Site Loader

Chapter 1
1. Introduction

1.1 Overview
The world runs on water. Water connects every aspect of life. Clean, reliable water supplies are vital for industries, agriculture, and energy production. Every community and ecosystem on the Earth depends on water for survival.
Yet the world’s water systems face formidable threats. More than a billion people are currently living in water-scarce regions, and as many as 3.5 billion could experience water scarcity by 2025 (Bouw, 2016). 844 million people are living without access to safe water, countries such as Yemen, Syria, Jordan and more are suffering from extreme water scarcity. According to the Water Resource Institute, “increasing pollution degrades freshwater and coastal aquatic ecosystems. And climate change is poised to shift precipitation patterns and speed glacial melt, altering water supplies and intensifying floods and drought.” (Kazmi, 2016)
Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of people around the world, an alarming figure that is projected to increase with the rise of global temperatures as a result of climate change. Although 2.1 billion people have gained access to improved water sanitation since 1990, dwindling supplies of safe drinking water is a major problem impacting every continent (United Nations Development Programme, 2015). In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress – 10 of which are close to depleting their supply of renewable freshwater and must now rely on alternative sources. Increasing drought and desertification is already worsening these trends. By 2050, it is projected that at least one in four people will be affected by recurring water shortages. Ensuring universal access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030 requires investment in adequate infrastructure, provide sanitation facilities, and encourage hygiene at every level. (United Nations Development Programme, 2015). Protecting and restoring water-related ecosystems such as forests, mountains, wetlands and rivers is essential if to mitigate water scarcity. More international cooperation is also needed to encourage water efficiency and support treatment technologies in developing countries. (United Nations Development Programme, 2015)
Access to water and sanitation is crucial due to its vital impacts on health, time, dignity and economic losses. Every year, 580,000 children die worldwide as a result of diarrhea from waterborne diseases (UNICEF Data: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women, 2018). In Africa, 40 billion working hours a year are spent collecting clean drinking water (UNICEF, 2014) . Women and girls are significantly affected by lack of access to water and sanitation services (UNICEF, 2013). Due to inadequate sanitation, India loses US$53.8 billion each year resulting from decreased working productivity and increased health costs (Pain, 2016). Access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation is a basic human right. Yet, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) concerns are of great magnitude as indicated by over 748 million people (over 90th in rural areas) are without the improved supply of drinking water and even 2.5 billion people (70% in rural areas) are without adequate access to improved sanitation, and of these 1 billion people still resort to open defecation (Progress on drinking water and sanitation 2014 update, 2014). The majority of this burden falls upon people who reside in developing countries (Lenton, 2005). Consequently, the United Nations (UN) has declared access to water and sanitation is a necessary human right people and communities could also be unable to take care of good health and meeting their development goals without access. WASH efforts within the developing countries are often balkanized and not sufficiently integrated to make sure sustainable WASH services (Montgomery, 2007). There can be totally different strategies like strengthening water resource management and inter-sectoral approaches (education, health, and nutrition) to make sure access to safe water and improved sanitation depending on the country and its social desires. the various methods could have impacts on reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of the population that lacks access to improved water and sanitation by 2015 (UN, 2000). However, efforts to providing safe water and sanitation on a global basis are difficult. There are several gaps or challenges that are known in providing improved water and sanitation. One of the challenges has been urbanization and water scarcity, which mostly takes place in developing countries (Montgomery, 2007). Fast urban growth in developing countries is seriously outstripping the capability of most cities to produce adequate water and sanitation services to their citizens (Cohen, 2006) Water use has risen dramatically in the past 50 years as a result of population growth, urbanization and demands of irrigation for agriculture purpose (Moe, 2006). Another gap that has been known is that the impact of sustainability of community water supply and sanitation programs, that most of the time is threatened by various attitudinal, institutional, infrastructure and economic factors. Several water and sanitation programs in developing countries have not been sustainable due to such factors as financial cost, no ownership feeling from the communities on the water and sanitation infrastructures, lack of community attitudinal and behavior towards hygiene education and lack of community participation (Cohen, 2006). Alternative challenges associated with WASH services embody lack of investment in community-based and small-scale approaches (Bartram, 2005), lack of reliable information (critical gap in monitoring system), weak country capacity to implement plans, insufficient funding and therefore the most recent gap has been focused on disparities in access to water and sanitation across global and regional (WHO/UNICEF, 2014) Undoubtedly, WASH is each complicated and rising environmental and public health concern faced by communities in developing countries, including Indonesia.
Indonesia contains about 21 per cent of the total water resources in the Asia-Pacific, equal to about six per cent of the world’s total. It is not a water-scarce country, but poor water management, limited infrastructure and rapid economic development has driven scarcity in parts of the country. Java, where almost 60 per cent of the population lives, has less than ten per cent of the country’s water. Kalimantan, on the other hand, has six per cent of the population and 30 per cent of the water. Due to Indonesia’s physical geography it is not possible to redistribute water from areas of abundance to areas of scarcity.
In India, during 2012, 87.8 per cent households had access to improved supply of drinking water: 86.9 per cent households in rural and 90.1 per cent households in urban areas had access to improved supply of drinking water. The target of halving the proportion of households without access to safe drinking water sources from its 1990 level to be reached by 2015 was thus already achieved in rural areas and was possible to be achieved in urban areas. Per capita availability declined from 2,209 cubic meters in 1991 to 1,820 in 2001 and 1,545 in 2011. Trends indicate that India can move into water stressed state by 2025, once the per capita availability will further decline to 1,341 cubic meters. (India and Sustainble Development Goals : The Way Forward, 2016). For access to and availability of water and sanitation for all, India is estimated to want a total of INR 13 hundred thousand crores (USD 199 billion) till 2030.
India- Indonesia shares two millennia of close relations, be it cultural, economical, political etc. India-Indonesia relations have a rich past, and are looking to zoom into a rich future, bristling with possibilities. Co-founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), India and Indonesia have imparted a contemporary strategic dimension to their multi-faceted relationship. From President Sukarno gracing the first Republic Day celebrations of 1950 to India hosting Indonesia’s then President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as Chief Guest at the Republic Day celebrations in 2011, the India-Indonesia partnership in the 21st century is acquiring new layers and depth.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

