an employee had over their job were found to be key predictors of employee-level outcomes. Perceptions of pay and the perception of a lack of human resources (HR) were also found to predict employee outcome variables. The results emphasize the impact that middle managers and HR managers can have in terms of reducing the detrimental employee effects that can be caused by the introduction of new public management (NPM) and the potential for a positive impact on employees. In particular, public-sector managers can use the design of jobs and the development of social support mechanisms, such as employee assistance programmes, to maintain, if not improve, the quality of working life experienced by their employees.
Oginska-Bulik, Nina In their article titled “Emotional Intelligence In The Workplace”, (2005) explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and perceived stress in the workplace and health-related consequences in human service workers. They selected 330 respondents as sample size. Three methods were used in the study, namely, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire with Polish modification, the Subjective Work Evaluation Questionnaire developed in Poland, and the General Health Questionnaire with Polish modification. The results confirmed an essential, but not very strong, role of emotional intelligence in perceiving occupational stress and preventing employees of human services from negative health outcomes.

CHAPTER III
COMPANY PROFILE
Introduction about the sugar Industry
Sugar industry is the largest agro-based industry located in the rural India about 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and large mass of agricultural laborer are involved in sugarcane cultivation, harvesting, and ancillary activities, sand constituting 7.5 % of the rural population. Besides, about 0.5 million skilled and semi skilled workers, mostly from the rural areas are engaged in the sugar industry. The sugar industry in India has been a focal point for socio-economic development in the rural areas by mobilizing rural resources, generating employment and higher income, transport and communication facilities.
Profile of Kothari sugars and Chemicals Limited, Kattur:
Kothari Sugar and Chemicals Ltd is one of the pioneers in manufacturing of sugar in India. They are also engaged in co-generation of power, production of Industrial alcohol from molasses and bio-compost from press mud and distillery effluents. In the early 1960s the foundation stone for the first factory at Kattur was laid by the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu. Mr. PerunthalaivarKamarajar’ and was inaugurated by Union Minister for food and Agriculture Mr. SK Patel” Today they operate a total capacity of 10000 TCD across 3 manufacturing units.
In addition to sugar manufacturing, they are also engaged in co-generation of power, production of Industrial alcohol from molasses and bio-compost from press mud and distillery effluents.

The Kattur unit, located in Kattur Village of Trichy District, is about 30 Km from Trichy and 6 Km from Lalgudi railway station. In addition to sugar production, this unit also has facilities for co-generation of power, distillery and bio-compost.

The sugar factory was initially commissioned with a crushing capacity of 1250 TCD. Subsequence the capacity was raised to 1500 TCD during 1968-69. In 1974-75 the capacity was increased 2000 TCD and by 1985-86 it achieved 2500 TCD. It was expanded to its current capacity of 2900 TCD during 1994-95, which demonstrates the commitment to continue improvement.

To strengthen the business model and values, a co-generation Unit with 11 MW was commissioned in 1996 and a Distillery plant with a production capacity of 45 KLPD Rectified Spirit which is inclusive of 10 KLPD extra Neutral Alcohol was commissioned in 1993.

When the Government of India implemented the ethanol policy, an anhydrous alcohol plant with a production capacity of 30 KLPD was installed in 2003. The Distillery plant capacity was increased from 45 KLPD rectified spirit which is inclusive of 10 KLPD Extra Neutral Alcohol was commissioned in 1993.

When the Government of India implemented the ethanol policy, an Anhydrous Alcohol plant with a production capacity of 30KLPD was installed in 2003. The Distillery plant capacity was increased from 45 KLPD to 60 KLPD in 2008.
Cane for this factory is being supplied from Lalgudi, Manachanallur and part of Manapparai, Thuraiyur and Musiri Taluks. This unit also equipped with a unique facility of producing white sugar by processing raw sugar along with cane.

In the Distillery Unit, as part of the effluent treatment system, bio-compost in manufactured as value added product with press mud and distillery effluent for this, they have a Bio-yard of 16.50 acres with specific machines (Aero tiller). The Bio-compost is manufactured scientifically in the bio-yard and is constructed with RCC underlined with HDPE sheets.

As part of the commitment to ”KisanVikas”, they are running a primary school in the factory premises for imparting education to the rural children from the inception of the factory. As a corporate social responsible citizen they are conducting camps for blood donation and polio plus along with the Rotary Club of Kattur.

The Kattur unit is certified with ISO 9001-2000 and ISO 14001-2004 which is an endorsement for the commitment to “Quality” and “care for the environment”. In addition to ISO, they also have quality Management Systems like formation of Quality Circles, 55 implementation, ECT…
Corporate philosophy:
The intent is to stay focused and establish a leadership position in each of the businesses globally.

Guiding Principles:
Care for the customers and employees
Create a culture of sharing and openness
Utilize technology to facilitate information flow
Invest in environmental protection
Establish complementary joint ventures and partnerships
Promote community health and education
The Future:
As long as innovation, excellence and meaningful growth are values worthy of attainment, they shall march on inexorably in their pursuit, towards a better, brighter, happier tomorrow.
Responsibility:
The HC Kothari Educational Trust (HCKET) was established with a purpose of imparting high quality technical skill of rural people, which would ultimately result in their economic and financial health. By providing education right from the primary level up to technical level,
The following main social objectives are being achieved:
To bring out
To provide social and economic security to farming community.
To prevent the movement of rural families to urban for education of children
VALUES OF THE COMPANY
Mission:
“To establish a leadership position in the chosen businesses by exceeding customer expectation, by providing employees a productive and enjoyable work and family environment, and by delivering superior returns to the shareholders”.

