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2673985952500The University Of Sheffield.

THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD
DEPARTMENT OF JOURNALISM STUDIES
“Hate Speech and Fake News on Social Media in India and United Kingdom”
A comparative analysis of news coverage in “The Times of India” and “The Daily Telegraph”
Module: JNL6100
Registration No 170133959
Supervisor: Dr. Irini KatsireaMaster of Arts in International Political Communication
Monday 3rd September 2018
Statement of Originality
This is to certify that to the best of my knowledge; the content of this dissertation is my own work. This dissertation has not been submitted for any degree or other purposes. I certify that the intellectual content of this dissertation is the product of my own work and that all the assistance received in preparing this dissertation and sources have been acknowledged.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Acknowledgments
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of Tables

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Defination of Hate Speech
2.1.2 Hate Speech on Social Media and India
2.1.3 Online Hate Speech and United Kingdom
2.2 Fake News in general
2.2.1 Fake News on Social Media and India
2.2.2 Fake News on Social Media and United
2.3 Conclusion
Chapter 3: Methodology
3.1 Research Design
3.1.1 Quantitative Content Analysis
3.1.2 Critical Discourse Analysis
3.2 Mode of procedure
3.2.1 Selection of newspapers and articles
3,2.2 Coding frameworks
3.2.2.1 QCA
A) News Sources
B) Tone of Stories
3.2.2.2 CDA
A) Lexical choices
3.3 Measures to enhance trustworthiness
3.3.1 Credibility
3.3.2 Reliability and Validity
3.4 Limitations
Chapter 4: Findings

Acknowledgment
Though the following dissertation is an individual piece of work, I could not have explored the depths without the help, guidance, support and guidance of a lot of people.
First of all, I owe my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Dr Irini Katisrea for her intellectual guidance, valuable advices and feedback that provided me with a crucual framework to help conceptualise my ideas. The thesis would not have been successfully written without her continous supervision and optimism. It was a great experience to work under her supervision.
My special gratitude goes to Professor Hemant Madhav Kaushik, Senior Journalist and Senior Faculty from India Today Media Institute, for taking out time from his busy schedule and providing me with all relevant assistance and suggestions, to complete this study. I would like to thank him for the continous encouragement and generous advice he provided me from India, throughout the research and the Master’s degree.
A big thank you to all the academic staff of Department of Journalism Studies, University of Sheffield for sharing their knowledge and providing valuable assistance throughout the year.
A special mention and thank you to Ms.Priyanka Gupta, my another mentor from India Today Media Institute, who expressed her happiness and encouraged me to pursue this Master’s degree.
I would also like to specially extend my appreciation towards my friend and classmate Jason Chung for helping in clearing out some of the basic formation of the dissertation content structure. I would also like to thank my flatmates specially Tayma Bartam to help me survive the stress in the last few weeks before the submission.
Last but not the least, I would like to express my biggest appreciation to my parents and brother and my friend cum sister Debarati Roy, who have been a constant emotional and moral support throughout the academic year.
INTRODUCTION
Over the years, social media platforms have rapidly grown into a sphere which provide users with dynamic ways to interact, create and share in read/write web culture as well as which encourages participation. However, the rapid development of the Internet and social media platforms not only intensifies the communication between users but also created a so called “post-truth era”. In this era, fake news has become a much-used and much-hyped term, which has been responsible for fuelling propaganda and “hate speech” and violence ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/0924051917738685”, “ISBN” : “0924051917738”, “ISSN” : “22147357”, “abstract” : “u2018u2018Fake newsu2019u2019 has become a much-used and much-hyped term in the so-called u2018u2018post-truthu2019u2019 era that we now live in. It is also much-maligned: it is often blamed for having a disruptive impact on the outcomes of elections and referenda and for skewing democratic public debate, with the 2016 US Presidential elections and Brexit referendum often cited as examples. u2018u2018Fake newsu2019u2019 has also been flagged for fuelling propaganda and u2018u2018hate speechu2019u2019 and even violence. u2018u2018Pizzagateu2019u2019 is an infamous example of exceptional circumstances in which a false news story had a central role in a shooting incident. In December 2016, a man in Washington D.C. took it upon himself to u2018u2018self-investigateu2019u2019 a story (a completely unfounded conspiracy theory) that the Hillary Clinton campaign team was running a paedophile ring from the premises of a pizzeria. Shots were fired and he was arrested and charged with assault and related offences.1 Given all this bad press, it is perhaps little wonder that u2018u2018fake newsu2019u2019 has become a major preoccupation for international organisations, national law- and policy-makers, the media and media actors, civil society and academia. But what exactly is u2018u2018fake newsu2019u2019 and what is all the fuss about? In addressing these questions, this column will also consider historical and contem- porary perspectives on the term and its relationship with human rights.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “McGonagle”, “given” : “Tarlach”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “203-209”, “title” : “u201cFake newsu201d: False fears or real concerns?”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “35” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=70425c16-233a-495d-ab47-c7043e07f69e” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(McGonagle, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(McGonagle, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(McGonagle, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(McGonagle, 2017) Whereas hate speech discourses can lead to demystification of socio-political actors during critical events in addition to creating an overall confusion among citizens that may result in their political disengagement. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789231001055”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gagliardone”, “given” : “Iginio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gal”, “given” : “Danit”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alves”, “given” : “Thiago”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Martinez”, “given” : “Gabriela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher-place” : “Sweden”, “title” : “Countering Online Hate Speech”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fef5641a-d7fe-479a-9ccd-1cb094d873cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gagliardone <i>et al.</i>, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gagliardone et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gagliardone <i>et al.</i>, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gagliardone et al., 2015).
To understand the relation between hate speech and fake news as well as their impact, the study draws on the media of India and United Kingdom as the research object. In both India and UK, there are no specific laws or a regulatory body to monitor the content on online space, which points towards the uncontrollable rise in spreading of hate speech and fake news on social media platforms. But in terms of media coverage of both these issues in India and UK, numerous instances that happen as a consequence of the aforementioned issues are reported through deep-reported investigative journalism. This suggests that media coverage of “hate speech and fake news taking place on social media” can prove to be highly impactful on the readers, considering the fact that millions of individuals are on social media today.
While this dissertation pays attention to these issues, the main research questions are more concerned with how these stories are covered when they manage to break through into the mainstream press. Mass media is believed to have a major influence on the reader’s awareness and understanding of issues. According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “McCombs”, “given” : “Maxwell E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shaw”, “given” : “Donald L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Public Opinion Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1972” }, “page” : “176-187”, “title” : “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “36” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5bdc4201-2d8e-4d35-914f-0ef5511131ac” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(McCombs and Shaw, 1972)”, “manualFormatting” : “McCombs and Shaw’s (1972)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(McCombs and Shaw, 1972)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(McCombs and Shaw, 1972)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }McCombs and Shaw’s (1972) theory of agenda setting, “mass media sets the political agenda, influencing which topics occupy public awareness by determining how much coverage those issues receive, and where that coverage is situated”.

Though the two elements of social media have been addressed by the scholars in general in the academic literature from general to a specific level, the newspaper coverage of these dimensions remain an area that has not been explored in the past.
As a result, this study aimed to outline the following research questions:
How differently Indian and UK newspapers cover stories on “fake news and hate speech on social media”?
What ideological differences are manifested through language use of Indian and UK newspapers?
To address to these questions, a sample of articles were required to be scrutinised in considerable detail by using Quantitative Content Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis. In this study, the researcher examined one year of India and UK newspaper’s reporting on issues of online hate speech and fake news. The study analysed and compared the extent and nature of the coverage given to different aspects of the issues in India’s “The Times of India” and UK’s “The Daily Telegraph”.
This project was chosen by the researcher due to the events seen by the researcher in home-country India, which were cause specially by the spreading of hate speech and fake news. And since the events received a lot of media coverage in India, it served to inspire the researcher to do a comparative study between the news coverage of these issues in India and UK.
The researcher anticipated that this study is the first quantitative content analysis and critical discourse analysis of both India and UK newspapers coverage of “hate speech and fake news on social media”.
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction:
With the advent of Internet, there has been a growth of new media including social networking sites which has not only transformed the communication process into an interactive dialogue but also the way information is being shared across the globe.
Social network like Facebook, Twitter and other virtual communities offer new ways to engage and build stronger relationships.

Social networking sites are becoming one of the most vital tools of computer mediated communication ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Govindarajan”, “given” : “Greeshma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ravindar”, “given” : “Nanditha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Global Media Journal u2013 Indian Edition”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-2”, “title” : “Freedom of expression on social media: myth or reality”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a531c3e8-124b-41f1-9b08-80fdc60aef8f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016), which offers individuals the right of freedom of expression and exchange information and ideas ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Arun”, “given” : “Chinmayi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nayak”, “given” : “Nakul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-33”, “title” : “Preliminary Findings on Online Hate Speech and the Law in India”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7641” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=12c926ed-b0ad-4422-ac12-1cf41945ee82” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Arun and Nayak, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Arun and Nayak, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Arun and Nayak, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Arun and Nayak, 2016). However, this digital means of self-expression has tilted towards the “dark side” of the new media as a platform of convenient means of spreading hate speech and promoting fake news ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1932-8036”, “abstract” : “Exploring the cases of India and Ethiopia, this article develops the concept of ” extreme speech ” to critically analyze the cultures of vitriolic exchange on Internet-enabled media. While online abuse is largely understood as ” hate speech, ” we make two interventions to problematize the presuppositions of this widely invoked concept. First, extreme speech emphasizes the need to contextualize online debate with an attention to user practices and particular histories of speech cultures. Second, related to context, is the ambiguity of online vitriol, which defies a simple antonymous conception of hate speech versus acceptable speech. The article advances this analysis using the approach of ” comparative practice, ” which, we suggest, complicates the discourse of Internet ” risk ” increasingly invoked to legitimate online speech restrictions. The recent electoral victories for conservative groups with aggressive online presence have brought the political stakes of digital speech into sharp public focus, unsettling euphoric pronouncements on new media as a radical enabler of citizen participation and open society. Whether online Islamist radicalization or hate messages on social media during the 2016 refugee crisis, current developments have reinvigorated political debates on the limits of free speech online. The discourse on digital technologies has tilted toward the ” dark side ” of new media as a platform for promoting hate speech, fake news, right-wing nationalist mobilization, terrorism, misogyny, and intergroup conflict (Lovink, 2013; Morozov, 2012). Such negative forms of online speech, it is argued, threaten many of the taken-for-granted freedoms commonly associated with digital media cultures around the world. The discourse of online speech as a form of ” risk ” and ” threat ” is also used increasingly by governments to rhetorically legitimize securitization and control over their citizens’ communicative practices (Amoore & Goede, 2008).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pohjonen”, “given” : “Matti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Communication”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “312827”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1173-1191”, “title” : “Extreme Speech Online: An Anthropological Critique of Hate Speech Debates”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=526068ae-3a86-4867-93c6-553c2419a4e0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pohjonen, 2017).
With the proliferation of social media, its legal control and regulation has not been easy for the governments since social media as a whole is a dynamic concept with constant changes day by day ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/9781118305881.ch1”, “ISBN” : “9781118305881”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maurya”, “given” : “Anil Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-22”, “publisher” : “DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY”, “title” : “Regulation of social media in cyber space a critical study of regulatory mechanism with special reference to India”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3e8dbc77-7407-4186-a9c4-feaafcf0395b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maurya, 2017)
Defining Hate Speech:
2.2.1 Hate Speech on social media and India
Known for being world’s largest democracy, India protects the free speech in its laws and constitution ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Patry”, “given” : “Melody”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “November”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “title” : “India : Digital freedom under threat ?”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a8524d34-8c03-4a5d-a32c-46a394e07ac1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Patry, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Patry, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Patry, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Patry, 2013). With social media having brought about significant changes all across the globe, India too is no exception ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/9781118305881.ch1”, “ISBN” : “9781118305881”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maurya”, “given” : “Anil Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-22”, “publisher” : “DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY”, “title” : “Regulation of social media in cyber space a critical study of regulatory mechanism with special reference to India”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=3e8dbc77-7407-4186-a9c4-feaafcf0395b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maurya, 2017). As of April 2015, there are over 143 million users of social media in the country with 118 million urban users and 25 million rural users ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/JICES-07-2013-0021”, “ISBN” : “1477-996x”, “ISSN” : “1477-996X”, “abstract” : “Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by emerald-srm:602649 For Authors If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Abstract Purpose u2013 The purpose of this paper is to anticipate the potential outcomes of efforts to promote social inclusion of youth from refugee backgrounds by considering diverse research conducted on information and communication technologies (ICTs), social inclusion, and young people of refugee backgrounds. It is argued that, while social inclusion programs might be successful at the local level, it is unclear whether they might actually do more harm than good in other, transnational contexts. Design/methodology/approach u2013 Literature reporting on projects that use ICTs to facilitate social inclusion is critically examined, with specific attention to identifying the foundational assumptions underlying such projects. These foundational assumptions are considered in relation to findings of research that identifies the transnational character of the experiences, expectations and aspirations of young people of refugee backgrounds. Findings u2013 The analysis highlights a conceptual disjuncture between the local aims of social inclusion and the transnational experiences of youth with refugee backgrounds. This conceptual disjuncture raises important questions about the potential effects of any program that aims to use ICTs to support young people from refugee backgrounds. While it is clear that a number of potentially positive outcomes are likely from using ICTs to promote social inclusion for refugee youth, several potentially negative outcomes are also apparent. It is argued that these potential harms tend to be overlooked because the foundational concepts of social inclusion assume a ” local ” community. One means of avoiding the potential for such harms could be to adequately recognise the extent to which individuals and grou2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alam”, “given” : “Iftikhar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Raina”, “given” : “Roshan Lal”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Siddiqui”, “given” : “Faizia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society Society Iss Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “350-363”, “title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=270c7e61-ad73-44fe-a01b-eb253585a19b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Alam et al, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Alam et al, 2016), which has doubled over the past one year. Undoubtedly, Facebook emerges to be the leader of social media, with over 96 per cent of the urban users accessing it on a regular basis, followed by Google Plus, with 61 per cent. In urban India, 60 per cent of the users are college students and young men and women ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/JICES-07-2013-0021”, “ISBN” : “1477-996x”, “ISSN” : “1477-996X”, “abstract” : “Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by emerald-srm:602649 For Authors If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Abstract Purpose u2013 The purpose of this paper is to anticipate the potential outcomes of efforts to promote social inclusion of youth from refugee backgrounds by considering diverse research conducted on information and communication technologies (ICTs), social inclusion, and young people of refugee backgrounds. It is argued that, while social inclusion programs might be successful at the local level, it is unclear whether they might actually do more harm than good in other, transnational contexts. Design/methodology/approach u2013 Literature reporting on projects that use ICTs to facilitate social inclusion is critically examined, with specific attention to identifying the foundational assumptions underlying such projects. These foundational assumptions are considered in relation to findings of research that identifies the transnational character of the experiences, expectations and aspirations of young people of refugee backgrounds. Findings u2013 The analysis highlights a conceptual disjuncture between the local aims of social inclusion and the transnational experiences of youth with refugee backgrounds. This conceptual disjuncture raises important questions about the potential effects of any program that aims to use ICTs to support young people from refugee backgrounds. While it is clear that a number of potentially positive outcomes are likely from using ICTs to promote social inclusion for refugee youth, several potentially negative outcomes are also apparent. It is argued that these potential harms tend to be overlooked because the foundational concepts of social inclusion assume a ” local ” community. One means of avoiding the potential for such harms could be to adequately recognise the extent to which individuals and grou2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alam”, “given” : “Iftikhar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Raina”, “given” : “Roshan Lal”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Siddiqui”, “given” : “Faizia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society Society Iss Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “350-363”, “title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=270c7e61-ad73-44fe-a01b-eb253585a19b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Alam et al, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Alam et al, 2016).

