THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING
Background of the Study
With the global boom of tourism, an increasing number of destinations worldwide made tourism a key driver of socio-economic progress through the creation of jobs and enterprises, export revenues, and infrastructure development. Until today, many small tourism entrepreneurs, seem to be swamped with the changes on the demand side which is characterized by a hybrid tourists whose behavior is completely diversified and who brings along travel experiences from all over the world, especially millennials (Blasco, 2016). In India, the country’s tourism has been facing the problem of not getting the expected number of foreign tourists, particularly the millennial sectors, despite extensive marketing efforts. India has not been sending the correct signals to travel enthusiasts across the globe and is regarded less highly than it deserves to be by the outside world (Baloglu, 2017). The image it portraits is that of mysticism, political instability, grinding poverty, illiteracy, terrorism, unemployment, communal discord, lack of social services, and corruption (Sarkar, 2014).
In the Philippines, the country is known for having its most popular tourist destinations, including some popular resorts, but often accessibility of the destination is the problem such as the availability of transportation is scarce and very expensive, thus most of the time it create discouragement among tourists, particularly the millennial sectors who loves to travel. The country’s rich historical and cultural heritage is also one of the attractions of the Philippines but often risky because law enforcement is not present in those sites. While most parts of the country’s archipelago are relatively safe to visit, certain areas have been at large are best avoided such as the far-southern region is widely known as a no-go zone for tourists, which also offers beautiful beach resorts (Calderon, 2013).
No recent research study was conducted to closely investigate the millennial travel motivation, particularly among inland resorts in Davao City, prompting the researchers to propose this study. It is for this reason that the researchers sensed an urgency to conduct study in order to determine the millennial travel motivation among inland resorts in Davao City.
Statement of the Problem
This research study will be conducted to determine the level of travel motivation towards inland resorts in Davao City. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the level of millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City in terms of:
1.1 Status and prestige,
1.3 Interpersonal, and
2. Is there a significant difference in the level of millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City when analyzed by profile?
The null hypothesis will be tested at 0.05 level of significant stating that:
Ho: There is no significant difference in the level of millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City when analyzed by profile.
Review of Related Literature
Presented in this section are the related literature which are relevant in the present study taken from various sources such as books, magazines, newspapers, journal and the internet.
Travel motivations of tourists are the factors to make people wishing to go travel. They want to have personal fulfillment. Crompton (2014) discovered that most tourists also thought that travel is like a rest and relaxation from routine. However, it did not represent changing their way of lives, people just continue to do the similar things but in a distinct surroundings and physical context. It was also indicated that travel can provide for self-exploration, excitement or social interaction, and they are motivated to travel because of shopping, business, visiting friends and relatives and experiencing other cultures.
Moreover, tourists would not learn all the things by their routines or from television and books. It is better for them to get experiences by themselves, because of unedited by anyone else. Afterwards travel can make a marked difference with routines, and it will provide exciting, uncommon or strange things to tourist. Furthermore, the high-tech world increases social lives. For example, people will go to the movies, shopping malls or concerts with friends and colleagues. Different gender, age, social class, retirement, unemployment, social relationships, characters and socialization can affect the decision-making of tourism (Argyle, 2016).
On the other hand, Wahab (2013) established several travel purposes, they include business tourism, health tourism, cultural tourism, sport tourism and recreational tourism. It can be easy to understand that what people generally travel for. The major reasons of travel are freedom and entertainment which can be defined as pleasure travel. Tourists expect and believe that going on a vacation can partly or fully different needs and wants.
Similarly, Ryan (2013) stated some types of motivation and they are determinants of people who go travelling. Tourist motivations include escape, relaxation, strengthening family togetherness, wish and self-fulfillment, prestige, shopping, social interaction and sexual opportunity. In addition, tourists are also motivated to travel by other factors. For instant, television can attract people to travel in new destinations and experience different cultures.
Similarly, tourists hope to experience various cultures and meet new people over the world because of the curiosity. It is the primary motivation of all visitors. Basically, they tend to pay for the accommodation and recreation by credit cards. Additionally, well-educated can increase and stimulate people to go on a vacations, because education excite the curiosity of people. They hope to widen and enrich knowledge as well (Hudman ; Hawkins, 2014).