“To make the best use of the natural and other available resources with socio–economic responsibilities, by following highest quality standard and continuous benchmarking, to create stakeholders delight by developing a sustainable, scalable and ethically sound global organization”.

Vision:
By 2015,to position ourselves among the top 5 profitable sugar companies in India by creating value through investment in customers, supplies, employers, products, processes, technology and innovation.

Tag-Line:
“They keep together and work together for success”
Overall Goal:
To build a sustainable, scalable and ethically sound global organization to make the best use of the resources of the land.

Main objectives that are supporting the mission:
A sustainable and scalable organization
Best use of natural resources
Follow highest quality standard and continuous benchmarking
Follow good business ethic
Socio economic responsibility
Maximize the stakeholder’s value.

Core values:
Manufacturing products by the following Highest Quality Standards
Selling the best products available
Providing Growth and prosperity for the employees
Following good business ethics with associates
Winning customer’s trust
Creating wealth thought profits and growth
Caring about their communities, environment and farmers’ upliftementAbiding the law of land
Quality policy
1. Ensure cost effective operations by improving productivity and reducing losses.
2. Closely monitor and measure the product and process performances to ensure reliable operations.

3. Update the process and systems to comply with statutory and regulatory requirements.

4. Conduct effect training programs for employees to promote awareness on operation, safety and competence.
5. Comply with requirement of QMS to improve effectiveness of the system through continual development programs.

Environmental policy:
# ensuring the compliance of all applicable statutory and environmental requirements.

# Undertake appropriate reviews periodically to evaluate and sustain their effects
# Conserve energy and explore new opportunity for waste and effluent reduction, reuse and recycle
# Educate and impact training to all employees environmental objectives and performances.

Various departments:
There are five major departments at Kothari sugars and chemicals limited Kattur. They are:
Cane department:
This department is concentrating in getting sugar canes from the farmers, through the registration and proper cultivation of sugarcane level by proper guidance to the sugarcane cultivators.

Accounts department:
Manufacturing department:
This department is concentrating on sugar manufacturing process.
The Kothari Sugars Chemicals Limited, Kattur, manufacturing S30 Sugar crystals by crushing of sugarcane to get sugar crystals.

2.Personnel and Administration Department:
The administrative department is performing the general administrative functions of the organizations.

The personnel department plays the personnel functions like, HRP, recruitment, selection, public relation, configuration, accepting resignations, terminations, retirement and transfer order issuing, co-ordinate with other departments, collective bargaining and negotiations, issuing work orders, maintaining attendance and so on.

Quality control:
The personnel and Administration Department also concentrates more on maintaining the quality of the sugar crystals has S 30 and following the guidelines of ICCUMSA to maintain ICCLUMSA
3. Manufacturing process:
Sugar unit:
There are 27 stages to be completed smoothly to produce white crystals from sugarcane. With a total crushing capacity of about 10,000 TCD, the concern is well equipped with a unique facility of producing white sugar by processing “raw sugar” along with cane.

4. Engineering:
This plant facilitates co-generation of 33 MV (Mega Waltz) of “Green Energy”(Power) from Bagasse exemplifies their commitment to reduction of global warming. The produced poer is utilized in all the units of the factory including the schools, quarters, and the excess power is exported to Tamilnadu Electricity board (TNEB) grid at a cost of Rs.2.75 per unit. The raw material used for this plant is BAGASSE, which is the waste product from sugar after the extraction of juice from sugarcane.

5. Processor:
The processor Unit, with a capacity of 60 LLPD, is equipped to produce Anhydrous Recruited spirit, Natural Spirit, head spirit and fused oil. The waste product produced form the sugar unit called “molasses” is used as the raw material in the distillery unit. There are Rectified plant and natural plant.

Work force:
The total employees employed at Kothari sugars and Chemicals limited, skilled, semi skilled, unskilled, highly skilled staff and executives.

CHAPTER – IV
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION
Table No .4.1
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Age
Age Frequency Percent
18 -20 years 16 16.0
21-30 years 60 60.0
31-40 years 14 14.0
41 -50 years 10 10.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 60 % of the respondents are in the age group of 21 to 30 years, 16 % of the respondents are in the age group of 18 to 20 years, 14% of the respondents are in the age group of 30 to 40 years and the remaining 10 % of the respondents are in the age group of 40 to 50 years.It is understood that maximum 60% of the respondents are belonging to the age group of 21-30 years.

Chart No .4.1
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Age

Table No .4.2
Gender Based Classification of the Respondents
S. No Gender Frequency Percent
Male 66 66.0
Female 34 34.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 66% of the respondents are male. 34% of the respondents are female. It is found that maximum 66% of the respondents are male.

Chart No .4.2
Gender Based Classification of the Respondents

Table No .4.3
Classification Based On the Marital Status of the Respondents
S. No Marital status Frequency Percent
Married 78 78.0
Single 22 22.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 78% of the respondents are married people. Remaining 22% of the respondents are single. It is understood that maximum 78% of the respondents are married people.

Chart No .4.3
Classification Based On the Marital Status of the Respondents

Table No .4.4
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Educational Qualification
Educational qualification Frequency Percent
H.S.C 58 58.0
Degree 19 19.0
Master Degree 13 13.0
Others 10 10.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 58% of the respondents are having educational qualification of H.S.C. 19%’ of the respondents are having educational qualification of Degree. 13% of the respondents are having educational qualification of Master Degree. 10% of the respondents are having educational qualification of Others. It is understood that maximum 58% of the respondents are having educational qualification of H.S.C.