The concept of hate speech is not new to India. What began as a divide and rule policy by the British to create tensions among the two main religious groups, the Hindus and the Muslims, is prevalent till today. Even though the Constitution of India does not explicitly define the concept of “Hate speech”, it is generally misunderstood “as a form of speech that carries no meaning other than the expression of hatred for some group, such as a particular race, especially in circumstances in which the expression is likely to provoke violence.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)
With the country’s religious, socio-economic, and ethnic diversity, the outrage caused by hate speech has turned into communal riots, religious conflicts, and other forms of violence. Regardless of the presence of several statutes prohibiting the use of hate speech, there has been little action taken to prevent individuals from delivering hate speech targeting specific ethnicities, religions, or castes. However, more than the citizens, hate speech has been repeatedly used by the politicians to polarise communities and ignite ethnic emotions. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)
Popular SNS, Twitter and Facebook, have turned into a battleground for spreading hate speech in the form of abuse, trolling, written or verbal communication. The Twitter feeds and Facebook time lines of online users in cities of Mumbai, Bangalore and Delhi are clogged with repetitive and formatted abuse. Even the media organisations are not spared, with their comments sections being infused with online criticism of swearwords, name-calling and put-downs. The intentional tit-for-tat actions takes the form of abusive trolling and due to the presence of such hate speech, the intriguing online culture seems to be more blurred than illuminating. In practice, the online abuse culture has risen at the intersection of political speech, technology and market in India ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1932-8036”, “abstract” : “Exploring the cases of India and Ethiopia, this article develops the concept of ” extreme speech ” to critically analyze the cultures of vitriolic exchange on Internet-enabled media. While online abuse is largely understood as ” hate speech, ” we make two interventions to problematize the presuppositions of this widely invoked concept. First, extreme speech emphasizes the need to contextualize online debate with an attention to user practices and particular histories of speech cultures. Second, related to context, is the ambiguity of online vitriol, which defies a simple antonymous conception of hate speech versus acceptable speech. The article advances this analysis using the approach of ” comparative practice, ” which, we suggest, complicates the discourse of Internet ” risk ” increasingly invoked to legitimate online speech restrictions. The recent electoral victories for conservative groups with aggressive online presence have brought the political stakes of digital speech into sharp public focus, unsettling euphoric pronouncements on new media as a radical enabler of citizen participation and open society. Whether online Islamist radicalization or hate messages on social media during the 2016 refugee crisis, current developments have reinvigorated political debates on the limits of free speech online. The discourse on digital technologies has tilted toward the ” dark side ” of new media as a platform for promoting hate speech, fake news, right-wing nationalist mobilization, terrorism, misogyny, and intergroup conflict (Lovink, 2013; Morozov, 2012). Such negative forms of online speech, it is argued, threaten many of the taken-for-granted freedoms commonly associated with digital media cultures around the world. The discourse of online speech as a form of ” risk ” and ” threat ” is also used increasingly by governments to rhetorically legitimize securitization and control over their citizens’ communicative practices (Amoore & Goede, 2008).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pohjonen”, “given” : “Matti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Communication”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “312827”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1173-1191”, “title” : “Extreme Speech Online: An Anthropological Critique of Hate Speech Debates”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=526068ae-3a86-4867-93c6-553c2419a4e0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pohjonen, 2017)
The government in the past has tried to prevent the spreading of online hate speech by holding the intermediary platforms liable for publishing the hate speech content on their forum However, without a proper regulatory mechanism at place to check what is being shared on the social media, the rapid spread of such damaging contents can lead to real-world repercussions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date). However, as per Stuart Mill’s theory on harm principle and hate speech, though he accepts restrictions on liberty designed to prevent harm to others which might seem to make way for restrictions on speech that prohibit the use of offensive epithets, Mill believes that offensivesness does not constitute harm. Thus, it can be said that Millian principles capitalizes the libertarian view and condemns the regulation of hate speech. (mill principle)
In 2011, Union communications minister Kapil Sibal had directed Google, Facebook and Yahoo! to design a mechanism that would take down provoking and religiously offensive content. This was seen as an assault on free speech on social media ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1932-8036”, “abstract” : “Exploring the cases of India and Ethiopia, this article develops the concept of ” extreme speech ” to critically analyze the cultures of vitriolic exchange on Internet-enabled media. While online abuse is largely understood as ” hate speech, ” we make two interventions to problematize the presuppositions of this widely invoked concept. First, extreme speech emphasizes the need to contextualize online debate with an attention to user practices and particular histories of speech cultures. Second, related to context, is the ambiguity of online vitriol, which defies a simple antonymous conception of hate speech versus acceptable speech. The article advances this analysis using the approach of ” comparative practice, ” which, we suggest, complicates the discourse of Internet ” risk ” increasingly invoked to legitimate online speech restrictions. The recent electoral victories for conservative groups with aggressive online presence have brought the political stakes of digital speech into sharp public focus, unsettling euphoric pronouncements on new media as a radical enabler of citizen participation and open society. Whether online Islamist radicalization or hate messages on social media during the 2016 refugee crisis, current developments have reinvigorated political debates on the limits of free speech online. The discourse on digital technologies has tilted toward the ” dark side ” of new media as a platform for promoting hate speech, fake news, right-wing nationalist mobilization, terrorism, misogyny, and intergroup conflict (Lovink, 2013; Morozov, 2012). Such negative forms of online speech, it is argued, threaten many of the taken-for-granted freedoms commonly associated with digital media cultures around the world. The discourse of online speech as a form of ” risk ” and ” threat ” is also used increasingly by governments to rhetorically legitimize securitization and control over their citizens’ communicative practices (Amoore ; Goede, 2008).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pohjonen”, “given” : “Matti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Communication”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “312827”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1173-1191”, “title” : “Extreme Speech Online: An Anthropological Critique of Hate Speech Debates”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=526068ae-3a86-4867-93c6-553c2419a4e0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pohjonen, 2017). However, Sibal argued that since prosecuting individuals who posted hate speech on social media platforms would be practically difficult, blocking them from using those platforms would be more a pragmatic penalty ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)
With the Section 66A of the IT Act, 2000 curbing the freedom of speech to a large extent, many users were found guilty and punished for spreading hatred on social media under this Act. Even the ordinary citizens who seemed to be posting harmless content against the rich powerful politicians, ministers and bureaucrats, came under the scanner of this Act ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Govindarajan”, “given” : “Greeshma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ravindar”, “given” : “Nanditha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Global Media Journal u2013 Indian Edition”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-2”, “title” : “Freedom of expression on social media: myth or reality”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a531c3e8-124b-41f1-9b08-80fdc60aef8f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)
Cartoonist and free speech campaigner Aseem Trivedi was arrested in Mumbai in September 2012 for mocking the Indian parliament and corruption in high places through his cartoons and displaying them on his Facebook page and his website. The caricatures which showed the parliament as a giant commode and replaced the national emblem with wolves instead of lions, were also shared on other social media platforms (Hindustan Times, 2015). Trivedi was charged with sedition under section 124 A of the Indian Penal Code, the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act and section 66(A) of the IT Act but was later released on bail (Hindustan Times, 2015)
In November 2012, two young girls, Shaheen Dhada and Renu Srinivasan were arrested from Palghar, Mumbai, when one of them posted a question on her Facebook page questioning why the city came to a standstill following Shiv Sena leader Bal Thackeray’s death. The post she updated, quoted verbatim was: “With all respect, every day, thousands of people die, but still the world moves on. Just due to one politician died a natural death, everyone just goes bonkers. They should know, we are resilient by force, not by choice. When was the last time, did anyone show some respect or even a two-minute silence for Shaheed Bhagat Singh, Azad, Sukhdev or any of the people because of whom we are free-living Indians? Respect is earned, given, and definitely not forced. Today, Mumbai shuts down due to fear, not due to respect.” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Govindarajan”, “given” : “Greeshma”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ravindar”, “given” : “Nanditha”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Global Media Journal u2013 Indian Edition”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “7”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-2”, “title” : “Freedom of expression on social media: myth or reality”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “1” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=a531c3e8-124b-41f1-9b08-80fdc60aef8f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Govindarajan and Ravindar, 2016) The other girl, who was her friend, was arrested for “liking” the post. Though both of them were arrested for “hurting religious sentiments” under section 295(a) of the IPC and section 66(a) of the IT Act ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “HT Correspondent”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Hindustan Times”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015”, “3” }, “title” : “Facebook trouble: 10 cases of arrests under Sec 66A of IT Act”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6cb2d206-bfb6-4836-856b-324d9ad6b5b9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(HT Correspondent, 2015)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Hindustan Times, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(HT Correspondent, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(HT Correspondent, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hindustan Times, 2015), all charges were later dropped by the state government on the grounds that it was “neither true nor false” following an inquiry by the regional police officer ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nair”, “given” : “Sandhya”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Times of India”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “publisher-place” : “Mumbai”, “title” : “Facebook row: Closure report against two girls filed in Palghar court”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2e9add7c-5e1f-48e6-a369-2c9b95b107d1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Nair, 2012)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Nair, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Nair, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Nair, 2012)
In the same year, a Jadhavpur University professor, Ambikesh Mahapatra and his neighbour, Subrata Sengupta, were arrested in the capital city of Kolkata, West Bengal for maligning the image of the state chief minister Mamata Banerjee by uploading a cartoon on their profiles. The “doctored” cartoons which were circulated on the social media, displayed the CM with two of her party ministers; one was the former railways minister Dinesh Trivedi, who was forced out of office by her and the other, his replacement ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1108/JICES-07-2013-0021”, “ISBN” : “1477-996x”, “ISSN” : “1477-996X”, “abstract” : “Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by emerald-srm:602649 For Authors If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Abstract Purpose u2013 The purpose of this paper is to anticipate the potential outcomes of efforts to promote social inclusion of youth from refugee backgrounds by considering diverse research conducted on information and communication technologies (ICTs), social inclusion, and young people of refugee backgrounds. It is argued that, while social inclusion programs might be successful at the local level, it is unclear whether they might actually do more harm than good in other, transnational contexts. Design/methodology/approach u2013 Literature reporting on projects that use ICTs to facilitate social inclusion is critically examined, with specific attention to identifying the foundational assumptions underlying such projects. These foundational assumptions are considered in relation to findings of research that identifies the transnational character of the experiences, expectations and aspirations of young people of refugee backgrounds. Findings u2013 The analysis highlights a conceptual disjuncture between the local aims of social inclusion and the transnational experiences of youth with refugee backgrounds. This conceptual disjuncture raises important questions about the potential effects of any program that aims to use ICTs to support young people from refugee backgrounds. While it is clear that a number of potentially positive outcomes are likely from using ICTs to promote social inclusion for refugee youth, several potentially negative outcomes are also apparent. It is argued that these potential harms tend to be overlooked because the foundational concepts of social inclusion assume a ” local ” community. One means of avoiding the potential for such harms could be to adequately recognise the extent to which individuals and grou2026″, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alam”, “given” : “Iftikhar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Raina”, “given” : “Roshan Lal”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Siddiqui”, “given” : “Faizia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society Society Iss Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “350-363”, “title” : “Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=270c7e61-ad73-44fe-a01b-eb253585a19b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Alam et al, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Alam, Raina and Siddiqui, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Alam et al, 2016)
One of the most infamous incidents, where social media negatively played a huge role was during the 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots, involving Hindu and Muslim communities. The clash between the two communities broke out after a fake video of mob lynching of two boys was uploaded and circulated on various SNS ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date). Though the video was found to be two years old shot in Afghanistan, it had become viral on social media and soon additional inflammatory material such as morphed headlines that read “Muslims continue to slaughter Hindu” added fuel to the prevailing communal tensions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/B978-0-444-52734-9.50009-8”, “ISBN” : “0780325001”, “ISSN” : “18255167”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maurya”, “given” : “Anil Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “number-of-pages” : “175-194”, “publisher” : “DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY”, “title” : “Regulation of social media in cyber space a critical study of regulatory mechanism with special reference to India”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f300ce85-3fba-42e2-af30-7035e1c2e8b9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maurya, 2015). It became a challenge for the law enforcement authorities to deal with the hate speech published online, since the images and videos being disseminated online played a significant role in triggering the violence. Soon, many Twitter users sought blocking of official Twitter profiles of politicians by filing FIRs, whose tweets were promoting enmity and hatred between both the communities ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date).