According to Argyle (2016), motivation is also about different behaviour of everyone. The people, who like to travel around, are also divided into two categories. Some of them prefer having quite journey. Those people want to get away from the workplace since they always have a stressful lifestyle. They prefer to go to a new place for relaxing and forgetting all pressures. On the contrary, others wish to seek adventure, but it does not mean standing same pace of workday life. This kind of tourists’ motivation can be defined as “getting away from” instead of “going towards” somebody and something.
Moreover, Krippendorf (2012) stated that going away everyday environment is more important than the interest of visiting new people and regions. It is also important to look at surface factors for understanding the travel reasons of tourists. Tourists are subject to certain behaviour before, during and after travelling. This is conceptualized as travel behaviour. This behaviour is the direct result of interaction between certain personal and environmental variables on a continuous basis. Notice is given to the influence of people and situations on both sides and the reaction according to this influence.
Travel motivation can therefore be defined as the way tourists behave according to their attitudes towards a certain product and their response by making use of the product (March & Woodside, 2015). March and Woodside (2015) state that specific decisions embraces one or more of the behavioural intentions based on the need to behave in a certain way according to highly defined situations. In order to predict travel motivation it is important to understand how individual characteristics of a person interact with the characteristics of the situation, therefore understanding the positive and negative evaluative factors influencing destination choices of the tourists (Holloway, 2014).
According to George (2014) as well as March and Woodside (2015) travel motivations can be considered as one of the most important psychological influences of tourist behaviour. Motivations are the inner state of a person, or certain needs and wants of a person, which forces them to act or behave in a specific way and thus sustaining human behaviour and energy levels of the human body (Decrop, 2016). Maslow’s theory is one of the most frequent used to explain the premise of motivation. Maslow uses five sets of goals which are also referred to as basic needs: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem and self-actualization (Tikkanen, 2017).
Saayman (2016) explained that tourists may need to escape, relax, to gain relief of physical-and mental tension and for typical sunlust reasons. Crompton (2016) identified seven socio-psychological factors which motivate a tourist to travel: escape from an everyday environment, discovery and evaluation of oneself, relaxing or participation in recreational activities, gaining a certain level of prestige, for the purpose of regression, strengthening family ties and facilitating their level of social interaction. It is important to understand and have adequate knowledge about the motivations influencing the travel behaviour of tourists, for they have a direct impact on the decisions tourists make (George, 2014).
Tourism is a people dependent industry and competitiveness brings about sustainability of a destination. Visitor attractions are natural locations or features, objects, or man-made constructions that have a special appeal to tourists and local residents. In many destinations, specific attractions are performing a motivating role, and are major pull factors for tourists in their destination choice (Burns et al, 2013). In fact, they are arguably the most important component in the tourism system. They are the main motivators for tourist trips and are the core of the tourism product. Without attractions there would be no need for other tourism services, thus tourism as such would not exist if it were not for attractions (Swarbrooke, 2012).
The United Nations World Tourism Organization White Paper (2011) proposes five priority areas to concentrate its work regarding increasing competitiveness and ensuring sustainability of local tourism destinations. These include areas of tourism sustainability, market trends and forecasting, destination management and marketing, quality, safety and security.
Crouch (2011) suggests that tourism destinations need to develop maintain, protect and strengthen their competitive positions at a global level. Therefore determining the destination competitive advantages of local tourism destinations are vital for it is sustainability (Caruana, 2010). The purpose of the development of a sustainable model as a competitive tourism destination is to develop economic growth, job creation, destination appeal and sustainability. Visitor attractions are a vital component of developing destinations, which is a major component that attracts tourists (Spreng ; Mackoy, 2006).
Similarly, destination competitiveness models developed on an international level by Ritchie and Crouch (2013) focuses on the destinations development of tourism, which must be sustainable, focus on long term prosperity, industry level, attributes, mainstreams and tourism destination attractiveness. In Dwyer and Kim’s integrative model (2013), comparative advantage refers to a destination’s natural endowment in factors of production, the resources that make the destination attractive. The two models developed also demonstrate best practice on a global platform in the international market. The use of a competitiveness model will assist with long-term marketing strategies; increase tourist volumes to the city, increase spending power, which would create economic prosperity, job creation, to ensure that all tourism resources are adequately marketed.