CHART NO .4.4
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Educational Qualification

Table No .4.5
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Income
Income Frequency Percent
10000-20000 68 68.0
20001-30000 18 18.0
Above 30000 14 14.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that maximum 68% of the respondents are getting the income of Rs10000-20000 and above. 18% of the respondents are getting the income of Rs20001-30000consists. 14% of the respondents are getting the income Rs 30000 ; above
It is concluded that maximum 68% of the respondents are getting income of Rs 10000-20000
Chart No .4.5
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Income

Table No .4.6
Classification of Respondents Based On Their job division
Family Frequency Percent
Production 40 40.0
Purchase 10 10.0
Sales 20 20.0
Maintenance 30 30.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 40% of the respondents where belongs to production unit. 30% of the respondents are from maintenance unit, 20% of the respondents are from sales unit. And finally 10% of the respondents are from purchase unit. It is noted that maximum 40% of the respondents are from production unit.

Chart No .4.6
Classification of Respondents Based On Their job division

Table No .4.7
Classification of Respondents Based On Their work experience
Residential status Frequency Percent
Below 2 yrs 12 12.0
3-5 yrs 20 20.0
6-10 yrs 48 48.0
Above 10 yrs 20 20.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table portrays that 48% of the respondents are having the work experience of 6-10 years. 20% of the respondents are having 3-5 years. 20% of the respondents are having above 10 years .12% of the respondents are living having below 2 years.

It is perceived that maximum 48% of the respondents are having 6-10 years work experience.

Chart No .4.7
Classification of Respondents Based On Their work experience

Table No .4.8
Classification of Respondents Based On the distance
S. No Distance No. of Respondents Percentage
Nearby 39 39.0
1-4 kms31 31.0
5 to 10 kms21 21.0
Above 10 kms09 9.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 39% of the respondents are living nearby. 31% of the respondents are coming from 1-4 kms distance. 21% of the respondents are coming from 5-10 kms distance. .and only 9% of the respondents is coming from above 10 kms distance.

It is understood that maximum 39% of the respondents are coming from nearby.

Chart No .4.8
Classification of Respondents Based on distance

Table No .4.9
Classification of Respondents Based On Mode of Transports
SnoMode of transports No. of Respondents Percentage
1 Bicycle/By walk 23 23.0
2 Two wheeler 33 33.0
3 Car 05 05.0
4 Bus 24 24.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: primary data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 33% of the respondents are using two-wheeler as mode of transport.24% of the respondents are using bus as mode of transport 23% of the respondents are coming by walk, only 5% of the respondents are using car as a mode of transport.

It is understood that maximum 33% of the respondents are using two-wheeler as mode of transport. To reach the company.

Chart No – 4.9
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Mode of Transport

Table No .4.10
Opinion of the respondents about “the satisfaction level of their job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 32 32.0
Agree 16 16.0
Neutral 12 12.0
Disagree 10 10.0
Strongly disagree 3 3.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 32% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that satisfied in their job. 16% of the respondents agree with the statement satisfied in their job. 12% of the respondents neutral with the statement that not satisfied in their job. 10% of the respondents disagree with the statement that satisfied in their job. 3 % of the respondents are strongly disagree with the statement that satisfied in their job
It is understood that maximum 48% of the respondents agree with the statement that ‘Satisfaction with the Job”
Chart No .4.10
Opinion of the respondents about “the satisfaction level of their job”

Table No – 4.11
Opinion of the respondents about “Expectations of the employees were completely met by the organization”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 23 23
Agree 31 31
Neutral 09 09
Disagree 17 17
Strongly disagree 10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 31% of the respondents agree with the statement that the expectations of the employees were completely met by the organization .23% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that the expectations of the employees were completely met by the organization. 17% of the respondents disagree with the statement that the expectations of the employees were not completely met by the organization. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement that the expectations of the employees were not completely met by the organization. 9% of the respondents are Neutral with the statement that the expectations of the employees were completely met by the organization
It is understood that maximum 54% of the respondents agree with the statement that the expectations were completely met by the organization.

Chart No – 4.11
Opinion of the respondents about “Expectations of the employees were completely met by the organization”

Table No – 4.12
Opinion of the respondents about “stress affects personal and professional life”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 30 30
Agree 33 33
Neutral 11 11
Disagree 14 14
Strongly disagree 12 12
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 33% of the respondents agree with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life. 30% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life. 14% of the respondents disagree with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life. 12% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement thatthe stress affects the personal & professional life. 11% of the respondents are Neutral with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life
It is understood that maximum 63% of the respondents agree with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life.

Chart No – 4.12
Opinion of the respondents about “stress affects personal and professional life”

Table No – 4.13
Opinion of the respondents about “recreational activities reduce stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 21 21
Agree 25 25
Neutral 12 12
Disagree 27 27
Strongly disagree 15 15
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 27% of the respondents disagree with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress. 25% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress. 21% of the respondents disagree with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress. 15% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress. 12% of the respondents are Neutral with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress
It is understood that maximum 46% of the respondents agree with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress.

Table No – 4.13
Opinion of the respondents about “recreational activities reduce stress”

Table No – 4.14
Opinion of the respondents about “Experience of stress in job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 33 33
Agree 31 31
Neutral 09 09
Disagree 15 15
Strongly disagree 12 12
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 33% of the respondents agree with the statement that they experienced stress in their job. 31% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that they experienced stress in their job. 15% of the respondents disagree with the statement that they experienced stress in their job. 12% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement that they experienced stress in their job. 9% of the respondents Neutral with the statement that they experienced stress in their job
It is understood that maximum 64% of the respondents agree with the statement that they experienced stress in their job.