In another incident, a Dalit poet and writer Kanwal Bharti was arrested in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, under section 66 A of IT Act, over his Facebook post that criticised the UP government and other heavyweight politicians over the suspension of an IAS officer ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/B978-0-444-52734-9.50009-8”, “ISBN” : “0780325001”, “ISSN” : “18255167”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maurya”, “given” : “Anil Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “number-of-pages” : “175-194”, “publisher” : “DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY”, “title” : “Regulation of social media in cyber space a critical study of regulatory mechanism with special reference to India”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f300ce85-3fba-42e2-af30-7035e1c2e8b9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maurya, 2015). Though the Facebook status of the victim was more in the nature of political allegation, it was claimed to be an intention to cause communal riots ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1932-8036”, “abstract” : “Exploring the cases of India and Ethiopia, this article develops the concept of ” extreme speech ” to critically analyze the cultures of vitriolic exchange on Internet-enabled media. While online abuse is largely understood as ” hate speech, ” we make two interventions to problematize the presuppositions of this widely invoked concept. First, extreme speech emphasizes the need to contextualize online debate with an attention to user practices and particular histories of speech cultures. Second, related to context, is the ambiguity of online vitriol, which defies a simple antonymous conception of hate speech versus acceptable speech. The article advances this analysis using the approach of ” comparative practice, ” which, we suggest, complicates the discourse of Internet ” risk ” increasingly invoked to legitimate online speech restrictions. The recent electoral victories for conservative groups with aggressive online presence have brought the political stakes of digital speech into sharp public focus, unsettling euphoric pronouncements on new media as a radical enabler of citizen participation and open society. Whether online Islamist radicalization or hate messages on social media during the 2016 refugee crisis, current developments have reinvigorated political debates on the limits of free speech online. The discourse on digital technologies has tilted toward the ” dark side ” of new media as a platform for promoting hate speech, fake news, right-wing nationalist mobilization, terrorism, misogyny, and intergroup conflict (Lovink, 2013; Morozov, 2012). Such negative forms of online speech, it is argued, threaten many of the taken-for-granted freedoms commonly associated with digital media cultures around the world. The discourse of online speech as a form of ” risk ” and ” threat ” is also used increasingly by governments to rhetorically legitimize securitization and control over their citizens’ communicative practices (Amoore & Goede, 2008).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pohjonen”, “given” : “Matti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Communication”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “312827”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1173-1191”, “title” : “Extreme Speech Online: An Anthropological Critique of Hate Speech Debates”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=526068ae-3a86-4867-93c6-553c2419a4e0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pohjonen, 2017).

Negative use of social media can aggravate the communal disturbances and this turned out to be true when in the year 2013 in North East India’s state of Assam, doctored photographs of massacre of Muslims, India’s largest minority community, were uploaded on social media. The pictures which depicted the death and destruction of the community from another part of the world, went viral and created a heavy divide among the Bodos and the Bengali-speaking-Muslims of Assam. The posts and messages accompanying the pictures added fuel to the fire. The trouble mongers and unscrupulous elements used social media very effectively to disturb the peace of the region ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “1932-8036”, “abstract” : “Exploring the cases of India and Ethiopia, this article develops the concept of ” extreme speech ” to critically analyze the cultures of vitriolic exchange on Internet-enabled media. While online abuse is largely understood as ” hate speech, ” we make two interventions to problematize the presuppositions of this widely invoked concept. First, extreme speech emphasizes the need to contextualize online debate with an attention to user practices and particular histories of speech cultures. Second, related to context, is the ambiguity of online vitriol, which defies a simple antonymous conception of hate speech versus acceptable speech. The article advances this analysis using the approach of ” comparative practice, ” which, we suggest, complicates the discourse of Internet ” risk ” increasingly invoked to legitimate online speech restrictions. The recent electoral victories for conservative groups with aggressive online presence have brought the political stakes of digital speech into sharp public focus, unsettling euphoric pronouncements on new media as a radical enabler of citizen participation and open society. Whether online Islamist radicalization or hate messages on social media during the 2016 refugee crisis, current developments have reinvigorated political debates on the limits of free speech online. The discourse on digital technologies has tilted toward the ” dark side ” of new media as a platform for promoting hate speech, fake news, right-wing nationalist mobilization, terrorism, misogyny, and intergroup conflict (Lovink, 2013; Morozov, 2012). Such negative forms of online speech, it is argued, threaten many of the taken-for-granted freedoms commonly associated with digital media cultures around the world. The discourse of online speech as a form of ” risk ” and ” threat ” is also used increasingly by governments to rhetorically legitimize securitization and control over their citizens’ communicative practices (Amoore ; Goede, 2008).”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pohjonen”, “given” : “Matti”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Communication”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “312827”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1173-1191”, “title” : “Extreme Speech Online: An Anthropological Critique of Hate Speech Debates”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “11” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=526068ae-3a86-4867-93c6-553c2419a4e0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pohjonen, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pohjonen, 2017)
Similarly, a 19-year-old boy from Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh was put behind bars in 2015, for uploading an ‘objectionable’ post on Facebook against political leader, Azam Khan. The parents of the student, who was charged under section 66-A of the IT Act besides other IPC sections, clarified that he had merely shared the post on Facebook and not uploaded it ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/B978-0-444-52734-9.50009-8”, “ISBN” : “0780325001”, “ISSN” : “18255167”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Maurya”, “given” : “Anil Kumar”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Shodhganga : a reservoir of Indian theses @ INFLIBNET”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “number-of-pages” : “175-194”, “publisher” : “DR. RAM MANOHAR LOHIYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY”, “title” : “Regulation of social media in cyber space a critical study of regulatory mechanism with special reference to India”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f300ce85-3fba-42e2-af30-7035e1c2e8b9” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Maurya, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Maurya, 2015)
India has witnessed many such cases of social media misconducts that led to an outrage among the society. Even though there are ongoing discussions about countering hate speech with comfort speech through the use of intermediaries, the current approach towards regulating the online hate speech content remains the same ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Chakrabarti”, “given” : “Gargi”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dama”, “given” : “Saahil”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “UW School of Law”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Intermediary Liability and Hate Speech”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=183ca473-c143-4f0e-8195-33f9ae1d263f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Chakrabarti and Dama, no date)
With such instances of people being booked over hate/insulting messages on social media which pertain to politicians, the wealthy or the affluent, it indicates that there is something grossly wrong with the way such issues are perceived and treated. Even though people have the right to freedom of speech and expression, political factors tend to play a major role in controlling the speech on social media.
While there have been regular calls and debates to regulate the social media but the government has not been able to make much effort in implementing the same. With the lawyers and the Supreme Court of India expressing concern over the misuse of social media, the Indian government is in the process of finalising a policy with an aim to keep a hawk’s eye vigil on the social media to check if it is being “misused” to conspire against India and spread anti-national propaganda. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “PTI”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Times of India”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher-place” : “New Delhi”, “title” : “Government plans a new social media policy to check anti-India activities”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=c8a54e3e-3a9f-444d-97d2-da5457cf755b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(PTI, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(PTI, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(PTI, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(PTI, 2017)
 
2.2.2 Online Hate Speech in United Kingdom:
The United Kingdom is governed by a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government and is considered to have one of the most developed human rights legislations in the world. However, like India, even the UK does not have clear laws on hate speech and covers all cases of protection by various legal provisions such as Public Order Act, 1986 ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The present report provides a comparative analysis of the research carried out in five European countries, France, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, within the framework of the PRISM project. The PRISM research is primarily qualitative, based on 149 face-to-face interviews with professionals and social media users, as well as on a mapping of the social media use by selected xenophobic and far right groups. The focus of the project is on xenophobic and racist hate speech on the Internet, with an emphasis on social media, whilst also taking into account other arenas of online interaction, such as comments sections of digital newspapers and general discussion forums. Furthermore, the qualitative part of the study has a special focus on the experiences of young social media users, as those having fully integrated social media into their day-to-day living, and with potential to make a change.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jubany”, “given” : “Olga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roiha”, “given” : “Malin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Universitat de Barcelona”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2013”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-278”, “title” : “Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A Comparative Cross-Country Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6af98cb2-ccb6-40ec-8a15-1b38821f9449” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)
UK boasts about 37 million social media users and with no dedicated regulator to keep a check on what is being shared on social media, any action arising from social media activity is also covered through legal provisions ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The present report provides a comparative analysis of the research carried out in five European countries, France, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, within the framework of the PRISM project. The PRISM research is primarily qualitative, based on 149 face-to-face interviews with professionals and social media users, as well as on a mapping of the social media use by selected xenophobic and far right groups. The focus of the project is on xenophobic and racist hate speech on the Internet, with an emphasis on social media, whilst also taking into account other arenas of online interaction, such as comments sections of digital newspapers and general discussion forums. Furthermore, the qualitative part of the study has a special focus on the experiences of young social media users, as those having fully integrated social media into their day-to-day living, and with potential to make a change.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jubany”, “given” : “Olga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roiha”, “given” : “Malin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Universitat de Barcelona”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2013”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-278”, “title” : “Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A Comparative Cross-Country Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6af98cb2-ccb6-40ec-8a15-1b38821f9449” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jubany and Roiha, 2016) Though OFCOM oversees the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the UK, it does not control the social media output of the broadcasting media outlets. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.communityradiotoolkit.net/social-media/social-media-and-the-law/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “4”, “20” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Linklaters”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Community Radio Toolkit”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “title” : “Social media and the law”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f7975eee-5a6c-44cd-87c4-adef8a50ed92” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Linklaters, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Linklaters, no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Linklaters, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Linklaters, no date)
While on one hand various political leaders are using the online space to gain popularity, on the other it is also being used by them to spread hostile, biased beliefs against particular ethnic and/or religious group ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The present report provides a comparative analysis of the research carried out in five European countries, France, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, within the framework of the PRISM project. The PRISM research is primarily qualitative, based on 149 face-to-face interviews with professionals and social media users, as well as on a mapping of the social media use by selected xenophobic and far right groups. The focus of the project is on xenophobic and racist hate speech on the Internet, with an emphasis on social media, whilst also taking into account other arenas of online interaction, such as comments sections of digital newspapers and general discussion forums. Furthermore, the qualitative part of the study has a special focus on the experiences of young social media users, as those having fully integrated social media into their day-to-day living, and with potential to make a change.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jubany”, “given” : “Olga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roiha”, “given” : “Malin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Universitat de Barcelona”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2013”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-278”, “title” : “Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A Comparative Cross-Country Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6af98cb2-ccb6-40ec-8a15-1b38821f9449” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)
Though there is no clear definition of “online hate speech” in the existing UK legislation, it is still recognised at a legislative level following which the policy makers suggested proposals for instituting internet “Antisocial Behaviour Orders” in order to ban users who spread hatred through certain social media platforms ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Syal”, “given” : “Rajeev”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Guardian”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015”, “2” }, “title” : “Punish hate crime on social media with internet asbos, say MPs”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=edc9a0c1-6ec1-40d3-bb47-94b6a05f6c95” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Syal, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Syal, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Syal, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Syal, 2015). Like India, many people have been prosecuted under the Public Order Act, 1986 for disseminating hateful and antagonistic sentiment on SNS mostly towards Muslims ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The present report provides a comparative analysis of the research carried out in five European countries, France, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, within the framework of the PRISM project. The PRISM research is primarily qualitative, based on 149 face-to-face interviews with professionals and social media users, as well as on a mapping of the social media use by selected xenophobic and far right groups. The focus of the project is on xenophobic and racist hate speech on the Internet, with an emphasis on social media, whilst also taking into account other arenas of online interaction, such as comments sections of digital newspapers and general discussion forums. Furthermore, the qualitative part of the study has a special focus on the experiences of young social media users, as those having fully integrated social media into their day-to-day living, and with potential to make a change.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jubany”, “given” : “Olga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roiha”, “given” : “Malin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Universitat de Barcelona”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2013”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-278”, “title” : “Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A Comparative Cross-Country Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6af98cb2-ccb6-40ec-8a15-1b38821f9449” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jubany and Roiha, 2016).