1.2 Purpose of the Study
The dissertation attempts to explore the feasibility of partnership between the countries; India and Indonesia through lens of Sustainable Development Goal 6 ie. Clean water. Access clean water and improved sanitation is a major health and environmental issue, thus affecting about half of population (especially women and children), and leading to poor health, disability, and death.
The Indonesian Government aims to ensure universal access to sanitation and water by 2019. In 2015, 32.3 million Indonesians, approximately 13 per cent of the population, failed to have access to clean water sources. Whereas the situation has improved compared to a decade ago, progress is not occurring at a rate fast enough to recommend that the whole population will have access by 2019. In the long, the situation is unlikely to be considerably different and by mid – 21st century Indonesia is likely to suffer from high water stress.
India might soon also move to a water-stressed state despite being home to the perennial Himalayan and peninsular rivers. Increasing demand across various sectors and a speedily changing climate has exacerbated the problem. Serious efforts are required for water management that can facilitate alleviate the consequences of climate change.
India – Indonesia shares two millennia of close relations, be it cultural, economical, political etc. India-Indonesia relations have a rich past, and want to zoom into a rich future, bristling with possibilities. Co-founders and fellow-travelers of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), India and Indonesia have imparted a contemporary strategic dimension to their multi-faceted relationship. From President Sukarno gracing the first Republic Day celebrations of 1950 to India hosting Indonesia’s then President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as Chief Guest at the Republic Day celebrations in 2011, the India-Indonesia partnership in the 21st century is getting new layers and depth.

?
Chapter 2
2. Literature Review

2.1 Brief Concept
The concept of improved drinking water and sanitation as essential to health is not a novel idea. The traditional environmental health already focused on sanitation issues including clean water, sewage and waste management (Dannenberg, 2011). The global definition of improved water and sanitation has been clearly made and described under the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (WHO/UNICEF, 2014). These two institutions joined together to establish the JMP, initiating in the year of 2000 with the goals of monitoring global water and sanitation coverage as well as tracking progress towards water and sanitation targets set under MDG 7. The JMP has defined “improved water “sources as facilities that are protected from environmental contamination, especially fecal contamination such as piped water into a dwelling, plot or yard, protected well or spring and rainwater collection.