Chart No – 4.14
Opinion of the respondents about “Experience of stress in job

Table No – 4.15
Opinion of the respondents about “work environment creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 29 19
Agree 27 17
Neutral 15 15
Disagree 11 21
Strongly disagree 18 28
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 29% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that the work environment creates stress. 27% of the respondents agree with the statement that the work environment creates stress. 18% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement the work environment creates stress. 15% of the respondents are Neutral with the statement that the work environment creates stress 11% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement that the work environment creates stress.

It is understood that maximum 56% of the respondents agree with the statement that the work environment creates stress.

Chart No – 4.15
Opinion of the respondents about “work environment creates stress”

Table No – 4.16
Opinion of the respondents about “social injustice creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 34 34
Agree 32 32
Neutral 07 07
Disagree 11 11
Strongly disagree 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 34% of the respondents strongly agree with the view that the social injustice creates stress. 32% of the respondents agree with the view that that the social injustice creates stress. 16% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view that that the social injustice creates stress. 11% of the respondents disagree with the view that that the social injustice creates stress.7% of the respondents are Neutral with the view that that the social injustice creates stress.

It is found that majority of 64% of the respondents agree with the view that that the social injustice creates stress
Chart No – 4.16
Opinion of the respondents about “social injustice creates stress

Causes of stress
Table No – 4.17
Opinion of the respondents about “heavy work load creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 28 28
Agree 31 31
Neutral 10 10
Disagree 14 14
Strongly disagree 17 17
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 31% of the respondents agree with the view of that heavy work load create stress. 28% of the respondents agree with the view of that heavy work load creates stress. 17% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that heavy work load creates stress. 14% of the respondents disagree with the view of that heavy work load creates stress. 10% of the respondents are Neutral with the view of that heavy work load creates stress.

It is found that majority of 59% of the respondents agree with the view of heavy work load creates stress
Chart No – 4.17
Opinion of the respondents about “heavy work load creates stress”

Table No – 4.18
Opinion of the respondents about “Employer encouragement”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 32 32
Agree 33 33
Neutral 05 05
Disagree 16 16
Strongly disagree 14 14
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 33% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that their employer encourages them. 32% of the respondents agree with the view of that their employer encourages them. 16% of the respondents disagree with the view of that their employer encourages them. 14% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that their employer encourages them. 5% of the respondents are Neutral with the view of that their employer encourages them.

It is found that majority of 65% of the respondents agree with the view of that their employer encourages them
Chart No – 4.18
Opinion of the respondents about “Employer encouragement”

Table No – 4.19
Opinion of the respondents about “family problem creates stress in job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 29 29
Agree 31 31
Neutral 09 09
Disagree 14 14
Strongly disagree 17 17
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 31% of the respondents agree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job. 29% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job. 17% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job. 14% of the respondents disagree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job.9% of the respondents are Neutral with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job.

It is found that majority of 60% of the respondents agree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job.

Chart No – 4.19
Opinion of the respondents about “family problem creates stress in job”

Table No – 4.20
Opinion of the respondents about “financial problem creates stress in job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 35 35
Agree 37 37
Neutral 07 07
Disagree 10 10
Strongly disagree 11 11
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 37% of the respondents agree with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job. 35% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job. 11% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job. 10% of the respondents disagree with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job.7% of the respondents are Neutral with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job.

It is found that majority of 60% of the respondents agree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job.

Chart No – 4.20
Opinion of the respondents about “financial problem creates stress in job”

Table No – 4.21
Opinion of the respondents about “inconvenient work hours”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 34 34
Agree 33 33
Neutral 13 13
Disagree 10 10
Strongly disagree 10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 34% of the respondents strongly agree with the inconvenient Working hours create stress. 33% of the respondents agree with the view of that the inconvenient Working hours create stress. 13% of the respondents Neutral with the view of that the inconvenient working hours create stress 10% of the respondents disagree with the view of that the inconvenient Working hours create stress. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that the inconvenient Working hours create stress.

It is found that majority (67%) of the respondents agree with the view of that the inconvenient Working hours create stress.

Chart No – 4.21
Opinion of the respondents about “inconvenient work hours”

Table No – 4.22
Opinion of the respondents about “improper grievance handling gives stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 32 32
Agree 26 26
Neutral 04 04
Disagree 22 22
Strongly disagree 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 32% of the respondents strongly agree with the improper grievance handling gives stress. 26% of the respondents agree with the view of that improper grievance handling gives stress. 22% of the respondents disagree with the view of that improper grievance handling gives stress. 16% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that improper grievance handling gives stress 4% of the respondents were Neutral with the view of that improper grievance handling gives stress.

It is found that majority of 58% of the respondents agree with the view of that improper grievance handling gives stress.

Chart No – 4.22
Opinion of the respondents about “improper grievance handling gives stress”

Table No – 4.23
Opinion of the respondents about “Employee satisfaction survey”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 30 30
Agree 31 31
Neutral 07 07
Disagree 13 13
Strongly disagree 19 19
Total 100 100
Source: primary data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 31% of the respondents agree with the statement that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization. 30% of the respondents strongly agree with the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization. 19% of the respondents disagree with the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization.13% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization.