A university student, Liam Stacey, was arrested in 2012 and prisoned for 56 days for tweeting racially offensive comments about footballer, Fabrice Mumba, who died following a cardiac arrest. He tweeted, ”LOL (laugh out loud). F*** Muamba. He’s dead!!!” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/poi3.85”, “ISSN” : “19442866”, “abstract” : “The use of “Big Data” in policy and decision making is a current topic of debate. The 2013 murder of Drummer Lee Rigby in Woolwich, London, UK led to an extensive public reaction on social media, providing the opportunity to study the spread of online hate speech (cyber hate) on Twitter. Human annotated Twitter data was collected in the immediate aftermath of Rigby’s murder to train and test a supervised machine learning text classifier that distinguishes between hateful and/or antagonistic responses with a focus on race, ethnicity, or religion; and more general responses. Classification features were derived from the content of each tweet, including grammatical dependencies between words to recognize “othering” phrases, incitement to respond with antagonistic action, and claims of well-founded or justified discrimination against social groups. The results of the classifier were optimal using a combination of probabilistic, rule-based, and spatial-based classifiers with a voted ensemble meta-classifier. We demonstrate how the results of the classifier can be robustly utilized in a statistical model used to forecast the likely spread of cyber hate in a sample of Twitter data. The applications to policy and decision making are discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnap”, “given” : “Pete”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Williams”, “given” : “Matthew L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Policy & Internet”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “223-242”, “title” : “Cyber Hate Speech on Twitter: An Application of Machine Classification and Statistical Modeling for Policy and Decision Making”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50fc1a1-f0ce-4736-b268-5323f7909d39” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnap and Williams, 2015)
The murder of drummer Lee Rigby in Woolwich (London) in the year 2013 by Islamic extremists triggered a huge social media reaction. It cited the beginning of written expressions of hateful and antagonistic sentiments towards the Muslim on SNS like Facebook and Twitter ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/poi3.85”, “ISSN” : “19442866”, “abstract” : “The use of “Big Data” in policy and decision making is a current topic of debate. The 2013 murder of Drummer Lee Rigby in Woolwich, London, UK led to an extensive public reaction on social media, providing the opportunity to study the spread of online hate speech (cyber hate) on Twitter. Human annotated Twitter data was collected in the immediate aftermath of Rigby’s murder to train and test a supervised machine learning text classifier that distinguishes between hateful and/or antagonistic responses with a focus on race, ethnicity, or religion; and more general responses. Classification features were derived from the content of each tweet, including grammatical dependencies between words to recognize “othering” phrases, incitement to respond with antagonistic action, and claims of well-founded or justified discrimination against social groups. The results of the classifier were optimal using a combination of probabilistic, rule-based, and spatial-based classifiers with a voted ensemble meta-classifier. We demonstrate how the results of the classifier can be robustly utilized in a statistical model used to forecast the likely spread of cyber hate in a sample of Twitter data. The applications to policy and decision making are discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnap”, “given” : “Pete”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Williams”, “given” : “Matthew L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Policy ; Internet”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “223-242”, “title” : “Cyber Hate Speech on Twitter: An Application of Machine Classification and Statistical Modeling for Policy and Decision Making”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50fc1a1-f0ce-4736-b268-5323f7909d39” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnap and Williams, 2015). Till today, Rigby’s murder is being used by online users and radical groups to spread hateful comments against the Muslim community. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/1944-2866.POI364”, “ISBN” : “1944-2866”, “ISSN” : “19442866”, “abstract” : “\nThe Woolwich attack in May 2013 has led to a spate of hate crimes committed against Muslim communities in the United Kindom. These incidents include Muslim women being targeted for wearing the headscarf and mosques being vandalized. While street level Islamophobia remains an important area of investigation, an equally disturbing picture is emerging with the rise in online anti-Muslim abuse. This article argues that online Islamophobia must be given the same level of attention as street level Islamophobia. It examines 500 tweets from 100 different Twitter users to examine how Muslims are being viewed and targeted by perpetrators of online abuse via the Twitter search engine, and offers a typology of offender characteristics.\n”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awan”, “given” : “Imran”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Policy and Internet”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “133-150”, “title” : “Islamophobia and twitter: A typology of online hate against muslims on social media”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “6” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=df716d5c-80c4-413f-bed9-3b743f6cdc0a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Awan, 2014)”, “manualFormatting” : “Awan (2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Awan, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Awan, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Awan (2013) states that ”the comments consisted of an ‘extremist’ and incendiary undertone which attacks the whole ethos of our government’s social cohesion strategy and risks as we shall see stoking up more hatred in particular in the case of online Islamophobia” (p.8).

Likewise, in 2014, a football fan, Declan McCuish was imprisoned for a year for his hateful comments against two Glasgow Rangers football players. ”black monkey b….”; ”Are you still playing football you ville little f…..monkey”, his Tweet said.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/poi3.85”, “ISSN” : “19442866”, “abstract” : “The use of “Big Data” in policy and decision making is a current topic of debate. The 2013 murder of Drummer Lee Rigby in Woolwich, London, UK led to an extensive public reaction on social media, providing the opportunity to study the spread of online hate speech (cyber hate) on Twitter. Human annotated Twitter data was collected in the immediate aftermath of Rigby’s murder to train and test a supervised machine learning text classifier that distinguishes between hateful and/or antagonistic responses with a focus on race, ethnicity, or religion; and more general responses. Classification features were derived from the content of each tweet, including grammatical dependencies between words to recognize “othering” phrases, incitement to respond with antagonistic action, and claims of well-founded or justified discrimination against social groups. The results of the classifier were optimal using a combination of probabilistic, rule-based, and spatial-based classifiers with a voted ensemble meta-classifier. We demonstrate how the results of the classifier can be robustly utilized in a statistical model used to forecast the likely spread of cyber hate in a sample of Twitter data. The applications to policy and decision making are discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnap”, “given” : “Pete”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Williams”, “given” : “Matthew L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Policy & Internet”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “223-242”, “title” : “Cyber Hate Speech on Twitter: An Application of Machine Classification and Statistical Modeling for Policy and Decision Making”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50fc1a1-f0ce-4736-b268-5323f7909d39” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnap and Williams, 2015)
There have been instances where not only ordinary social media users but even media personalities have incited racial hate speech online. In 2015, columnist Katie Hopkins sparked outrage on social media when her Sun column compared Libyan migrants crossing the Mediterranean to cockroaches and feral humans ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stone”, “given” : “Jon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Independent”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Katie Hopkins’ migrant ‘cockroaches’ column resembles pro-genocide propaganda, says the UN”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e488cd87-8cff-4a14-92ce-447f2cdae4ce” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Stone, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Stone, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Stone, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Stone, 2015). She faced a furious backlash on Twitter and her comments were slammed as “offensive” and “xenophopic” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3301963/Katie-Hopkins-not-face-charges-allegations-incited-racial-hatred-article-comparing-migrants-cockroaches.html”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “4”, “25” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Duell”, “given” : “Mark”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Dailymail”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “title” : “Cops get attack of common sense at last: Katie Hopkins will NOT face charges over allegations that she incited racial hatred in migrant article”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ea82d27a-8a5c-496b-b9e2-291af85f6bd4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Duell, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Duell, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Duell, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Duell, 2015) While Hopkins’ comments were initially considered as a criminal offence under the Public Order Act, 1986, she did not face any charges. However, e-petitions were signed demanding to sack her from the Sun.
She once again came into limelight after she tweeted in the wake of the arrest of a suspected Westminster terrorist yards from Downing Street. Hopkins was once again slammed for evoking hateful crime towards people of Muslim faith as the series of events in Europe in her social media post were all linked to Ramadan ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lion”, “given” : “Patrick”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Mirror”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017”, “4” }, “title” : “Katie Hopkins slammed over sick Ramadan tweet after suspected terrorist is arrested near Westminster”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b792c9e2-954e-44bd-95d4-d491ee8d5441” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lion, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lion, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lion, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lion, 2017)
From the available literature on the online hate speech in UK, the climate of hatred which is characterised by targeted discrimination and violent attacks is likely to increase in the aftermath of trigger events ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/1745-9125.12022”, “ISSN” : “1745-9125”, “abstract” : “This research explains the temporal clustering of hate crimes. It is hypothesized that many hate crimes are retaliatory in nature and tend to increase, sometimes dramatically, in the aftermath of an antecedent event that results in one group harboring a grievance against another. Three types of events are used to test and refine the argument: 1) contentious criminal trials involving interracial crimes, 2) lethal terrorist attacks, and 3) appellate court decisions concerning same-sex marriage. The results from time-series analyses indicate that contentious trial verdicts and lethal domestic terrorist attacks precede spikes in racially or religiously motivated hate crimes, whereas less evidence is found for antigay hate crimes after appellate court rulings that grant rights to same-sex partners. The model put forth in this article complements prior work by explaining in part the timing of hate crime clusters.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “King”, “given” : “Ryan D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sutton”, “given” : “Gretchen M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Criminology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “871-894”, “publisher” : “Wiley Online Library”, “title” : “HIGH TIMES FOR HATE CRIMES: EXPLAINING THE TEMPORAL CLUSTERING OF HATEu2010MOTIVATED OFFENDING”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “51” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=def94926-f342-4c40-ae76-4fd8dd41d014” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(King and Sutton, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(King and Sutton, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(King and Sutton, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(King and Sutton, 2013). The increased use of social media specially Twitter and Facebook also provide an open-ended platform for spreading unchallenged hateful, disturbing and hostile sentiments as a result of the shocking real-life events covered by mainstream media ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1002/poi3.85”, “ISSN” : “19442866”, “abstract” : “The use of “Big Data” in policy and decision making is a current topic of debate. The 2013 murder of Drummer Lee Rigby in Woolwich, London, UK led to an extensive public reaction on social media, providing the opportunity to study the spread of online hate speech (cyber hate) on Twitter. Human annotated Twitter data was collected in the immediate aftermath of Rigby’s murder to train and test a supervised machine learning text classifier that distinguishes between hateful and/or antagonistic responses with a focus on race, ethnicity, or religion; and more general responses. Classification features were derived from the content of each tweet, including grammatical dependencies between words to recognize “othering” phrases, incitement to respond with antagonistic action, and claims of well-founded or justified discrimination against social groups. The results of the classifier were optimal using a combination of probabilistic, rule-based, and spatial-based classifiers with a voted ensemble meta-classifier. We demonstrate how the results of the classifier can be robustly utilized in a statistical model used to forecast the likely spread of cyber hate in a sample of Twitter data. The applications to policy and decision making are discussed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Burnap”, “given” : “Pete”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Williams”, “given” : “Matthew L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Policy & Internet”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “223-242”, “title” : “Cyber Hate Speech on Twitter: An Application of Machine Classification and Statistical Modeling for Policy and Decision Making”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “7” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d50fc1a1-f0ce-4736-b268-5323f7909d39” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Burnap and Williams, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Burnap and Williams, 2015). It is also being used as a space to disseminate hatred against certain religious or ethnic groups at a speed of a click, with four of the five UK parties monitored encouraging violence against the Muslims in the UK. With the free flow of such type of hate messages along with the “laissez-faire” attitude of the social media companies poses a difficult challenge for the issue of online hate speech to regulate. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The present report provides a comparative analysis of the research carried out in five European countries, France, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, within the framework of the PRISM project. The PRISM research is primarily qualitative, based on 149 face-to-face interviews with professionals and social media users, as well as on a mapping of the social media use by selected xenophobic and far right groups. The focus of the project is on xenophobic and racist hate speech on the Internet, with an emphasis on social media, whilst also taking into account other arenas of online interaction, such as comments sections of digital newspapers and general discussion forums. Furthermore, the qualitative part of the study has a special focus on the experiences of young social media users, as those having fully integrated social media into their day-to-day living, and with potential to make a change.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jubany”, “given” : “Olga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roiha”, “given” : “Malin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Universitat de Barcelona”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2013”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-278”, “title” : “Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A Comparative Cross-Country Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6af98cb2-ccb6-40ec-8a15-1b38821f9449” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)
But on the other hand, some researchers, due to limited research on online hate speech in UK, have warned that online hate crimes can be “the precursor to more physically or threatening offline incidents” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The present report provides a comparative analysis of the research carried out in five European countries, France, Italy, Romania, Spain and the UK, within the framework of the PRISM project. The PRISM research is primarily qualitative, based on 149 face-to-face interviews with professionals and social media users, as well as on a mapping of the social media use by selected xenophobic and far right groups. The focus of the project is on xenophobic and racist hate speech on the Internet, with an emphasis on social media, whilst also taking into account other arenas of online interaction, such as comments sections of digital newspapers and general discussion forums. Furthermore, the qualitative part of the study has a special focus on the experiences of young social media users, as those having fully integrated social media into their day-to-day living, and with potential to make a change.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jubany”, “given” : “Olga”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Roiha”, “given” : “Malin”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Universitat de Barcelona”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “May 2013”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-278”, “title” : “Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A Comparative Cross-Country Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6af98cb2-ccb6-40ec-8a15-1b38821f9449” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Jubany and Roiha cited “, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jubany and Roiha, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jubany and Roiha cited Copsey et al, 2013). To critically argue, while on one hand mandatorily regulating the speech depending on its content can undermine the right to freedom of speech, on the other hand supporters of hate speech regulation in the media claim that the right to freedom of speech is absolute. This is recognized in article 19 of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which says that the right to freedom of expression carries “special duties and responsibilities” and, therefore, may be “subject to certain restrictions” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9789231001055”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gagliardone”, “given” : “Iginio”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gal”, “given” : “Danit”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Alves”, “given” : “Thiago”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Martinez”, “given” : “Gabriela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher-place” : “Sweden”, “title” : “Countering Online Hate Speech”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fef5641a-d7fe-479a-9ccd-1cb094d873cc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gagliardone <i>et al.</i>, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gagliardone et al., 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gagliardone <i>et al.</i>, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gagliardone et al., 2015)
Unlike Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms have been criticised for their lack of positive action towards tackling online hate speech ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.5281/zenodo.58517”, “ISSN” : “09742891”, “abstract” : “Facebook has become one of the fastest growing social media platforms. At the end of 2013, Facebook had 1,23bn monthly active users and 757 million daily users who log onto Facebook. Within this online space, there are also a growing number of online virtual communities, and hate groups who are using this space to share a violent, Islamophobic and racist narrative which attempts to create a hostile virtual environment. It is important to analyse these ‘new’ communities by monitoring the activities they conduct, because the material they post, potentially can have a damaging impact on community cohesion within society. Moreover, as a result of recent figures that show an increase in online anti-Muslim abuse, there is a pertinent need to address the issue about Islamophobia on social media. This research examined 100 different Facebook pages, posts and comments and found 494 instances of online hate speech directed against Muslim communities. The findings revealed some interesting parallels and common characteristics shared within these groups, which helped the author to create a typology of five characteristics of anti-Muslim hate espoused on Facebook. Overall, this study found Muslims being demonised and vilified online which had manifested through negative attitudes, discrimination, stereotypes, physical threats and online harassment which all had the potential to incite violence or prejudicial action because it disparages and intimidates a protected individual or group.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Awan”, “given” : “Imran”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “International Journal of Cyber Criminology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “1-20”, “title” : “Islamophobia on social media: A qualitative analysis of the facebook’s walls of hate”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “10” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=6905f56f-3cc5-4577-a2b5-959af8d5182f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Awan, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Awan, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Awan, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Awan, 2016).