On the other hand, Crouch (2011) states that tourism destination needs to develop, maintain, protect and strengthen their competitive positions at a global level therefore determining a destinations competitive advantages is vital for it is sustainability. He focuses on the attributes of competitiveness. A place attributes would be its natural, man-made attractions and its mixture of cultures. It should have adequate resources and attractions to draw local and international tourists. Durban can gain competitive advantage by marketing its rich mixture of cultures, have more hallmark iconic events, water-based and sporting and leisure recreation events, activities experiences.
Status and Prestige Motivator. The status and prestige motivators are identified with the needs of personal esteem and personal developments. Surely, these are related to travel for business or professional interests, or for the purpose of education or the pursuit of hobbies. It can be fruitfully spent if an international tourist is willing to spend an extra bit more at the prominent tourist centers. To enjoy the traditional food, rejuvenation massages and other health packages in its purest form is a costly affair due to the skyrocketing labor costs and also the increasing scarcity of the necessary raw materials in a state where its people are now increasingly discarding their traditional lifestyles to assimilate anything (McIntosh ; Goeldner, 2009).
Apart from the above principal motivating forces, there are other derivate factors also behind the growing significance of high status tourism. For the professionals in the higher echelons of the big multinationals holidaying in the prominent costly resorts are the norm and not the exception. The government is also giving much emphasis to high value tourism and is going the extra mile to attract such high-spending tourists (Allen, 2013).
For the management professionals holidaying or unwinding in the high cost resorts and hotels is a matter of prestige. Many a time the destinations they choose may be the ones in which they must have stopped over for a day or two during their business stopover as part of their routine work. Travelling businessmen do not mind spending any amount of money to avail world class luxuries. Some prestige travelers show more interest in staying in the traditional palaces and other historical monuments that have been turned into hotels and resorts (Conwell, 2013).
Physical motivator. Any activity that is designed to bring about a motivation in a person to do better. Examples of physical motivators include climbing, running, hiking, amongst others. This category of tourism motivations is the aftermath of increasing industrialization, growing urbanization, pressures, pushes and pulls of modern life (McIntosh ; Goeldner, 2013).
To overcome these, one necessitates rest and relaxation, undergoing enlivenment of mind and body every so often. The nature and the design in which relaxation, recreation or pleasure is sought vary with the individual. Relaxation and refreshment to some degree, whatever the form of holiday, are the predominant motivations of the holiday maker looking for escape from the pressures of everyday life (Krippendorf, 2012).
Hunt (2015) and Scott et al. (2016) showed that destination image formation is determined partly by distance from the destination, because people are more likely to have visited the destinations near their homes and to have been exposed to information about them through the media and from friends and relatives. They concluded that people are likely to have stronger and more realistic images of a destination if it is near their home.
George (2011) states that attractions play a key role in tourism and hospitality destinations and that they entice the visitors to the destination. He mention of primary attractions, which are those, that are in themselves sufficient to induce the tourist to visit the destination and secondary attractions which are not important enough to convince them, but which can serve as a complementary feature. Historical sights, archeological sites, architecture, cuisine, monuments, industrial sites, museums, concerts, ethnic, and theatre are examples. Landscapes, seascapes, parks, mountains, flora, fauna, coasts and islands are examples of natural attractions. Mega-events, community events, festivals, religious events, sports events, trade shows and corporate events are examples of events. Major sporting events like the World Cup Cricket and advanced sporting facilities boosts the attraction base.
Lockwood and Medlik (2012) stated that visitor attractions have a competitive impact in the tourism sector as the inherited and core resources of a destination are the contributing factors of destination appeal and are the foundation for a successful tourism industry. In order for local tourism destination to be a competitive destination, it should offer safe, affordable and efficient transportation in term of road, rail, sea and air transportation.
In addition, Connell and Page (2013) states that visitors to attractions are now seeking good quality facilities at competitive prices, greater interaction seeking integration of technology and high touch exhibits with a greater degree of social interaction whist visiting attractions. In addition, Yeoman (2012) stated that tourists by the year 2030 will desire eco-stress free experiences; enjoy new experiences, culture and authenticity.
