A Study on health and nutrition knowledge and practices among primary students in Hpa-An
(A case study of two primary schools in urban and rural area)
“Health is inextricable linked to educational achievements, quality of life, and economic productivity. By acquiring health-related knowledge, values, skills, and practices, children can be empowered to pursue a healthy life and to work as agents of change for the health of their communities.” (Promoting health through schools, WHO 1997)
Education and health
Education and health are basic objectives of development; they are important ends in themselves. Health is central to well-being, and education is essential for a satisfying and rewarding life; both are fundamental to the broader notion of expanded human capabilities that lie at the heart of the meaning of development. At the same time, education plays a key role in the ability of a developing country to absorb modern technology and to develop the capacity for self-sustaining growth and development. Moreover, health is a prerequisite for increases in productivity, and successful education relies on adequate health as well. Thus, both health and education can also be seen as vital components of growth and development—as inputs to the aggregate production function. Their dual role as both inputs and outputs gives health and education their central importance in economic development.
(Economic Development, 12th Edition, Todaro, P-382)
The connection between a child’s health and education is a powerful one. Just as health exerts a powerful impact on the ability to learn, so too is regular attendance in school one of the essential means of improving health. The school itself – through its culture, organization, and management; the quality of its physical and social environment; its curricula and teaching and learning methods; and the manner in which students’ progress is assessed – has a direct effect on self-esteem, educational achievement, and therefore the health of its students and staff. Thus schools are effective as health-promoting environments only to the extent that they are healthy as organizations. Moreover, when they are effective health-promoting organizations, they are in a position to enable students and staff to achieve, to acquire the tools and resources with which to do so, and to mediate among the various institutions and social structures that can contribute to the effort.
However, the school cannot affect health through the curriculum alone, or through the combination of curriculum and environment. The services available at or through the school – physical health services, prevention programmes, psychological health services, nutritional and food safety services, social services, physical education, and others – are the third partner in advancing health and education. Providing such services, as well as enlisting general support for and reinforcement of school health programmes, of necessity involves collaboration with families, other institutions, and other community members. (Promoting health through schools, WHO 1997)
Education produces far-reaching benefits to populations by improving health, increasing individual productivity and earnings, enhancing civic engagement, and facilitating economic and social intergenerational mobility (Hannum and Xie 2016; Montenegro and Patrinos 2014; OECD 2013c; Schultz 1961). (2018-04-gpe-optimizing-educational-outcomes)
Effectiveness of the intervention through schools
Moreover, the most important fact is that schools are a cost-effective platform for providing simple, safe, and effective health interventions to school-age children and adolescents (Horton and others 2017). Many of the health conditions that are most prevalent among poor students have important effects on education causing absenteeism, leading to grade repetition or drop out, and adversely affecting student achievement- and yet are easily preventable or treatable. With gains in enrollment achieved by the Millennium Development Goals, SHN interventions are important cross-sectoral collaborations between Ministries of Health and Education to promote health, cognition, and physical growth across the life course.
The education system is particularly well situated to promoting health among children and adolescents in poor communities without effective health systems who otherwise might not receive health interventions. There are typically more schools than health facilities in all income settings, and rural and poor areas are significantly more likely to have schools than health centers. (2018-04-gpe-optimizing-educational-outcomes)
School health programmes that coordinate the delivery of education and health services and promote a healthy environment could become one of the most efficient means available for almost every nation in the world to improve significantly the well-being of its people. Consequently, such programmes could become a critical means of improving the condition of humankind globally. However, school health programmes are underdeveloped in practically every nation. Scare resources – money, time, qualified professionals, public and political will, supplies – plagues school health programmes world-wide.
(Promoting health through schools, WHO, 1997)
Study on Outcomes of Nutrition Knowledge and Healthy Food Choices (P-263-277)
Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing 16 (2011) 263-279
This study was done by Hatice Baskale and Zuhal Bahar, Dokuz Eylul University, School of Nursing, Inciralti, Izmir, Turkey. The purpose of the study is to develop nutrition education for preschool children based on Piaget’s theory and to examine the effects of this education on children’s nutritional knowledge, nutritional behaviors, and anthropometric measurement. Pre- and post-experimental design was used. In experimental schools, nutrition education was given. Children’s nutritional knowledge, food consumption frequencies, and anthropometric measurements were evaluated. 2 schools each from the three socioeconomic levels and then randomized to intervention and control. Children included in the study were 5 years of age. The children in the control group had not received nutrition education except a general program of education prescribed by the Ministry of National Education preschool. Data were collected over the period February 2007 to June 2008. Some of socio-demographic characteristics of the families and children in the experimental and control groups in this research were tested for homogeneity to confirm for being no difference. The children in the experimental group were given a 6-week nutrition education program based on Piaget’s theory. The results of this analysis established that there was a significant difference on nutritional knowledge in the experimental group between pre-test and post-tests. For the food consumption frequency, there was a significant increase in consumption of healthy food and significant decrease in sugar and fat consumption. On conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of nutrition education program for students.
Impact of health education on the knowledge and practice regarding personal hygiene among primary school children
(IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS)
e-ISSN: 2279-0853, p-ISSN: 2279-0861. Volume 13, Issue 4 Ver. VII. (Apr.2014), P-86-89
This study was conducted by Ashutosh Shrestha and Mubashir Angolkar from J.N. Medical College, KLE University, Belgaum, India. The objective of this study is to assess the change on knowledge and practice regarding personal hygiene among primary school children after educational interventions. Pre- and post-test study design was done. The students in grade 3rd, 4th and 5th were selected from a primary school by using simple random sampling. Base line study was done in February 2013 and end line survey was done in September 2013. Health education that included variables of personal hygiene, hand hygiene, oral hygiene and basic sanitation was given once a week for six weeks. The results showed that the knowledge on personal hygiene and its constituent variables significantly increased after health education intervention and it is statistically significant. The practice of personal hygiene and related factors significantly increased after health education intervention and it was also statistically significant. It can be concluded that the change in behavior of school children was possible if the health education intervention is properly implemented to the children.
Effect of Physical Education and Activity Levels on Academic Achievement in Children
American College of Sports Medicine
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp-1515-1519, 2006
This study was done by Dawn Podulka Coe, James M. Pivarnik, Christopher J. Womack, Mathew J. Reeves and Robert M. Malina from Departments of Kinesiology and Epidemiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI; and Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX. This study was conducted to determine the effect of physical education class enrollment and physical activity on academic achievement in middle school children. 214 sixth-grade students were randomly selected and assigned to physical education during either first or second semesters. Moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (number of 30-minutes time blocks) outside of schools was assessed using 3-d physical activity recall (3DPAR). The 3DPAR time blocks were converted to ordinal data with scores of 1 (no activity), 2 (some activity), or 3 (activity meting Healthy People 2010 guidelines). Academic achievement was assessed using grades from four core academic classes and standardized test scores. Grades were similar regardless of whether students were enrolled in physical education during first or second semesters. Physical education classes averaged only 19 min of MVPA. Students who either performed some or met Healthy People 2010 guidelines for vigorous activity had significantly higher grades (P