However, it has been argued that in UK, there is no official record of individuals who have experienced or affected by online hate. The reason being that online hate crimes are not separated from the offline hate crimes within the offline hate crime statistics, which means that it is impossible to undermine the extent of the problem caused due to online hate speech ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rohlfing”, “given” : “Sarah”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “The Role of Social Networking in Shaping Hatred : An Exploration into User- Responses to and Influence and Permissibility of Online Hatred”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=56ec27a5-828c-4121-965e-d3a2cdeab95b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rohlfing, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rohlfing, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rohlfing, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rohlfing, 2017).
Initially, while writing this paper, the reporter found an Independent report which stated that the UK government plans to introduce new rules including a tax to be paid by the social media organisations in an attempt to improve the internet. While they would be asked to commit to a “code of conduct”, the companies won’t be forced to do the same under law because pushing through legislation would be too long and difficult for the beleaguered Conservative government. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Griffin”, “given” : “Andrew”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Independent”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Government outlines plan to regulate the internet and get rid of problem content”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f1504392-9154-48a7-a3eb-0689d11fd0d7” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Griffin, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Griffin, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Griffin, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Griffin, 2017). However, the latest development found was that the department for “Digital, Culture, Media and Sport and the Home Office were jointly working on penning down the new legislation on white paper against the social media, which was expected to be published sometime in the autumn. The new legislation is likely to include the new code of practices to tackle bullying, intimidating or humiliating online content in addition to a regular internet safety transparency report to keep tabs on online abuse ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Press Association”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Guardian”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “UK government plans new legislation to tame internet’s ‘wild west'”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=16e1dd8a-e18a-4e46-9ee8-8f8588106208” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Press Association, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Press Association, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Press Association, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Press Association, 2018).
2.3 Fake News in general:
Like hate speech is not new to India and UK, fake news is too not a stranger to both the countries. Present in one form or the other, fake news can be defined as the promotion and propagation of news articles via social media by the users. However, these news stories shared across various SNS are designed to manipulate users’ opinions on a certain topic with a certain objectives ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The term u201cfake newsu201d became increasingly common during the past year. While this concept has many synonymsu2014disinformation campaigns, cyber propaganda, cognitive hacking, and information warfareu2014itu2019s just one facet of the bigger problem: the manipulation of public opinion to affect the real world. Thanks to the connectivity and digital platforms that make it possible to share and spread information, traditional challenges such as physical borders and the constraints of time and distance do not exist anymore. Unfortunately, it also makes it easier to manipulate the publicu2019s perception of reality and thought processes, resulting in the proliferation of fake news that affects our real, non-digital environment. Each new incident shows how much impact the technological manipulation of public opinion can have on peopleu2019s daily lives. This paper studies and explores the techniques and methods used by actors to spread fake news and manipulate public opinion to serve various motives ranging from personal and financial to political. It also discusses the three legs of the fake news triangle: the services that enable them, their appearance on social media sites, and the motivations behind these activities. We demonstrate several techniques used to identify such campaigns by processing social media data and show how it is possible to trace those campaigns to the original perpetrators.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gu”, “given” : “Lion”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kropotov”, “given” : “Vladimir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yarochkin”, “given” : “Fyodor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Trend Micro”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1 – 81”, “title” : “The fake news machine: How propagandists abuse the Internet and manipulate the public”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dfa0e9f8-9d8b-460f-a1ff-cfd02b0e9475” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Gu et al, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gu et al, 2017) However, even though there is a general awareness of the presence of fake news, there is a widespread disagreement over the exact definition of fake news. Critics argue that merely labelling something as fake news is considered mere propaganda, making it all more important that journalists cite sources and show their work ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1080/17512786.2016.1163237”, “ISSN” : “00029769”, “abstract” : “The article discusses the author’s views about how American libraries can lead the effort to combat fake news as of 2017, and it mentions media literacy in the U.S., as well as the ways that librarians can assist library patrons in accessing accurate information. According to a 2016 research report, a majority of adults in the U.S. receive their news in real time from online social media websites and services. Journalists in America are also assessed.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Banks”, “given” : “Marcus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “American Libraries”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3/4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “18”, “title” : “Fighting Fake News.”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “48” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e8dc6393-0eda-4ed7-8527-79e3b9780a2c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Banks, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Banks, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Banks, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Banks, 2017).
With an array of platforms publishing online information-from qualified journalists to the less popular tabloids- it is essential for individuals to critically judge the credibility of the online published news, particularly fake news. Here, the articles which are purposefully and verifiably false and have the tendency to mislead the readers, is considered to be “fake news” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ho”, “given” : “Ryan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Li”, “given” : “Xiaohan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Marot-achillas”, “given” : “Thalia”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mortlock”, “given” : “Christian”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zeng”, “given” : “Hanqing”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “0” }, “page” : “1-40”, “title” : “The Truth Behind Fake News”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=411c7cd8-3922-4fde-a478-18a537e998ca” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ho ;i;et al.;/i;, no date)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ho et al., no date)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ho ;i;et al.;/i;, no date)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ho et al., no date)
Fake news often includes elements of truth but the essence of this true information losses it’s meaning when it is twisted and surrounded by false details ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharma”, “given” : “Ashish”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “651-657”, “title” : “Fake News : A New Trending Phenomenon and Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=435263af-7631-4be1-8438-f72aebe0c7a0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sharma, 2017). Online fake news gain traction when it is being shared on various social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter or apps like Whatsapp, which infiltrates the political debate ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s12290-017-0468-0”, “ISSN” : “1781-6858”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Niklewicz”, “given” : “Konrad”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “European View”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “335-335”, “title” : “Weeding Out Fake News: An Approach to Social Media Regulation”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “16” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7cd596c4-b3de-4040-b3cb-0b2f2c6bd1d3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Niklewicz, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Niklewicz, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Niklewicz, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Niklewicz, 2017)
2.3.1 Online Fake news and India:
While the traditional media industry is growing at a huge scale in India, there is also a massive rise in the fake news industry which is exercising influence over the traditional discourse of politics ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharma”, “given” : “Ashish”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “651-657”, “title” : “Fake News : A New Trending Phenomenon and Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=435263af-7631-4be1-8438-f72aebe0c7a0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sharma, 2017).
With no specific law to deal with fake news too, it has infuriated the debate over mob-lynching in the country, over the past few years. However, it is often seen as a direct result of the fake news passing over from the social media to the real world. The massive effect of such incidents can be avoided if the youth had not had access to Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and other social media networking sites that allowed the beginning of a fake news industry to organise and share made-up videos and information ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharma”, “given” : “Ashish”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “651-657”, “title” : “Fake News : A New Trending Phenomenon and Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=435263af-7631-4be1-8438-f72aebe0c7a0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sharma, 2017)
The 2013 Muzaffarnagar riots not only saw the spreading of hate speech across social media networking sites but was also an example how a fake lynching video inflamed the issue. The circulation of the viral video of the mob lynching of the two teenaged boys, on social media platforms portrayed as an incident occurring in Muzaffarnagar, India, sparked a deadly violence that lead to the deaths and displacement of many people. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1326365X17702277”, “ISSN” : “23215410”, “abstract” : “The current debate on fake-news is heavily focused on American and British post-truth politics and the tactical use of ‘alternative facts’. However, the concerns about the impact of fake news on journalism are not restricted to European and American contexts only. This commentary attempts to examine journalism practice and training in India in the post-truth era. Unlike the issues projected in the American debate on the need to reengage and empathize with the non-elite audience and the rise of a fact-checking culture, the apprehensions appear to be slightly different in other countries. In India, tackling the post-truth era challenges is also about addressing obstructive institutional forces like inactive regulatory bodies and out-dated curricula in University-based journalism programmes. The commentary argues that Indian journalism educators should focus on formulating a dynamic curriculum framework that integrates collaborative verification practices with an emphasis on reengaging with the audience to address the enigmatic post-truth politics in the country.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhaskaran”, “given” : “Harikrishnan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mishra”, “given” : “Harsh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nair”, “given” : “Pradeep”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Asia Pacific Media Educator”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “41-50”, “title” : “Contextualizing Fake News in Post-truth Era: Journalism Education in India”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “27” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e4f8d706-4621-4970-be97-2d90e7663e0a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Bhaskaran et al, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bhaskaran et al, 2017)