However, Ham ; Weile (2012) discusses that tours should vary widely in terms of duration of tour, length of stay, location, type of attraction, transportation, terrain and clientele. As a destination withy many man-made and natural attractions, there needs to be deployment of these attractions. Chen and Uysal (2012) further propose that important resources at the destination should be identified and positioned according to that of the competitors which would be vital for long-term success. Place with man-made local destination needs to ensure that it is a value for money destination. Tourism officials must ensure exposure of the tourism destination using various distribution channels to create awareness.
Destinations visitor attractions are a key factor to drawing tourists to an area. These factors influence the exciting a memorable destination experience. The physiography of a destination such as man-made structures, landscape, scenery and climate factors are contributing factors of visitor attractions. The physiography of a destination endows a destination with competitive appeal or creates barriers. The cultural and historical factors of a destination furnish intellectual satisfaction from visitors. Culture is a powerful dimension of attractiveness. The traditions and history of a destination tend to have greater drawing power for visitors outside the destination. High quality distinctive meals are a powerful element. Visitors visiting a destination participate in activities and leave with vibrant memories. Quality of uniqueness is an essential factor to heighten destination appeal. Events add to the core attractiveness of a tourism destination (Bowen et. al, 2013).
Keyser (2013) states that a man-made local destination can be described as “a defined spatial area made up of a mix of tourism resources, created facilities and support services and infrastructure, that are managed, marketed and consumed under a single brand identity.” Moreover, he stated that competitive advantage is “the ability of a destination to provide satisfactory visitor experiences, while simultaneously maintaining and expanding the standards of living of its population.”
Interpersonal motivator. A person’s need for pleasure of the kind mentioned is very deep-rooted and “travel has the unique quality of being able to satisfy this desire. While pleasure and romance (associated with the holiday) are primary attributes of the holiday travel experience, they are also very strong motivators”. Professional and business concerns also prove to be a strong motivation for many to travel, often combining both the business activities and pleasure (McIntosh & Goelder, 2009).
Moreover, the basic motive for such a travel is personal development, enhancement of standing and status, and setting up and strengthening of contacts. Conventions, conferences and professional/business meetings allure people from their respective lines of work and walks of life atone forum to interact and/or transact with each other. This group includes a desire to meet new people, visit friends or relatives, and to seek new and different experiences. Travel is an escape from routine relationships with friends or neighbors or the home environment or it is used for spiritual reasons (Nicholls, 2014).
Cultural Motivator. People are motivated by curiosity about other people, countries and their culture i.e., an urge to seek new experiences. “The increased interest shown by many in art, architecture, music, literature, dance, folklore, sports and pastimes of other people’s culture or in archaeological or historical remains and monuments is but another aspect of curiosity, which has been stimulated by more education” (McIntosh & Goeldner, 2014).
Moreover, cultural attractions have become particularly important and play an important role in tourism at all levels. They are also increasingly being placed at the centre of urban and rural development and constitute an important aspect of social and cultural lives of the residents. Cultural tourism is defined as ‘visits by persons from outside the host community motivated wholly or in part by interest in the historical, artistic, scientific or lifestyle/heritage offerings of a community, region, group or institution. The main purpose of this research is to identify and understand the general dimensions of motivation for attending cultural tourism (Dann, 2011).
In addition, cultural tourism is motivated by tourists’ interest in historical, artistic, scientific or heritage offering by a community, region, group or institution. It can be considered an independent segment of the tourism industry as well as a complement to mainstream tourism, in connection with other forms of attraction. In this sense, local communities and national organizations all over the world have developed particular cultural and heritage tourism products that attract increase the number of tourist visits each year (Cetinel & Yohal, 2013).
On the other hand, every country also has their own local culture. There are 12 cultural elements such as: handicrafts, language, traditions, gastronomy, art and music, history, local work, architecture, religion educational system, dress and leisure activities. All of them can enable tourists to experience more about the local culture of the travel destinations (Mathieson & Wall, 2012). It is usually the main reason of a visitor travelling in a country (McKercher & duCriss, 2013). Tourists can have a good opportunity to deeply understand the local culture through the. For example, they can go to heritage attractions, try the local food and attend the local festival celebration during the journey (Swarbrooke & Horner, 214).