It is found that majority of 61% of the respondents agree with the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization
Chart No – 4.23
Opinion of the respondents about “Employee satisfaction survey”

Table No – 4.24
Opinion of the respondents about “organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase productivity”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 29 29
Agree 39 39
Neutral 06 06
Disagree 10 10
Strongly disagree 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 39% of the respondents agree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity. 29% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity. 16% of the respondents disagree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity. 6% of the respondents are Neutral with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity.

It is found that majority of 68% of the respondents agree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity
Chart No – 4.24
Opinion of the respondents about “organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase productivity”

Table No – 4.25
Opinion of the respondents about “physiological problem creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
Strongly agree 38 38
Agree 30 30
Neutral 10 10
Disagree 12 12
Strongly disagree 10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 38% of the respondents agree with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress. 30% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress. 12% of the respondents disagree with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress. 10% of the respondents are neutral with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress
It is found that majority of 68% of the respondents agree with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress.

Chart No – 4.25
Opinion of the respondents about “physiological problem creates stress”

Table No – 4.26
Opinion of the respondents about “less income creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1 Strongly agree 38 38.0
2 Agree 32 32.0
3 Neutral 10 10.0
4 Disagree 11 11.0
5 Strongly disagree 9 9.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above tables reveals that 38% respondents strongly agree the statement that less income creates stress .32% respondents agree the statement that less income creates stress.11 % respondents disagree the statement that less income creates stress.

10 %respondents are expressed Neutral about the statement that less income creates stress and the Remaining 9 % respondents strongly disagree the statement that less income creates stress
It is perceived that maximum 70% respondents agree the statement that less income creates stress.

Chart No – 4.26
Opinion of the respondents about “less income creates stress”

Table No – 4.27
Opinion of the respondents about “healthy and safety working environment”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1 Strongly agree 33 33.0
2 Agree 39 39.0
3 Neutral 11 11.0
4 Disagree 11 11.0
5 Strongly disagree 6 6.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 39% respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety working environment .33%respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety working environment. 11% respondents disagree the statement that healthy and safety working environment .11% respondents are expressed neutral about the statement that healthy and safety working environment .and Remaining 6 respondents disagree the statement that healthy and safety working environment.

It is perceived that maximum 72% respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety working environment.

Chart No – 4.27
Opinion of the respondents about “health and safety working environment”

Table No – 4.28
Opinion of the respondents about “Employees inadequate compensation creates stress”
S.NoParticulars Frequency Percentage
1 Strongly agree 33 33.0
2 Agree 37 37.0
3 Neutral 12 12.0
4 Disagree 10 10.0
5 Strongly disagree 8 8.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 37% respondents agree with the statement that Employee inadequate compensation creates stress.33% respondents are expressed strongly agree with the statement that “Employee inadequate compensation creates stress.12% respondents are expressed neutral with the statement that ” Employee inadequate compensation creates stress., 10% respondents Disagree with the statement that “Employee inadequate compensation creates stress . And Remaining 8% respondents strongly disagree with the statement that “Employee inadequate compensation creates stress.

It is perceived that maximum 70% of the respondents agree with the statement that “Employee inadequate compensation creates stress.

Chart No – 4.28
Opinion of the respondents about “Employees inadequate compensation creates stress”

Table No – 4.29
Opinion of the respondents about “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey”
S.NoParticulars Frequency Percentage
1 Strongly agree 26 26.0
2 Agree 29 29.0
3 Neutral 7 7.0
4 Disagree 20 20.0
5 Strongly disagree 18 18.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 29% respondents agree with the statement that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey.26% respondents are expressed strongly agree the statement that beneficial of employee satisfaction survey. 20% respondents disagree the statements that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey.” 18% respondents strongly disagree the statement that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey and Remaining 7% respondents are expressed neutral the statement that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey
It is perceived that maximum 55% of the respondents agree the statements that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey.

Chart No – 4.29
Opinion of the respondents about “benefits of employee satisfaction survey”

Table No – 4.30
Opinion of the respondents about “panic under stressful situation”
S.NoParticulars Frequency Percentage
1 Strongly agree 26 26.0
2 Agree 29 29.0
3 Neutral 7 7.0
4 Disagree 20 20.0
5 Strongly disagree 18 18.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 29% respondents agree with the statement that “panic under stressful situation.26% respondents are expressed strongly agree the statement that panic under stressful situation. 20% respondents disagree the statements that “panic under stressful situation.” 18% respondents strongly disagree the statement that “panic under stressful situation.” and Remaining 7 respondents are expressed neutral the statement that “panic under stressful situation.

It is perceived that maximum 55% of the respondents agree the statements that “panic under stressful situation.

Chart No – 4.30
Opinion of the respondents about “panic under stressful situation”

Table No – 4.31
Opinion of the respondents about “exercise reduces stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 32 32.0
2 Agree 30 30.0
3 Neutral 13 13.0
4 Disagree 14 14.0
5 Strongly disagree 11 11.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 32% respondents strongly agree the statement that “exercise reduces stress”, 30% respondents are expressed agree the statement that “exercise reduces stress. 14% respondents disagree the statement that exercise reduces stress 13% respondents are expressed neutralthe statement that exercise reduces stress and Remaining 11% respondents strongly disagree the statement that exercise reduces stress.