In another infamous incident of Dadri mob lynching that occurred in 2015, a 52-year-old man named Akhlaq was lynched by a mob in Dadri, Uttar Pradesh. The communal elements tried to justify the lynching, by circulating fake videos and messages specially on Whatsapp, of cow slaughter and that he had stored its meat in the fridge ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1326365X17702277”, “ISSN” : “23215410”, “abstract” : “The current debate on fake-news is heavily focused on American and British post-truth politics and the tactical use of ‘alternative facts’. However, the concerns about the impact of fake news on journalism are not restricted to European and American contexts only. This commentary attempts to examine journalism practice and training in India in the post-truth era. Unlike the issues projected in the American debate on the need to reengage and empathize with the non-elite audience and the rise of a fact-checking culture, the apprehensions appear to be slightly different in other countries. In India, tackling the post-truth era challenges is also about addressing obstructive institutional forces like inactive regulatory bodies and out-dated curricula in University-based journalism programmes. The commentary argues that Indian journalism educators should focus on formulating a dynamic curriculum framework that integrates collaborative verification practices with an emphasis on reengaging with the audience to address the enigmatic post-truth politics in the country.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhaskaran”, “given” : “Harikrishnan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mishra”, “given” : “Harsh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nair”, “given” : “Pradeep”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Asia Pacific Media Educator”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “41-50”, “title” : “Contextualizing Fake News in Post-truth Era: Journalism Education in India”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “27” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e4f8d706-4621-4970-be97-2d90e7663e0a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Bhaskaran et al, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bhaskaran et al, 2017). Since then, inflammatory photographs, stories and multiple versions of the incident were circulated on Facebook, Twitter and Whatsapp to stoke passions. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Rai”, “given” : “Manmohan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Economic Times”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher-place” : “Lucknow”, “title” : “Like in Muzaffarnagar, social media misused in Dadri”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9c5aca30-3519-4eb7-9728-c3d9c1c4289f” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Rai, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Rai, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Rai, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Rai, 2015) However, FIR was registered against a Twitter account and two people were soon arrested for spreading the rumours on social media ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “PTI”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Times of India”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “publisher-place” : “Dadri, Uttar Pradesh”, “title” : “Dadri Mob Killing: Two Arrested for Spreading Rumours on Social Media”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2457a858-d304-47ff-8330-56263abd1071” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(PTI, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(PTI, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(PTI, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(PTI, 2015).
While 2012 was the year for spreading hate speech on social media, 2016 witnessed a series of fake news being shared on various social media platforms. In June 2016, fake news about UNSECO declaring Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi as the best PM in the world broke out on Whatsapp and other social media. Similarly, another fake rumour involving UNESCO was during the “Notebandi” (demonetisation) crisis, which claimed that the organisation certified the new 2,000 rupees note as the “best currency in the world”. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharma”, “given” : “Ashish”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “651-657”, “title” : “Fake News : A New Trending Phenomenon and Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=435263af-7631-4be1-8438-f72aebe0c7a0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sharma, 2017)
The demonetisation period in India in 2016 provided more fodder to the fake news with rumours including new notes having GPS tracking microchips to detect black money to the RBI using radioactive link to print the new 2,000 and 500 rupees notes began making rounds on Youtube, Facebook, Whatsapp and other social media networks. Social media users liked, shared or re-tweeted these fake news stories in large numbers in the country. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1326365X17702277”, “ISSN” : “23215410”, “abstract” : “The current debate on fake-news is heavily focused on American and British post-truth politics and the tactical use of ‘alternative facts’. However, the concerns about the impact of fake news on journalism are not restricted to European and American contexts only. This commentary attempts to examine journalism practice and training in India in the post-truth era. Unlike the issues projected in the American debate on the need to reengage and empathize with the non-elite audience and the rise of a fact-checking culture, the apprehensions appear to be slightly different in other countries. In India, tackling the post-truth era challenges is also about addressing obstructive institutional forces like inactive regulatory bodies and out-dated curricula in University-based journalism programmes. The commentary argues that Indian journalism educators should focus on formulating a dynamic curriculum framework that integrates collaborative verification practices with an emphasis on reengaging with the audience to address the enigmatic post-truth politics in the country.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bhaskaran”, “given” : “Harikrishnan”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Mishra”, “given” : “Harsh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Nair”, “given” : “Pradeep”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Asia Pacific Media Educator”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “41-50”, “title” : “Contextualizing Fake News in Post-truth Era: Journalism Education in India”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “27” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e4f8d706-4621-4970-be97-2d90e7663e0a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bhaskaran, Mishra and Nair, 2017)
A report by India Today ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/salt-shortage-rumour-demonetization-uttar-pradesh-kanpur-woman-killed-panic-buying-351643-2016-11-12”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “4”, “22” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “IANS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “India Today”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “title” : “Salt shortage rumour triggers panic in Uttar Pradesh, woman killed in Kanpur”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e57269c7-e06c-46a2-aba8-249ebf0bbf4b” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(IANS, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “(2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(IANS, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(IANS, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(2016) said that the fake news about salt shortage in different parts of India circulated on Whatsapp had triggered panic among the people. The fake message prompted a rush on buying salt past midnight and causing a four-fold price-rise in states like Western Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Maharashtra and Hyderabad, which were particularly affected by this bit of fake news. While on one hand, this subsequent chaos to stock up the essential commodity led to the death of a woman in Kanpur, on the other the police baton-charged crowds and stopped mobs from looting grocery shops.
Some stories tend to aggravate the rising religious and caste tensions in India. In 2017, doctored pictures depicting the attacks against Hindus by “Rohingya Islamic terrorists” in Burma were shared on social media which ignited hatred in Hindu-majority India against Muslim Rohingya ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The term u201cfake newsu201d became increasingly common during the past year. While this concept has many synonymsu2014disinformation campaigns, cyber propaganda, cognitive hacking, and information warfareu2014itu2019s just one facet of the bigger problem: the manipulation of public opinion to affect the real world. Thanks to the connectivity and digital platforms that make it possible to share and spread information, traditional challenges such as physical borders and the constraints of time and distance do not exist anymore. Unfortunately, it also makes it easier to manipulate the publicu2019s perception of reality and thought processes, resulting in the proliferation of fake news that affects our real, non-digital environment. Each new incident shows how much impact the technological manipulation of public opinion can have on peopleu2019s daily lives. This paper studies and explores the techniques and methods used by actors to spread fake news and manipulate public opinion to serve various motives ranging from personal and financial to political. It also discusses the three legs of the fake news triangle: the services that enable them, their appearance on social media sites, and the motivations behind these activities. We demonstrate several techniques used to identify such campaigns by processing social media data and show how it is possible to trace those campaigns to the original perpetrators.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gu”, “given” : “Lion”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kropotov”, “given” : “Vladimir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yarochkin”, “given” : “Fyodor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Trend Micro”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1 – 81”, “title” : “The fake news machine: How propagandists abuse the Internet and manipulate the public”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dfa0e9f8-9d8b-460f-a1ff-cfd02b0e9475” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Gu et al, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gu et al, 2017)
Gurmeher Kaur, a student of Delhi University was trolled on Twitter and Facebook for protesting against political student wing Akhil Bhartiya Vidyarthi Parishad (ABVP). She was also trolled for a campaign she did in school, of which social media users started sharing screenshots of her holding a placard that said Pakistan did not kill my dad, war killed him. It took me a while to know, but today I do. I have learnt to let go of my hate,”. Soon thereafter, a fake video went viral on social media showing a young woman drinking along with her friends in a moving car, claiming that she was Kaur. Many people including Bollywood celebrities and cricketers launched a misinformed attack on the student. However, it was later found that the girl was not Gurmeher and the video was uploaded on Youtube much before the controversy. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dasgupta”, “given” : “Buroshiva”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Tackling u2018 bias u2019 and fake coverages in the Indian media”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba9ab683-4f55-4561-a545-c00897aca735” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dasgupta, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dasgupta, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dasgupta, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dasgupta, 2014)
With no end to the trend of fake news, India once again saw the flow of false information in May, following the death of one of the biggest Bollywood actresses Sridevi. Some of the news-focused videos which were dominating YouTube’s trending feed, were created by unverified channels and reported all false information about her death.
According to Dubbudu and Dodda ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dubbudu”, “given” : “Rakesh Reddy”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dodda”, “given” : “Tejaswi Pratima”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Hindu”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Tackling fake news”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=86f49458-568d-49a4-99a6-26a218a4e229” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dubbudu and Dodda, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(2017”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dubbudu and Dodda, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dubbudu and Dodda, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(2017), “Unlike mainstream media that falls under comprehensive regulation, online platforms have scope for wrongdoing due to the lack of binding rules, and the ability to keep owners and editors private like in the case of fake news sites. In the absence of such crucial information, there is no understanding of the liability and the credibility of the information that is being hosted on their respective sites. This is the main strength of the creators of fake news, the ability to remain anonymous in the guise of a media outlet.” However, the human rights law considers any restriction on freedom of speech and expression mandatory and proportional in order to meet the ends it seeks to serve. But a restriction is necessary only if it is more than useful, reasonable, or desirable following which it has been argued that “fake news” does not pose any specific harm like any other forms of speech which are regulated, such as defamation or hate speech. Thus, regulating fake news is not consistent with human rights law, or constitutional law in democratic countries.
Despite welcoming the advantages of advancement in the information technology, the Indian government has failed to reduce the misuse of technology and cyber-crime in the country till today. Even though several amendments have been made in 2008 in the IT Act, 2000, it does not criminalise social media users for creating and sharing fake news on various SNSs. Facebook, Twitter, Whats App, and Instagram, which have been widely misused to spread fake news, lies and propaganda in India, have no accountability under the IT Act, 2000 to filter unlawful messages posted by their users. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Sharma”, “given” : “Ashish”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “6”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “651-657”, “title” : “Fake News : A New Trending Phenomenon and Challenges”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=435263af-7631-4be1-8438-f72aebe0c7a0” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sharma, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sharma, 2017)
However, several fake news busters have already taken an ingenious initiative to combat the phenomenon of online myths. Organisations such as AltNews, Boom and SM Hoaxslayer keeps a tab on social media to identify the viral stories and information, which prima facie appears false, verifies the sources and if the information is fake, it further relays the correction.