An example of cultural motivation is the Mid-Autumn Festival in Hong Kong annually. This festival represents togetherness and harmony of each family and people eat moon-cakes with their families together (Yip, 2016). On the other hand, some tourists prefer to visit in a place which has similar cultural background (Tse, 2017). Tourists can communicate with the hosts easily because the language is slightly different or no discrepancy (Reisinger, 2013). For example, mainland Chinese frequently go travelling in Hong Kong. The cultural distance between this kind of visitors and the hosts is little or even there is not (Law et al, 2016).
This study will be anchored on the proposition of McIntosh and Goeldner (2009) stated that there were four kinds of motivators for basic or local travel. They included status and prestige, physical, interpersonal and cultural motivators. Firstly, status and prestige motivators are about the need for fame. Besides, people think that travel can secure admiration and recognition among their peers and friends. Secondly, physical motivators concern with health. Tourists may participate in sports event and take some recreation, and these actions are the motivators of keeping one’s health. Getting treatment, medical care and attending weight loss camp are related to remedial health motivators. Next, people want to make new friends, leave or visit friends and family, they are also defined as interpersonal motivators. Lastly, cultural motivators describe tourists have ardent curiosity and want to experience other cultures and lifestyle.
Moreover, this study is supported by Maslow’s theory of Needs Heirarchy which used hierarchy to illustrate human needs as stimulators. There are 5 level hierarchy, including self-actualization, esteem, belonging, security and physiological needs. Subsequently, he added cognitive and aesthetic needs. However, it is not very clear to show that how these two needs fit into the former hierarchy. Human will not be motivated if the lowest needs, which is physiological needs, are satisfied. Next, they will be motivated by following needs, the security needs.
Figure 1: The Conceptual Framework Showing the
Variables of the Study.
Significance of the Study
The valuable output of the study is beneficial to the following concerns:
Inland Resort Managers / Operators. Findings from this study can be used by inland resort managers / operators as baseline data to formulate effective marketing strategies, particularly on how to encourage millennials to travel and patronize their resorts.
Millennials. Data and information from this study may increase the knowledge of millennials on the different factors or motivators why they travel and patronize a specific resort.
Hospitality Education Students. This study will increase the knowledge of Hospitality Education students on the different travel motivators, particularly millennials, thus they could benefit from this knowledge which they can apply as future hoteliers, restaurateurs, or managers of hospitality and tourism related business establishments.
Future Researchers. Data and information from this study can be used as baseline data and reference for future studies and research, specifically about travel motivation.
Presented in this chapter are the discussions on the research design, the procedure in conducting and identifying the respondents, the instrument used and the statistical tools employed.
The researchers will make use of quantitative research using descriptive method. According to Hall (2010), the descriptive method of research design helps researchers plan and carry out descriptive studies, designed to provide rich descriptive details about people, places and other phenomena. This type of research is often associated with anthropology, sociology and psychology, but researchers in other fields, use it. The descriptive method often involves extensive observation and note-taking, as well as in-depth narrative. Moreover, the survey signifies the gathering of data regarding which are useful in providing facts the present conditions and focusing attention on the most important things to be reported. In this view, the descriptive survey method will be an appropriate research design that will be employed for the study will try to determine the millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City.
The respondents of this study will be randomly selected millennial customers of inland resorts in Davao City using Raosoft method. The researchers will use purposive sampling in which only millennial customers of resorts in Davao City will be selected as research respondents in the study. The researchers will use purposive sampling method. Babbie (2001) stated that purposive sampling as also commonly called a judgmental sample, is one that is selected based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study wherein the subjects are selected because of some characteristics.
The researchers will utilize an adapted survey questionnaire that will be downloaded from the internet and modified to fit into the study. During the formulation and modification of the survey questionnaires, researchers will be assisted by their research adviser. The survey questionnaire will undergo content validation from experts / faculty members from the College of Hospitality Education of the University of Mindanao.
The survey questionnaire will be divided into two (2) parts. The first part will cover the demographic profile of the respondents, while the second part will be questions pertaining to the millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City.
In evaluating the responses of the respondents, the following scale will be used:
Numerical Equivalent Range of Means Descriptive Rating Interpretation
5 4.20 – 5.00 Strongly Agree This means that the item mentioned very highly motivate millennials to travel and patronize an inland resort in Davao City.
