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Abstract:
Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) terms related to this argument include smart grid, distribution system of the future, and etc. Functionally, a smart grid would be able to offer new abilities such as self-healing, high reliability, energy management, and real-time valuing. From a design view, a smart grid will expected incorporate new technologies such as advanced metering, automation, communication, distributed generation, and distributed storage. This paper discussed the prospective impact that issues related to smart grid will have on the distribution system.

Introduction:
The Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) is growing as is the impact on electric utility distribution networks. While DERs are increasing renewable energy with their gathering of benefits, there are many concerns utilities need challenge to assure successful management of a diverse and distributed energy fusion. The guide covers the technical capabilities of distributed energy resources (DERs) which are electric car, demand response, distributed generation and storage. Figure 1 is shown that the type of each resource and technologies with own advantages as to generate power to consumer.

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Research on Governmental/Organizational Support or Restriction
a) The investigation about distribution energy resource on smart grid is compatible with requirements of electric system grid operators and electric utility firms while helping the loads and needs of electricity customers. The research is organized as shown below:
1. Advanced Sensing Modelling and Short Term Control in the Distribution Grid
• Multi objective smart inverter control with micro-sychrophasor data
• FEXLAB Pilot test facility
• VirGIL (Virtual Grid Integration Lab)
• Contact: Emma Stewart, [email protected]

2. Microgrid Supervisory Control and Resource Coordination
• DER-CAM (Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model)
• Microgrid Design Tools
• Microgrid controller depliyment
• Contact: Michael Stadler, [email protected]

3. Vehicle-to-Grid Integration and Demand Response
• EV as storage and vehicle to grid integration
• EV smart charging and DR
• Automated DR technologies, tools, and standards (OpenADR)
• Contact: Doug Black, [email protected]

4. Electric Vehicle(EV) Modelling and Simulation
• Powertrain Modelling (not only EVs)
• V2GSim
• MyGreencar
• Contact: SamvegSaxena, [email protected]

b) Distributed Energy Resources Impact to the Distribution System Reliability under Restrictions Load Transfer.
The integration of distribution systems which is the power intermittent sources are wind and solar can increase significantly the complexity of system operation. Therefore, an interesting procedure to correctly determine the total of capacity that may be moved to other feeders is presented, taken into consideration the presence of distributed generation. The results bring general understandings regarding the benefits of applying distributed generation to ease load transfer restrictions.

Study On the Setup Cost, Operating Cost and Maintenance Cost
Generally, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is identify reliable and reasonable ways for utilities and grid operators to take benefit of the new ways electricity is produced, distributed, and used.
EPRI is taking on that addition research into the costs and benefits of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) to the systems which are:
1. The Integrated Grid: Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Power Resources.
Purpose: To enable utility customers to have the same technology choices from their electric suppliers as they are in other areas of their lives.
2. The Integrated Grid; Benefit-Cost Framework
Purpose: Focuses on how “the comunity will benefit from all the individual customer choices”.
More flexible conventional fleet, based on the EPRI’s paper, could:
• Address differences with more competently managing turndown and start times
• Increase the suitability of resources and flexibility by reducing the inadequacy of probability of capacity and loss of load.
• Reduces the challenge of steady frequency and voltage just by having more online generations
Getting these advantages will require capital investment and operating costs. Dealing with operating costs is more straightforward. Receiving more flexibility services from conventional plants will increase parts replacement and labour maintenance costs, costs for increased labour and training of operators, and increased policy compliance costs, and etc.
Strength and Weaknesses of Impact of Distributed Energy on Smart Grid
It is estimated that billions of ringgit will be saved thanks to demand response that provide measurable, persistent savings and require no human involvement or behaviour change. That changes dramatically reduced need to build more power plants and transmission lines will help too.
A smart grid is expects, detects and responds to problems quickly reduces wide area blackouts to leadership near zero. The Smart Grid success center is the ability to safely and easily accommodate a wide variety of generation, from massive centralized plants to small solar panels and everything in between. All thing in between refer to the growing roster of distributed energy resources which include:

• Distributed generation (DG) – small, widely
dispersed plants, generally in close
proximity to energy loads

• Renewable energy – wind, solar, etc.

• Energy storage – in essence, giant
batteries and capacitors.

• Demand response (DR) – decreasing
demand instead of increasing supply in
response to peak loads

• Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)
When we use smart grid, we will automatically have positive impact on the environment as well as climate change. Additionaly, electric car produces less carbon monoxide and harmful substances compared to regular car. Energy produces from smart grid also can be renewed like solar and wind. We are reducing our carbon footprint and claiming a global environmental claim.
The price of energy will increase. However, future cost increases will be much smarter after the smart grid. Smart grid technology, tools and techniques will also provide customers with new options for managing our own electricity consumption and controlling our own utility bill. Smart grid will be more resistant to natural disasters and attack. It will move us toward energy independence from outside energy sources, which themselves may be targets for attack, outside of our protection and control.
However, the smart grid also has few challenges to build and maintain, for an example is new infrastructure to communicate in both directions. For the time being, the electricity prices is still cheap compared to build a full system of smart grid. The return of investment may take a few years.
To buy a new electric vehicle also may have problems. The system that generates power for the electric vehicle is not fully develop to wide area in the world. Next is security concerns, it may have possibilities to have physical or cyber-attack since the smart grid development is still new in this country.

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