The JMP’s classification for both improved and unimproved source of drinking water is presented in Table 1 below –
Source: (An Analysis of Access to Improved Drinking Water and Sanitation and Distance to the Water Source in a Newly Independent Country, Timor-Leste: Assessing Geographical and Socioeconomic Disparities, 2015)

2.2 Global Trends of Access to Improved Water and Sanitation System
Global figures that describe the lack of water and sanitation services are alarming. More than 748 million people, mostly in developing countries, lack access to safe water sources within a reasonable distance of their home (WHO/UNICEF, 2014). Lack of sanitation is an even larger issue; an estimated 41% of the world’s population (2.5 billion individuals) is without improved sanitation. According to the most recent progress report by the JMP, global coverage rate for improved drinking water source has increased from 76% in 1990 to 89% in 2012. This illustrates that almost 1.6 billion people now get water through a piped connection and 700 million accesses to water through other improved sources such as public taps, protected wells and boreholes. Similarly, the global coverage for sanitation has risen from 49% to 64% from 1990 to 2012. However, there are 2.5 billion people who still do not have access to basic sanitation including flush toilets and covered latrines. Despite this accomplishment, there are many countries, especially low – and middle income countries showing little or no improvement in access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation (WHO/UNICEF, 2014). These current rates of improvement suggest the MDG goal particularly set for water and sanitation system will not be likely to be achieved by 2015 in some of those developing countries (Clasen, 2012)

2.3 Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries
In many low- and middle-income countries, water and sanitation services are still severely lacking. An estimate shows that access to improved water sources ranges from 56% in sub-Saharan Africa to about 70% in Asia to almost universal access in high-income countries (UNICEF, 2014). In terms of sanitation, access to improved sanitation is estimated to range from about 80% in South America to only about 30% in sub-Saharan Africa (Institute, 2009). With respect to developing countries in Asia and Oceania regions, even though access to water supply and sanitation has been steadily improving over the past two decades, the 10 regions still lag behind some other developing regions. In Southeastern Asia, the coverage rate for access to improved drinking water gained from piped on to premises has increased from 17% in 1990 to 30 % in 2012, access to improved sanitation has risen from 47% to 71% from 1990 to 2012 (WHO/UNICEF, 2014). Conversely, in Oceania countries, the coverage of improved drinking water source gained from piped on to premises has declined from 27% in 1990 to 25% in 2012, whereas the sanitation coverage has remained the same at 35% from 1990 to 2012 (WHO/UNICEF, 2014). As a result of these measures, it seems that some countries in Asia and Oceania region are unlikely to meet the MDGs of halving the share of the population without access to safe drinking water and sanitation between 1990 and 2015. There are, however, large disparities among countries in low- and middle-income status and between the urban and rural areas within the regions.

2.4 Overview of Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
Improving global access to clean drinking water and adequate sanitation is one of the least expensive and most effective means to enhance public health and save lives (International Vaccine Access Center, 2014). In 2000, 189 world nations came together through the UN Millennium Summit to develop and adopt a global action plan in order to address the worldwide issues affecting development such as poverty, disease, food security and human rights (UN, 2000). One of the goals has been to reduce the number of people without access to improved water and sanitation system. There are 8 goals set under the MDGs to be achieved by those nations: 1) eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; 2) achieve universal primary education; 3) promote gender equality and empower women; 4) reduce child mortality; 5) improve maternal health; 6) combat Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), malaria and other diseases; 7) ensure environmental sustainability; and 8) develop a Global Partnership for Development (UN, 2000). Under each goal, there are specific targets and quantifiable indicators used to measure progress. Under the scope of environmental sustainability (MDG 7), a target has been set to halve the proportion of people without access to improved sources of drinking water and basic sanitation by the year 2015 (UN, 2000). This specific target has been measured by two important indicators: 1) the number of the world’s population using an improved drinking water source; and 2) the number of the world’s population using an improved sanitation facility. Accordingly, (Clasen, 2012) points out that in 2012 the UN made an important announcement that the goal of reducing half the proportion of people without access to improved drinking water had been achieved; yet the achievement or progress for improved sanitation system was not indicated. Building upon the MDGs, a new process has been put in place after the Rio+20 Conference in order to effectively measure the indicators post 2015 development agenda (UN, The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2014) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are the new development framework that will provide opportunity for global leaders and populations to work toward an end to poverty and to transform the world to better meet human needs and the necessities of economic transformation, while protecting our environment, ensuring peace and realizing human rights (UN, The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2014). Under this approach, ensuring availability and sustainable use of water and sanitation for all has been listed as one of the proposed SDGs to be attained by 2030. With respect to WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) issue, the goals have been set under proposed goal number 6. The goals include achievement of universal access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030; and achievement of adequate sanitation and hygiene for all, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls (UN, The Millennium Development Goals Report, 2014).