4 3.40 – 4.19 Agree This means that the item mentioned highly motivate millennials to travel and patronize an inland resort in Davao City.
2.30 – 3.39 Moderately Agree This means that the item mentioned moderately motivate millennials to travel and patronize an inland resort in Davao City.
2 1.80 – 2.29 Disagree This means that the item mentioned less motivate millennials to travel and patronize an inland resort in Davao City.
1 1.00 – 1.79 Strongly Disagree This means that the item mentioned does not motivate millennials to travel and patronize an inland resort in Davao City.
Data Gathering Procedures
The following steps will be followed by the researchers in the conduct of the study:
Asking Permission to Conduct the Study. The researchers will ask permission, through a formal letter duly noted by their thesis adviser, to the Dean of College of Hospitality Education, to conduct the study. Another letter will be sent to the managers of selected inland resorts in Davao City, also asking permission to conduct study through distribution of survey questionnaire to selected millennial customers.
Administration of Research Instrument. After getting the necessary permissions, the researchers will distribute the researcher-made questionnaires to their selected respondents.
Retrieval, Collation and Tabulation of Data. The researchers will retrieve the survey questionnaires, collate and tabulate all the data that will be subjected to statistical analysis with the guidance of the school statistician. Then the results will be analyzed and interpreted based on the statement of the problem of the study.
Statistical Treatment of the Data
The following statistical tools will be used in the computation of data testing the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance.
Frequency. This will be used to determine the actual number of the respondents based on their demographic profile.
Percentage. This will be used to determine the ratio of the respondents based on their demographic profile in percentage form.
Average Weighted Mean (Mean). This will be used in determining the level of millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City.
T-test. This will be used in determining the significant difference I the level of millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City when analyzed by sex.
ANOVA This will be used in determining the significant difference I the level of millennial travel motivation towards an inland resort in Davao City when analyzed by age and educational attainment.
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MILLENNIAL TRAVEL MOTIVATION TOWARDS INLAND RESORTS
IN DAVAO CITY
This questionnaire is intended for the purpose of gathering information regarding the research entitled: “MILLENNIAL TRAVEL MOTIVATION TOWARDS INLAND RESORTS IN DAVAO CITY” The researchers would like to request sincerely to complete answering this questionnaire and do not leave any items unanswered. Rest assured that your name and responses will be dealt with utmost confidentiality. Your participation in this study is very highly appreciated.
Thank you very much
1. Please provide the needed information by filling in the blanks and by simply checking the box of your answer.
2. Please be guided by the following scale and its corresponding descriptive equivalent.
Numerical Value Descriptive Equivalent Descriptive Interpretation
5 Always Completely agreed with the
4 Often Very much agreed with the
3 Sometimes Somehow agreed with the
2 Seldom Opposed to the stated idea
1 Never Completely opposed to the
I. TRAVEL MOTIVATION
A. Status and Prestige Motivator
As a millennial traveller, I visit an inland resort because… 5 4 3 2 1
1. it increases my self-esteem / self-confidence.
2. I may become popular because I travelled to different inland resorts.
3. people will perceive me that I belong to high social status.
4. people’s perception on me that I have much money to spend on travelling to inland resorts.
5. the feeling of self-fulfillment.
B. Physical Motivator
As a millennial traveller, I visit an inland resort because…
1. the place is very accessible by any mode of transportation.
2. it relieves me from daily stresses.
3. it physically rejuvenates or energizes me.
4. I can fully relax with the beautiful places I see.
5. visiting local places is healthy and therapeutic.
C. Interpersonal Motivator
As a millennial traveller, I visit an inland resort because…
1. I can bond with family.
2. it strengthens my relationship with my loved ones.
3. I can gain many friends.
4. I can interact with local people.
5. I can meet people from other culture.
D. Cultural Motivator
As a millennial traveller, I visit an inland resort because…
1. I am encouraged to know the culture of different people.
2. I become sensitive to deal with diverse culture.
3. I want to immerse myself with the culture, practices and beliefs of people from other places.
4. I want to build cultural harmony with the local people.
5. I want to learn more about people’s culture and traditions.