It is perceived that maximum 62% of the respondents strongly agree the statement that “exercise reduces stress
Chart No – 4.31
Opinion of the respondents about “exercise reduces stress”

Table No – 4.32
Opinion of the respondents about “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 28 28.0
2 Agree 25 25.0
3 Neutral 7 7.0
4 Disagree 19 19.0
5 Strongly disagree 21 21.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 28% respondents strongly agree the statement that “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress” .25% respondents are expressed agree the statement thatsharing the problems with friends reduces stress”. 21% respondents strongly disagree the statement that “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress 19% respondents disagreethe statement that sharingthe problems with friends reduces stress and Remaining 7% respondents neutral the statement that sharing the problems with friends reduces stress
It is perceived that maximum 53% of the respondents agree the statement that “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress”.

Chart No – 4.32
Opinion of the respondents about “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress”

Table No – 4.33
Opinion of the respondents about “absenteeism /leave during stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 4 4.0
2 Agree 2 2.0
3 Neutral 15 15.0
4 Disagree 43 43.0
5 Strongly disagree 36 36.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 43% respondents are disagree with the statement that “absenteeism or taking leave during stress.36% respondents are expressed strongly disagree with the statement absenteeism or taking leave during stress, 15 %respondents are expressed neutral about the statement that absenteeism or taking leave during stress . 4% respondents strongly agreethe statement that absenteeism or taking leave during stress and Remaining 2%respondents strongly disagree the statement that absenteeism or taking leave during stress.

It is perceived that maximum 79% of the respondents disagree with the statement that “absenteeism or taking leave during stress.

Chart No – 4.33
Opinion of the respondents about “absenteeism /leave during stress”

Table No – 4.34
Opinion of the respondents about “listening to music reduces stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 47 47.0
2 Agree 40 40.0
3 Neutral 2 2.0
4 Disagree 6 6.0
5 Strongly disagree 5 5.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 47% respondents strongly agree the statement that “listening to music reduces stress” 40% respondents agree the statement that “listening to music reduces stress 6 % respondents disagree the statement that “listening to music reduces stress 5% respondents strongly disagree the statement that “listening to music reduces stress and Remaining 2% respondents are expressed neutral about the statement that “listening to music reduces stress.

It is perceived that maximum 87% of the respondents agree the statement that “listening to music reduces stress”,
Chart No – 4.34
Opinion of the respondents about “listening to music reduces stress”

Table No – 4.35
Opinion of the respondents about “sleeping helps to reduce stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 8 8.0
2 Agree 10 10.0
3 Neutral 13 13.0
4 Disagree 37 37.0
5 Strongly disagree 32 32.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The table reveals that 37% respondents disagree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress” 32% respondents strongly agree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress. 13% respondents are expressed neutral about the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress 10% respondents agree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress. andRemaining 8% respondents strongly agree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress.

It is perceived that maximum 69% of the respondents disagree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress.

Chart No – 4.35
Opinion of the respondents about “sleeping helps to reduce stress”

Stress Coping Strategies Test
Association between gender of the respondents and their having Stress Coping Strategies
Gender Using Stress Coping Strategies Statistical inference
Yes No Total n % N % N % X2=84.051
Df=1
.000<0.05
Significant
Male 62 100.0% 4 10.5% 66 66.0% Female 0 .0% 34 89.5% 34 34.0% Total 62 100.0% 38 100.0% 100 100.0% Research hypothesis (H0): There is no significant association between gender of the respondents and their having Stress Coping Strategies.

Chi-square test table reveals that there is significant association between gender of the respondents and their having Stress Coping Strategies. The calculated value is less than table value (.000<0.05). The research hypothesis is rejected.

Association between “the satisfaction level of their job” of the respondents and their havingStress Coping Strategies.

Level of Agreed Using Stress Coping Strategies. Statistical inference
Yes No Total n % n % n % Strongly agree 32 51.6% 0 .0% 32 32.0% X2=100.000
Df=4
.000<0.05
Significant
Agree 0 .0% 16 42.1% 16 16.0% Neutral 0 .0% 12 31.6% 12 12.0% Disagree 0 .0% 10 26.3% 10 10.0% Strongly disagree 30 48.4% 0 .0% 30 30.0% Total 62 100.0% 38 100.0% 100 100.0% Research hypothesis (H0): There is no significant association between the satisfaction level of their job of the respondents and their having Stress Coping Strategies.

Chi-square test table reveals that there is significant association between the satisfaction level of their job of the respondents and their having Stress Coping Strategies. The calculated value is less than table value (.000<0.05). The research hypothesis is rejected.

Association between family income of the respondents and their having stress coping strategies
Family income Using stress coping strategies Statistical inference
Yes No Total n % n % n % Rs.10000 to 20000 62 100.0% 6 15.8% 68 68.0% X2=76.780
Df=1
.000<0.05
Significant
Rs.20001 to 30000 0 .0% 18 47.4% 18 18.0% Above Rs.3000 0 .0% 14 36.8% 14 14.0% Total 62 100.0% 38 100.0% 100 100.0% Research hypothesis (H0): There is no significant association between family income of the respondents and their having stress coping strategies.

Chi-square test table reveals that there is significant association between family income of the respondents and their having stress coping strategies. The calculated value is less than table value (.000<0.05). The research hypothesis is rejected.

T-Test
Difference between using stress coping strategies and their opinion about the gender
Opinion of about the gender of stress coping strategies n Mean S.D Statistical inference
Yes 62 4.00 .000 t=1.634 Df=98
0.105>0.05
Not Significant
No 38 3.79 1.018 Research hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference between using stress coping strategies and their opinion about the gender.