In the month of June 2018, rumours of child abductors made rounds in various states which was shared via social media app WhatsApp. These fake messages which included gory images and videos of alleged child kidnappers being assaulted by the public created an environment of suspicion, mistrust and fear, following which it led to lynching of almost 20 people across the country. It was an investigation by Alt News which found that the same set of images was being used across the country and most of them were unrelated to the child abduction. Also, the video being shared was an old video from 2016, made for awareness purposes by an organization named Roshni Helpline.

All such instances show how India is getting polarised not just politically but also socially on the grounds of religion and ethnicity. However, these instances have been getting wider with the help of social media where fake news and videos are being circulated with a deliberate plan, under the current Prime Minister Narendra Modi regime ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dasgupta”, “given” : “Buroshiva”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “title” : “Tackling u2018 bias u2019 and fake coverages in the Indian media”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ba9ab683-4f55-4561-a545-c00897aca735” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dasgupta, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dasgupta, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dasgupta, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dasgupta, 2014).
It was during the same time when this paper was being written that, due to the intense media coverage given to the increasing issue of fake news, the Information and Broadcasting ministry (I&B) formed a committee with representatives from various Union ministries in order “to frame and suggest a regulatory framework for online news, social media and overall online ecosystem ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://inc42.com/buzz/govt-mulling-to-introduce-legislation-for-online-news-and-social-media-content-smriti-irani/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “4”, “26” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Anupam”, “given” : “Suprita”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Inc42”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Govt. mulling to introduce legislation for online news and social media content: Smriti Irani”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=e4652bbe-719a-460f-9a97-fe221b864578” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Anupam, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Anupam, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Anupam, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Anupam, 2018).
In addition, the committee has also been considering to adopt some of the international best practices in the area of online regulation. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hindustan Times”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Hindustan Times”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “publisher-place” : “New Delhi”, “title” : “I&B Ministry sets up committee to regulate online content”, “type” : “article-newspaper” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b44be370-2945-43d1-b601-80a60c547bf5” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Hindustan Times, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Hindustan Times, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Hindustan Times, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Hindustan Times, 2018)
2.3.2 Fake news on Social Media and UK:
With the increasing number of individuals sourcing news through various SNSs, Facebook has turned out to be one of the primary social media platforms through which fake news tends to go viral and reaches large number of social media users.
In 2017, the proportion of UK adults consuming news online exceeded those who watched news on TV (74% versus 69%). While Facebook is the most popular social media source of news with about 39 million users, Twitter stands second with about 22 million UK users. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781601522894”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “POSTNOTE”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Houses of Parliament:Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “559”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-6”, “title” : “Online Information and Fake News”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2985400b-1bcf-4280-9bbf-2a053fbe5536” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(POSTNOTE, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(POSTNOTE, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(POSTNOTE, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(POSTNOTE, 2017)
The term “fake news” became increasingly prominent in the UK in recent months after the Brexit vote and President Trump’s election in USA in 2016. Following the accusations that it was unable to do enough during the US presidential campaign or in the run up to the Brexit referendum in UK, Facebook tried to improve the monitoring and reporting system of false information in order to tackle the problem of fake news.
Though fake news has been used by some to discuss their like and dislike about a content of the news published by some established news providers, it is more widely applied to various types of false information spread on various social media platforms. During 2016 USA elections, social media platforms in UK witnessed the most popular shared stories containing misinformation coming from established news outlets. Though they contained some truth to an extent but were exaggerated which means that fake stories spread less. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781601522894”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “POSTNOTE”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Houses of Parliament:Parliamentary Office of Science & Technology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “559”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “number-of-pages” : “1-6”, “title” : “Online Information and Fake News”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2985400b-1bcf-4280-9bbf-2a053fbe5536” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(POSTNOTE, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(POSTNOTE, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(POSTNOTE, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(POSTNOTE, 2017)
However, in terms of mainstream media, there is a possibility that it might amplify fake news as the news organisations are generally are usually well-resourced which leads to the navigation and utilisation of the expensive social media ecosystems. But contrarily, it has also been argued that “majority of the mainstream media counter fake news by engaging in real investigative reporting and disseminating factually-supported stories” (wiltonpark).
In an attempt to top the rankings of their social media pages and increasing their audience reach, some producers of fake news tend to create fake viewers or social media “bots” in terms of fake social media accounts. While this is done to increase advertising revenue, the bots have been used mostly influence political discourse, as done in cases like the UK referendum on EU membership, the 2014 elections in India and a number of elections in the US. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Informe de Reuters sobre credibilidad y la audiencia. Tendencias. Credibilidad en los medios y en las redes sociales y recomendaciones”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Newman”, “given” : “Nic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fletcher”, “given” : “Richard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Reuters Institute”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Bias, Bullshit and Lies Audience Perspectives on Low Trust in the Media”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=d6253b98-b26f-4409-9fa9-2f44aa61c8dc” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Newman and Fletcher, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Newman and Fletcher, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Newman and Fletcher, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Newman and Fletcher, 2017) It can be argued that it is due to the easy switch of functionalities between human and bot which offers cyborg users an unique opportunities to spread fake news and the highly active and partisan malicious accounts on social media become the powerful sources for proliferation of fake news. (art 19)
Over the years, the reputation of the social media companies has been hit by the problem of fake news ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Less than a quarter of the UK population now trust social media, Edelman study finds 7 in 10 say social media firms aren’t doing enough to address extremism and cyberbullying 64% back tougher regulation of social media companies Social media companies have lost the trust of the public, according to the findings of the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer, the world’s largest and longest-running global study of trust. Social media is now trusted by less than a quarter of the UK population (24%), and the public is now demanding tougher regulation. The results from a special UK supplement to Edelman’s global Trust Barometer survey, come after a year of controversies in which tech giants were accused of aiding extremism, ignoring threats to child safety, and spreading fake news. Low trust in social media is driven by a sense of inaction around important issues. Some 70% of Britons believe that social media companies do not do enough to prevent illegal or unethical behaviours on their platforms. A further 70% agree these companies do not do enough to prevent the sharing of extremist content, and 69% agree they don’t do enough to combat cyberbullying. The promise of social media companies to make the world more open and connected rings hollow for many. Over a third of Britons believe that social media is not good for society, and even more (57%) believe the companies take advantage of people’s loneliness. A large proportion of Britons believe that social media companies are not sufficiently regulated (64%), lack transparency (63%), and are selling people’s data without their knowledge (62%). The reputation of social media companies has also been hit by the problem of fake news. Over half of Britons (53%) worry about being exposed to fake news on social media, and 64% cannot distinguish between proper journalism and fake news. The fear of fake news may also explain the fact that a large proportion of the UK (42%) say they only skim headlines on social media, but do not click on the content.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ryan”, “given” : “Kayleigh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Edelman Trust Barometer”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Social media on notice as public calls out insufficient regulation”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=940455b8-7552-46ab-b74a-36bc6bbfd882” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ryan, 2018), but according to a 2017 parliamentary publication, social media companies face almost no penalties for failing to remove any illegal content from their respective websites ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “HC 609”, “abstract” : “2017-04-25”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “House of Commons”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “April”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher-place” : “London”, “title” : “Hate crime: abuse, hate and extremism online”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=20dba81f-0300-4a2a-be2f-d65433d45bfd” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(House of Commons, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(House of Commons, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(House of Commons, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(House of Commons, 2017).

However, according to a culture, media and sport committee 2017 report by UK parliament, the fake news phenomenon was soon viewed seriously and a House of Commons committee launched an inquiry into ‘the growing phenomenon of widespread dissemination, through social media and the internet, and acceptance as fact of stories of uncertain provenance or accuracy’ ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “IMPRESS”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1-35”, “title” : “House of Commons Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport Inquiry into Fake News Submission by IMPRESS: The Independent Monitor for the Press”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=ccc923ef-85fb-416e-aef1-1a9b5f0a99f8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(IMPRESS, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(IMPRESS, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(IMPRESS, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(IMPRESS, 2017). The inquiry, which came in response to the threat posed by the fake news phenomenon to democracy and confidence in the media, was called off following the general election on 8 June 2017. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fernandez”, “given” : “Dr. Joseph M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher” : “Curtin University, Western Australia”, “title” : “The Future of Public Interest Journalism: Addressing the “problem” of “fake news””, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9bfa6f2-8d0b-4c9a-b22a-2aed75cb82bf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fernandez, 2017)
Besides looking into the fake news phenomenon, the committee’s inquiry aimed at looking into the “impact of fake news on public understanding of the world, and the public response to traditional journalism? If all views are equally valid, does objectivity and balance lose all value? Have changes in the selling and placing of advertising encouraged the growth of fake news’? What responsibilities do search engines and social media platforms have, particularly those that are accessible to young people? Is it viable to use computer-generated algorithms to root out fake news from genuine reporting? How can people be educated on how to assess and use different sources of news?” (Culture, Media and Sport Committee, UK Parliament, 2017 cited by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fernandez”, “given” : “Dr. Joseph M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher” : “Curtin University, Western Australia”, “title” : “The Future of Public Interest Journalism: Addressing the “problem” of “fake news””, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9bfa6f2-8d0b-4c9a-b22a-2aed75cb82bf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “Fernandez, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Fernandez, 2017)
As per the news coverage, surrounding the election campaigning in the recent general election, UK Prime Minister Theresa May said that though social media provides with both good and benefits but it can also create problems when it comes to people sharing some sort of information and those viewing it are able to distinguish between the real and fake news.ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fernandez”, “given” : “Dr. Joseph M”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “publisher” : “Curtin University, Western Australia”, “title” : “The Future of Public Interest Journalism: Addressing the “problem” of “fake news””, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f9bfa6f2-8d0b-4c9a-b22a-2aed75cb82bf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fernandez, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fernandez, 2017)
According to the findings of the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer, a less than a quarter of the UK population (24%) trusts the social media. However, the findings also state that some 70% of Britons believe that not enough efforts are being taken by social media organisations to prevent illegal or unethical behaviours on their respective platforms whereas a further 70% find these companies not doing enough to prevent the sharing of extremist content. About 69% agree that they fail to combat cyberbullying ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Less than a quarter of the UK population now trust social media, Edelman study finds 7 in 10 say social media firms aren’t doing enough to address extremism and cyberbullying 64% back tougher regulation of social media companies Social media companies have lost the trust of the public, according to the findings of the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer, the world’s largest and longest-running global study of trust. Social media is now trusted by less than a quarter of the UK population (24%), and the public is now demanding tougher regulation. The results from a special UK supplement to Edelman’s global Trust Barometer survey, come after a year of controversies in which tech giants were accused of aiding extremism, ignoring threats to child safety, and spreading fake news. Low trust in social media is driven by a sense of inaction around important issues. Some 70% of Britons believe that social media companies do not do enough to prevent illegal or unethical behaviours on their platforms. A further 70% agree these companies do not do enough to prevent the sharing of extremist content, and 69% agree they don’t do enough to combat cyberbullying. The promise of social media companies to make the world more open and connected rings hollow for many. Over a third of Britons believe that social media is not good for society, and even more (57%) believe the companies take advantage of people’s loneliness. A large proportion of Britons believe that social media companies are not sufficiently regulated (64%), lack transparency (63%), and are selling people’s data without their knowledge (62%). The reputation of social media companies has also been hit by the problem of fake news. Over half of Britons (53%) worry about being exposed to fake news on social media, and 64% cannot distinguish between proper journalism and fake news. The fear of fake news may also explain the fact that a large proportion of the UK (42%) say they only skim headlines on social media, but do not click on the content.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ryan”, “given” : “Kayleigh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Edelman Trust Barometer”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Social media on notice as public calls out insufficient regulation”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=940455b8-7552-46ab-b74a-36bc6bbfd882” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ryan, 2018).
While about half of Britons i.e. 53% worry about being exposed to fake news on social media, 64% are unable to distinguish between proper journalism and fake news. The rest 42% of the UK population said that they only go through the news headlines on social media without clicking the content. The public is now demanding a tougher regulation for social media companies, as 64% of the population believes that the social media companies are not sufficiently regulated, 63% feel there is lack of transparency and 62% agree that they are selling people’s data without their knowledge ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “Less than a quarter of the UK population now trust social media, Edelman study finds 7 in 10 say social media firms aren’t doing enough to address extremism and cyberbullying 64% back tougher regulation of social media companies Social media companies have lost the trust of the public, according to the findings of the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer, the world’s largest and longest-running global study of trust. Social media is now trusted by less than a quarter of the UK population (24%), and the public is now demanding tougher regulation. The results from a special UK supplement to Edelman’s global Trust Barometer survey, come after a year of controversies in which tech giants were accused of aiding extremism, ignoring threats to child safety, and spreading fake news. Low trust in social media is driven by a sense of inaction around important issues. Some 70% of Britons believe that social media companies do not do enough to prevent illegal or unethical behaviours on their platforms. A further 70% agree these companies do not do enough to prevent the sharing of extremist content, and 69% agree they don’t do enough to combat cyberbullying. The promise of social media companies to make the world more open and connected rings hollow for many. Over a third of Britons believe that social media is not good for society, and even more (57%) believe the companies take advantage of people’s loneliness. A large proportion of Britons believe that social media companies are not sufficiently regulated (64%), lack transparency (63%), and are selling people’s data without their knowledge (62%). The reputation of social media companies has also been hit by the problem of fake news. Over half of Britons (53%) worry about being exposed to fake news on social media, and 64% cannot distinguish between proper journalism and fake news. The fear of fake news may also explain the fact that a large proportion of the UK (42%) say they only skim headlines on social media, but do not click on the content.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ryan”, “given” : “Kayleigh”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Edelman Trust Barometer”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “Social media on notice as public calls out insufficient regulation”, “type” : “report” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=940455b8-7552-46ab-b74a-36bc6bbfd882” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Ryan, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Ryan, 2018).