2.5 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015 were a milestone for aligning not only developing countries but also developed ones on the path of sustainable development (United Nations, 2015). The SDGs have set the 2030 agenda to transform the world by ensuring, simultaneously, human well?being, economic prosperity, and environmental protection. Comprising of 17 goals and 169 targets, SDGs aim at tackling multiple and complex challenges faced by humankind. Accordingly, they are implicitly interdependent and it may happen that conflicting interactions among the SDGs may result in diverging results (Nilsson, 2016)
1) End poverty in all its forms everywhere 2) End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture 3) Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages 4) Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all 5) Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls 6) Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 7) Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all 8) Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all 9) Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation 10) Reduce inequality within and among countries 11) Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable 12) Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns 13) Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts {taking note of agreements made by the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) forum} 14) Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development 15) Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification and halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss 16) Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels 17) Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development.

2.6 Sustainable Development Goal 6 – Clean Water
The Sustainable Development Goal 6 is summarized in this sentence: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. Water and sanitation are at the very core of sustainable development, critical to the survival of people and the planet. Goal 6 not only addresses the issues relating to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, but also the quality and sustainability of water resources worldwide. (Secretary-General, 2016)

Holistic management of the water cycle means taking into account the level of “water stress”, calculated as the ratio of total fresh water withdrawn by all major sectors to the total renewable fresh water resources in a particular country or region. Currently, water stress affects more than 2 billion people around the world, a figure that is projected to rise. Already, water stress affects countries on every continent and hinders the sustainability of natural resources, as well as economic and social development. In 2011, 41 countries experienced water stress, an increase from 36 countries in 1998. Of those, 10 countries, on the Arabian Peninsula, in Central Asia and in Northern Africa, withdrew more than 100 per cent of their renewable fresh water resources. (Secretary-General, Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, 2016)

Integrated water resources management, one of the follow-up actions to the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg Plan of Implementation), aims to address this urgent situation. In 2012, 65 per cent of the 130 countries that responded to a survey question on integrated water resources management reported that management plans were in place at the national level. (Secretary-General, Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, 2016)

Effective water and sanitation management also depends on the participation of stakeholders. According to a 2013-2014 Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water survey, 83 per cent of the 94 countries surveyed reported that procedures for stakeholder participation were clearly defined in law or policy. In the Sustainable Development Goals, the focus is being refined to also include the participation of local communities, which will be captured in the next cycle of Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water monitoring. (Secretary-General, Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals, 2016)

The Report of the Secretary-General “Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals” says:

“Access to safe water and sanitation and sound management of freshwater ecosystems are essential to human health and to environmental sustainability and economic prosperity.”

Targets set by SDG 6 are:

1. By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all;

2. By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations;

3. By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally;

4. By 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity;

5. By 2030, implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through trans-boundary cooperation as appropriate;

6. By 2020, protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes.

In addition:

A) By 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water- and sanitation-related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies;

B) Support and strengthen the participation of local communities in improving water and sanitation management.

2.6.1 India
Sustainable Development Goal 6, clean water and sanitation is at the very core of sustainable development, critical to the survival of people and the planet. The issues of health and wellness are closely related to adequate water supply and functional sanitation systems. This Goal addresses not only the issues related to drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene but also the quality and sustainability of water resources worldwide.
India having one-sixth of the world’s population, place equal access to essential health, clean water, and sanitation services in top priority. In October 2014 Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) was launched by the Prime Minister of India under the Flagship scheme of the Government of India.
Clean drinking water – 76% Indian habitations have full coverage, i.e. these habitations get more than 40 liters per capita per day. However, some habitations in India have water quality issues and the two most critical water quality issues are arsenic and fluoride contaminations. Piped water supply coverage in India is over 50% and in public spots. The objective is to have piped water supply in 90% of habitations by 2022 including 80% household coverage. Today household connections are only 15% so it is an ambitious target to attain. Major issues which confront here are groundwater and source sustainability. The efforts to achieve SDGs are catalyzing the process of accelerating India’s determination towards being water secure, clean and a healthy nation. (Soni, 2018)