‘t’ test table reveals that there is no significant difference between using stress coping strategies and their opinion about the gender. The calculated value is greater than table value (.105>0.05). The research hypothesis is accepted.

Oneway ANOVA difference between family income and their opinion about the service
Opinion Of Respondents About Service Of The Stress Coping Strategies n Mean S.D SS DfMS Statistical inference
Between Groups .247 2 .124 F=0.201
.818>0.05
Not Significant
Rs.10000 to 100000 68 3.79 .407 Rs.100001 to 200000 18 3.89 1.023 Above Rs.200001 14 3.71 1.541 Within Groups 59.753 97 .616 Research hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference between family income and their opinion about the service.

Oneway ANOVA ‘f’ test table reveals that there is no significant difference between family income and their opinion about the service. The calculated value is greater than table value (.818>0.05). The research hypothesis is accepted.

Chapter – V
Findings, Suggestions & Conclusion
5.1 FINDINGS
Summary of findings are.

The study finds Maximum (60%) of the respondents are belongs to the age group of 21-30 years. And maximum (66%) of the respondents are male.

The study finds maximum (78%) of the respondents are married people
The study finds maximum (58%) of the respondents are having educational qualification up to H.S.C
It is concluded that maximum (40%) of the respondents are getting income of Rs 10000-20000 and 68% of the respondents are from production unit.

It is perceived that maximum 48% of the respondents are having 6-10 years work experience. 39% of the respondents are coming from nearby. and Nearly 33% of the respondents are using two-wheeler as mode of transport to reach the company.

The study finds that maximum (32%) of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that ‘Satisfaction with the Job” 16% of the respondents agree with the statement that the expectations were completely met by the organization
The study finds that 63% of the respondents agree with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life. and 46% of the respondents agree with the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress.

The study finds maximum (64%) of the respondents agree with the statement that they experienced stress in their job. And 56% of the respondents agree with the statement that the work environment creates stress.

The study finds that majority of 64% of the respondents agree with the view that that the social injustice creates stress and 59% of the respondents agree with the view of heavy work load creates stress.

The study finds that majority (60%) of the respondents agree with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job. And 67% of the respondents agree with the view of that the inconvenient Working hours create stress.

The study finds that majority of (58%) of the respondents agree with the view of that improper grievance handling gives stress. And 61% of the respondents agree with the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization.

The study finds that majority of 68% of the respondents agree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity and 68% of the respondents agree with the view of that the physiological problem gives stress.

It is perceived that maximum (70%) respondents agree the statement that less income creates stress. And 72% respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety working environment.

It is perceived that 55% of the respondents agree the statements that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey.

It is perceived that maximum (55%) of the respondents agree the statements that “panic under stressful situation. and 32% of the respondents were having headache during stress.

It is perceived that 40% of the respondents have chosen 6 to 7 hours a day. and 62% of the respondents strongly agree the statement that “exercise reduces stress
It is perceived that maximum (53%) of the respondents agree the statement that “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress” And 87% of the respondents agree the statement that “listening to music reduces stress”,
It is perceived that maximum 69% of the respondents disagree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress. 53% of the respondents agree the statement that “sharing the problems with family reduces stress”.

It is perceived that maximum 61% of the respondents agree with the statement that “night shiftgives stress”. And 75% of the respondents agree the statement that “chit-chatting to co-workers reduces stress”
It is perceived that 75% of the respondents agree the statement that “chit-chatting to co-workers reduces stress”
5.2 SUGGESTIONS
Managing stress is all about taking charge: taking charge of your thoughts, your emotions, your schedule, your environment, and the way you deal with problems. The ultimate goal is a balanced life, with time for work, relationships, relaxation, and fun – plus the resilience to hold up under pressure and meet challenges head on. Thus these are some of the suggestions which will help the respondents in future. They are as follows
Recognize warning signs of excessive stress at work
The employees may feel overwhelmed at work, lose confidence and may become irritable or withdrawn. This can make them less productive and less effective in their job, and make the work seem less rewarding.

Therefore the warning signs of work stress are not to be ignored as they can lead to bigger problems.
Interfering with job performance and satisfaction, chronic or intense stress can also lead to physical and emotional health problems.

Reduce job stress by taking care of yourself
When stress at work interferes with the ability to perform, and adversely impacts health, it’s time to take action.

Start by paying attention to physical and emotional health.

The better one feels, the better equipped one will be to manage work stress without becoming overwhelmed.

Get moving
Aerobic exercise activity that raises one’s heart rate and makes you sweat—is a hugely effective way to lift your mood, increase energy, sharpen focus, and relax both the mind and body
For maximum stress relief, try to get at least 30 minutes of heart-pounding activity on most days.

Reduce job stress by prioritizing and organizing
Create a balanced schedule. Analyze the schedule, responsibilities, and daily tasks. Try to find a balance between work and family life, social activities and solitary pursuits, daily responsibilities and downtime.

Avoid scheduling things back-to-back or trying to fit too much into one day. If there is too much on the plate, distinguish between the “should” and the “musts.” Drop tasks that aren’t truly necessary to the bottom of the list or eliminate them entirely.

Plan regular breaks. Make sure to take short breaks throughout the day to take a walk or sit back and clear your mind. Also try to get away from the desk or work station for lunch. Stepping away from work to briefly relax and recharge will help one to be more, not less, productive.

Emotional intelligence in the workplace
Self-awareness – The ability to recognize the emotions and their impact while using gut feelings to guide your decisions.

Self-management – The ability to control the emotions and behavior and adapt to changing circumstances.

Social awareness – The ability to sense, understands, and reacts to other’s emotions and feels comfortable socially.

Relationship management – The ability to inspire, influences, and connects to others and manages conflict.

Reduce job stress by breaking bad habits
As you learn to manage your job stress and improve the work relationships, one will have more control over the ability to think clearly and act appropriately. Which will help to break habits that add to the stress at work – and one will even be able to change negative ways of thinking about things that only add to your stress.

Eliminate self-defeating behaviors
Many of us make job stress worse with negative thoughts and behavior. If one can turn around these self-defeating habits, one will find employer-imposed stress easier to handle.

STRESS COPING STRATEGIES / MECHANISMS
Get enough sleep: Adequate sleep fuels mind, as well as body. Feeling tired will increase stress because it may cause to think irrationally.

Connect with others: Develop a support system and share feelings. Perhaps a friend, family member, teacher, clergy person or counselor can help see problem in a different light. Talking with someone else can help clear the mind of confusion and focus on problem solving.

Exercise regularly: Find at least 30 minutes, three times per week to do something physical. Nothing beats aerobic exercise to dissipate the excess energy. Physical activity plays a key role in reducing and preventing the effects of stress. During times of high stress, choose things you like to do.

Eat a balanced, nutritious diet: Be mindful of what you put in your body. Healthy eating fuels your mind, as well as your body. Take time to eat breakfast in the morning, it will help keep you going throughout the day. Eating several balanced, nutritious meals throughout the day will give you the energy to think rationally and clearly. Well-nourished bodies are better prepared to cope with stress.

Reduce caffeine and sugar: Avoid consuming too much caffeine and sugar. In excessive amounts, the temporary “highs” they provide often end in fatigue or a “crash” later. You’ll feel more relaxed, less jittery or nervous, and you’ll sleep better. In addition, you’ll have more energy, less heartburn and fewer muscle aches.

Don’t self-medicate with alcohol or drugs: While consuming alcohol or drugs may appear to alleviate stress, it is only temporary. When sober, the problems and stress will still be there. Don’t mask the issue at hand; deal with it head on and with a clear mind.

Tips for coping with stress
Take a mental vacation: Take a moment to close your eyes and imagine a place where you feel relaxed and comfortable. Notice all the details of your chosen place, including pleasant sounds, smells and the temperature. Or change your mental “channel” by reading a good book or playing relaxing music to create a sense of peace and tranquility.

Take a warm bath or shower: Wash the stress away and give yourself some time by yourself to reflect and quiet the mind. Soaking in the bathtub can make you feel like you are a world away from your reality.

Use aromatherapy: Originating in ancient China, aromatherapy is based on the healing properties of plants; from which concentrated aromatic oils are extracted. The vapors of these “essential oils” are then inhaled and carried via the blood stream, which controls the release of hormones and emotions.

Keep a journal: One strategy that many people have found effective in coping with stress is keeping a journal, sometimes referred as a “stress diary writing thoughts down have a marvelous way of putting problems into perspective. Putting your worries into words may help you see that you don’t really have that much to worry about, or it may help you get organized and manage your stress, rather than letting it manage you.

Care for a pet: Petting an animal can help reduce stress and lower blood pressure.

STEPS TO RELIEVE STRESS AT WORK
Here are some tips that will help you achieve success over stress. You can reduce stress on the job.

When making phone calls, as you pick up the phone and dial, take three slow deep breaths. Concentrate on pushing tension out of your lungs as you exhale.

Sit down to eat. (Do not eat while standing or driving in your car) Focus on relaxing and enjoyable talk at lunchtime. If co-workers only insist on rehashing all of the negative stuff at work, insist on eating alone.

When you drive your car to your business or your job, listen to something enjoyable or motivating.

On the way to home from your business or your job, listen to enjoyable or relaxing music.

Take a few minutes each day to thank God, in whatever form is consistent with your belief system, for the glorious sunrise. At sunset, do the same. If you are at work while the sun is setting, take a quick break to watch the sun set and again, thank your concept of “God” for the glorious sunset.

Take a few minutes at work to think of people who may have harmed you in any way. Breathe deeply, relax, and push out all of the tension surrounding those thoughts. Fill your ear and your lungs with forgiveness for the person or persons who have harmed you. Wish for them the same success and happiness you wish for yourself.

Live today as if it where your last day. Make your last day, your best day.

CONCLUSION
In this difficult economy, many of us are finding it harder than ever to cope with stress in the workplace. Regardless of occupation, seniority, or salary level, we are spending more and more of our work days feeling frazzled and out of control, instead of alert and relaxed.

While some stress is a normal part of the workplace, excessive stress can interfere with your productivity and reduce your physical and emotional health. From this research the researcher found out that there is stress in the organization, but the stress doesn’t over rule them. This is good result for a healthy organization. Since this branch was started shortly, the respondents are not facing more stress. Before stress over rules the employees, it is better to take precautionary measures to manage the stress. Hence finding ways to manage workplace stress is not about making huge changes to every aspect of work life or rethinking career ambitions. Rather, stress management requires focus on the one thing that’s always with in one’s control that is “The individual employee”.

Since job and workplace stress increase in times of economic crisis, it is important to learn new and better ways of coping with the pressure. Emotions are contagious, and stress has an impact on the quality of interactions with others. The better an employee is at managing stress, the more he/she will positively affect those around him/her, and the less other people’s stress will negatively affect employees. Thus there are a variety of steps which any organization can resort to, to reduce both overall stress levels and the stress which employees face on the job and in the workplace.

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