2.6.2 Indonesia
Although Indonesia’s water resources account for almost 6 percent of the world’s water or 21 percent of the Asia-Pacific region’s total water resources, the country faces a worsening crisis over access to clean water for its 266.7 million people. While per-capita Gross National Product has increased dramatically over the past two decades, development of safe water hasn’t kept up. More than 27 million citizens lack safe water and 51 million lack adequate sanitation facilities according to the World Health Organization in 2016. (Rakhmat, 2018)
In 2013, the proportion of households with access to safe drinking water is 67.7% while those with access to basic sanitation facilities only 60.9%. Therefore, 100 million people still have no access to drinking water and 120 million have no access to proper sanitation. (Tampubolon, 2015). Indonesia is a tropical country with sufficient water, but not always at the right place and time or of the right quality. Around 70% of the available water is on the islands of Kalimantan and Papua, which are populated by only 13% of the total population. On Java and Bali, however, water demand exceeds supply. During the MDG period (2000-2015), Indonesia successfully reduced the proportion of people lacking access to a safe water sources by more than half. (Cronin, 2017).

2.7 SDG Target 6.5
In 2015, the United Nations (UN) adopted 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 6.5, which calls for the implementation of integrated water resource management at all levels including through trans-boundary cooperation as appropriate by 2030.
In 2016, the UN began the task of identifying the metrics to monitor the implementation of SDG 6.5. Almost 50 percent of the world’s land surface (excluding Antarctica) is within a trans-boundary river basin. Major population centres are dependent on shared waters for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Water is central to sustainable development, making trans-boundary cooperation on water a core aspect of the SDGs. (McCracken, 2017).
Therefore, this dissertation attempts to explore the feasibility of partnership between the countries; India and Indonesia, for Clean Water through the lens of Sustainable Development Goal 6 ie. Clean Water.

?
Chapter 3
India – Indonesia Relations

From President Sukarno gracing the first Republic Day celebrations of 1950 to India hosting Indonesia’s then President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as Chief Guest at the Republic Day celebrations in 2011, the India-Indonesia partnership in the 21st century is getting new layers and depth.
India and Indonesia have been friends since two millennia. Both countries have lot common in culture, economy and politics. The countries have a rich past and are now bristling with new possibilities, with the changing dynamics in Asia as well as in the world, these two countries are now looking to develop their exchanges and cooperation further and bring their relations to a new level. After second world war, India and Indonesia were one of first countries to declare their independence and were also the co-founders of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) under the guidance of the then India’s Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Indonesia’s President Sukarno. From President Sukarno gracing the first Republic Day celebrations of 1950 to India hosting Indonesia’s then President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono as Chief Guest at the Republic Day celebrations in 2011, the India-Indonesia partnership in the 21st century is getting new layers and depth.
In fact, the religious and cultural traditions from India have has a deep influence on Indonesia: Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam all came to Indonesia from India. But the relationship between India and Indonesia goes deeper into cultural, economic and political ties: they are both democratic and youthful countries. Within the new order of regional development, both countries are now looking forward to build upon their old heritage and renew their ties through diplomacy, people-to-people contact. They also want to build upon connectivity and social media to build friendship in a new, modern environment.

Key facts on India-Indonesia trade
• Indonesia is India’s second largest trading partner in ASEAN
• Bilateral trade between India and Indonesia stands at 20 billion USD in 2015
• India is the largest buyer of crude palm oil from Indonesia

Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Indonesian President Joko Widodo – both leaders were elected to their respective positions in 2014 and they have pledged to improve infrastructure, overcome bureaucratic hurdles, combat corruption and fight against the terrorism. Indonesia has been member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and India is member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). Nonetheless, both countries have often expressed ambitions to “transcend” their respective regions with Indonesia sometimes seeking to look beyond “ASEAN centrality” through strengthening its “middle power” diplomacy. Meanwhile, India, through its “Look East”/ “Act East” policy, has sought to escape the shackles of South Asia’s limited economic integration (Bajpaee, 2016).

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Chloe

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out
x

Hi!
I'm Ted!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out