Unlike India, where Altnews, Boomlive and Social Medi Hoax Slayer are the websites identifying and verifying the sources of the fake news being circulated on social media, UK has independent organisations running such initiatives, where a team of fact-checkers monitor and debunk fake, election related news stories. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “The term u201cfake newsu201d became increasingly common during the past year. While this concept has many synonymsu2014disinformation campaigns, cyber propaganda, cognitive hacking, and information warfareu2014itu2019s just one facet of the bigger problem: the manipulation of public opinion to affect the real world. Thanks to the connectivity and digital platforms that make it possible to share and spread information, traditional challenges such as physical borders and the constraints of time and distance do not exist anymore. Unfortunately, it also makes it easier to manipulate the publicu2019s perception of reality and thought processes, resulting in the proliferation of fake news that affects our real, non-digital environment. Each new incident shows how much impact the technological manipulation of public opinion can have on peopleu2019s daily lives. This paper studies and explores the techniques and methods used by actors to spread fake news and manipulate public opinion to serve various motives ranging from personal and financial to political. It also discusses the three legs of the fake news triangle: the services that enable them, their appearance on social media sites, and the motivations behind these activities. We demonstrate several techniques used to identify such campaigns by processing social media data and show how it is possible to trace those campaigns to the original perpetrators.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Gu”, “given” : “Lion”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Kropotov”, “given” : “Vladimir”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Yarochkin”, “given” : “Fyodor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Trend Micro”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “page” : “1 – 81”, “title” : “The fake news machine: How propagandists abuse the Internet and manipulate the public”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=dfa0e9f8-9d8b-460f-a1ff-cfd02b0e9475” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Gu et al 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Gu, Kropotov and Yarochkin, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Gu et al 2017)
BBC’s Reality Check and Channel 4’s FactCheck are two of the longest established fact checking services in the country, which tend to focus on domestic stories in addition to international issues ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Magee”, “given” : “Helen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Faking It Fake News and How It Impacts on the Charity Sector”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=79c88b4b-7096-4eac-b500-c6ab147d11cb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Magee, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Magee, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Magee, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Magee, 2017). Another independent fact checking organisation is “Full Fact”, which publishes factchecks in the form of articles and pushes for corrections and withdrawals from individuals where necessary ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “https://fullfact.org/about/effectiveness/”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “7”, “2” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fall Fact”, “given” : “”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Fullfact.org”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “title” : “Effectiveness: Public Impact”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=25db1a6e-c5de-4dbe-8cce-98f58b64f485” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fall Fact, 2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fall Fact, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fall Fact, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fall Fact, 2009). However, there is a limited amount of evidence to determine how successful fact checking is in debunking fake news stories ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Magee”, “given” : “Helen”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2017” }, “title” : “Faking It Fake News and How It Impacts on the Charity Sector”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=79c88b4b-7096-4eac-b500-c6ab147d11cb” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Magee, 2017)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Magee, 2017)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Magee, 2017)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Magee, 2017)
Until recently, there was no specific mechanism in the UK for dealing with online fake news stories shared through social media and neither the UK government had any specific policies for addressing fake news. It was only in early 2018, the UK government decided to establish a “fake news unit” to control the spreading of hoax news stories online, stop social media influence campaigns from foreign adversaries ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “URL” : “http://thehill.com/policy/technology/370607-uk-to-form-unit-to-fight-fake-news-misinformation-campaigns”, “accessed” : { “date-parts” : “2018”, “4”, “28” }, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Breland”, “given” : “Ali”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “The Hill”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2018” }, “title” : “UK to form unit to fight ‘fake news,’ misinformation campaigns”, “type” : “webpage” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=9f8be3ab-19f6-428a-b118-d2124f26928a” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Breland, 2018)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Breland, 2018)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Breland, 2018)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Breland, 2018) and prevent social media users from creating misinformation.
2.4 Conclusion:
As it can be seen from the available academic literature, even though both India and UK do not have specific laws to control the online content but have felt the need to equally control or monitor the content on social media following which they have been making efforts to come up with various laws and committees. However, the literature clearly shows how India has faced much more critical and violent situations due to the spreading of hate speech and circulation of fake news as compared to UK. The reason being the cases as discussed in the literature, where Indian media gave huge coverage to the different incidents that were a consequence of the hate speech and fake news. Whereas, UK media seemed to have given less coverage to incidents taking place due to the online hate speech and fake news in the country except those against Islamophobia or Muslims.

This led to an interest of this study to compare the coverage and prominence given to these issues in the traditional media of both India and UK.
Also, this literature review allowed the researcher to outline one of the biggest visible research gap in terms of the media coverage given to online hate speech and fake news. While studies have been carried out on the fake news and hate speech on specific social media platforms or the incidents that have taken place due to these issues in specific countries, it has, however, never been applied to understand the mainstream media’s discourse on these issues in the online space. Thus, this dissertation attempted to examine the India and UK’s newspaper coverage and discourse on “fake news and hate speech on social media”.
METHODOLOGY
The methodology section presents the methods used for the purpose of this dissertation which has been divided into two sections: Quantitative Content Analysis (QCA) and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The section includes the description of the chosen method, the process of selecting newspapers and articles, processing of data, study’s limitations, measures of trustworthiness and ethical standpoints.
3.1 Research design
3.1.1 Quantitative Content Analysis
Content analysis can be defined as a “valid and replicable methodology for making inferences from data to context” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0803914970”, “abstract” : “Krippendorff views content analysis (one of the most important techniques in communication research) in historical perspective, in contrast to other techniques and in terms of what it can and cannot do.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Krippendorff”, “given” : “Klaus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1980” }, “language” : “eng”, “number-of-pages” : “181-189”, “publisher” : “Beverly Hills (Calif.) : Sage publications”, “title” : “Content analysis : an introduction to its methodology”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=48f20776-3edb-4c7d-a3c0-15cccd53b99c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff, 1980)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Krippendorff, 1980”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff, 1980)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff, 1980)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Krippendorff, 1980, p. 21). In this comparative study after formulating the research questions, the researcher decided to carry out Quantitative Content Analysis as the first method. As claimed by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This survey of content analysis views it as “a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.” The review covers primarily the 1935-1950 period, listing 17 types of application of content analysis with abstracts of representative studies in each type and explanatory comment on them. In addition to quantitative studies, the author considers qualitative types and gives examples of them, and devotes additional chapters to the units and the categories of content analysis. A chapter on technical problemsu2014sampling, reliability, presentation and modes of inferenceu2014concludes the text. 350-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Berelson”, “given” : “Bernard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Content analysis in communication research.”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1952” }, “number-of-pages” : “220”, “publisher” : “Free Press”, “publisher-place” : “New York, NY, US”, “title” : “Content analysis in communication research.”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=257cbfbb-5dd3-4050-a764-7fcae878f0c1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)”, “manualFormatting” : “Berelson (1952, “, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Berelson (1952, p.18), content analysis “is a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication”. Whereas, according to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781412949668”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Krippendorff”, “given” : “K”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bock”, “given” : “M A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2009” }, “publisher” : “SAGE Publications”, “title” : “The Content Analysis Reader”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f0093c63-0548-4bb8-adba-e1879a7e22e8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff and Bock, 2009)”, “manualFormatting” : “Krippendorff and Bock (2009)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff and Bock, 2009)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff and Bock, 2009)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Krippendorff and Bock (2009), the QCA is “often concerned with the frequency of occurrence”, which means that if a word or certain issue which appears more times than the other, it holds a significance ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781403935656”, “abstract” : “a bevezetu0151 fejezetekben ju00f3 u00f6sszefoglalu00f3k a tartalomelemzu00e9s ill. a diskurzuselemzu00e9s mibenlu00e9tu00e9ru0151l u00e9s fajtu00e1iru00f3l”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Richardson”, “given” : “John E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Analysing Newspapers. An Approach from Critical discourse Analysis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “114-148”, “title” : “Social Practices: Journalism and the Material World”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=127b940d-4f7a-4b26-89c3-feaa7b30ea7c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Richardson, 2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Richardson, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Richardson, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Richardson, 2007).
As the current study focused on analysing two different newspapers, QCA was found to be a suitable method to explore the difference in the nature of Indian and UK newspapers’ coverage while establishing their extent of coverage on the issues of hate speech and fake news on social media. ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1326365X14540245”, “ISBN” : “0801312515”, “ISSN” : “00129976”, “PMID” : “164861424”, “abstract” : “This text provides a framework for evaluating and reviewing the factors that influence media content, or media sociology. It examines the influences on media content (the audience, media organizations, advertisers and government) and reviews past studies on mass media sociology.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Shoemaker”, “given” : “Pamela J.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Reese”, “given” : “Stephen D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1996” }, “number-of-pages” : “313”, “title” : “Mediating the Message: Theories of Influences on Mass Media Content”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b3f043eb-ca50-4e6e-b30e-0a2894d9fa42” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Shoemaker and Reese, 1996)”, “manualFormatting” : “Shoemaker and Reese (1996”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Shoemaker and Reese, 1996)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Shoemaker and Reese, 1996)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Shoemaker and Reese (1996, p.28) content analysis can focus on several phenomena, for instance, sources quoted, context, messages, in addition to “identifying patterns, themes, or biases” in the news coverage ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Leedy”, “given” : “Paul D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Ormrod”, “given” : “Jeanne Ellis”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “7th ed.”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2001” }, “publisher” : “N.J Merrill Prentice Hall”, “publisher-place” : “Upper Saddle River”, “title” : “Practical research planning and design”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=415a4c26-06c5-4674-82a6-8411dd35ee10” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001, “, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Leedy and Ormrod, 2001, p. 155). As the QCA is purely focused on “statistical formulations, directed toward empirical problems” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Janis”, “given” : “I.L.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fadner”, “given” : “R.H.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Psychometrika: A journal of quantitative psychology”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1943” }, “page” : “105”, “title” : “A coefficient of imbalance for content analysis”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “8” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=552a7b8f-efd0-48de-9c95-2397cce50fb2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Janis and Fadner, 1943)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Janis and Fadner, 1943)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Janis and Fadner, 1943)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Janis and Fadner, 1943), it was considered to be an ideal approach to quantify the presence of the certain aforementioned factors in an objective manner and for tabulating and categorising a sample of newspaper articles for this study. Hence, the researcher went through the selected samples and coded it to yield a concrete result; without having to make any inferences about the latent meaning present in the content of the text ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Holsti”, “given” : “O R”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1969” }, “publisher” : “Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.”, “title” : “Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=f53e2e67-ea4e-4644-b735-ee1141640f6c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Holsti, 1969)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Holsti, 1969”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Holsti, 1969)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Holsti, 1969)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Holsti, 1969, p.598). As content analysis helps in studying the content of the texts objectively and systematically ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This survey of content analysis views it as “a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.” The review covers primarily the 1935-1950 period, listing 17 types of application of content analysis with abstracts of representative studies in each type and explanatory comment on them. In addition to quantitative studies, the author considers qualitative types and gives examples of them, and devotes additional chapters to the units and the categories of content analysis. A chapter on technical problemsu2014sampling, reliability, presentation and modes of inferenceu2014concludes the text. 350-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Berelson”, “given” : “Bernard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Content analysis in communication research.”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1952” }, “number-of-pages” : “220”, “publisher” : “Free Press”, “publisher-place” : “New York, NY, US”, “title” : “Content analysis in communication research.”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=257cbfbb-5dd3-4050-a764-7fcae878f0c1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Berelson, 1952), QCA was chosen as one of the research methods ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “abstract” : “This survey of content analysis views it as “a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication.” The review covers primarily the 1935-1950 period, listing 17 types of application of content analysis with abstracts of representative studies in each type and explanatory comment on them. In addition to quantitative studies, the author considers qualitative types and gives examples of them, and devotes additional chapters to the units and the categories of content analysis. A chapter on technical problemsu2014sampling, reliability, presentation and modes of inferenceu2014concludes the text. 350-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Berelson”, “given” : “Bernard”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Content analysis in communication research.”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1952” }, “number-of-pages” : “220”, “publisher” : “Free Press”, “publisher-place” : “New York, NY, US”, “title” : “Content analysis in communication research.”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=257cbfbb-5dd3-4050-a764-7fcae878f0c1” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Berelson, 1952)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Berelson, 1952) for this comparative study.
Choosing CA in this comparative study provided the researcher with several advantages. Firstly, as the researcher analysed the secondary sources i.e. newspaper articles, this method did not require any reaction between participants involving the study and the researcher. Due to this non-reactive effect of the CA, Harris (2001) suggests that this research method is far more likely to be employed in studies of sensitive issues from previous documents. Secondly, the results produced in this research method are very transparent as a consequence of the sampling procedures as well as the coding scheme applied in the study.
As the word “objective? is seen as the main strength of the CA, many researchers consider this approach as an objective method of analysis. By assigning categories on textual entities like newspaper articles, speeches, CA aims at data-reducing description of mass textual data as a deductive research design ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.09.006”, “ISBN” : “0172-6404”, “ISSN” : “1438-5627”, “abstract” : “”Computergestiitzte Analyse qualitativer Daten: Wie sich die qualitative Sozialforschung fur Massentextanalysen offnet”. Two developments in computational text analysis may change the way qualitative data analysis in social sciences is performed: 1. the availability of digital text worth to investigate is growing rapidly, and 2. the improvement of algorithmic information extraction approaches, also called text mining, allows for further bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative text analysis. The key factor hereby is the inclusion of context into computational linguistic models which extends conventional computational content analysis towards the extraction of meaning. To clarify methodological differences of various computer-assisted text analysis approaches the article suggests a typology from the perspective of a qualitative researcher. This typology shows compatibilities between manual qualitative data analysis methods and computational, rather quantitative approaches for large scale mixed method text analysis designs.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wiedemann”, “given” : “Gregor”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Forum Qualitative Social Research”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2013” }, “page” : “Art. 23”, “title” : “Opening up to Big Data: Computer-Assisted Analysis of Textual Data in Social Sciences”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “14” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=2c263b23-324d-412f-86e7-020eddce6ff4” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Wiedemann, 2013)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Wiedemann, 2013)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Wiedemann, 2013)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Wiedemann, 2013). Further, this comparative study found CA analysis to be an appropriate approach also due to its ability to compare units from different media content. Thus, QCA can be defined as “the creation and use of pre-determined categories for the purpose of understanding and describing the media messages in a way that can be counted and quantified” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4135/9781412985536”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Altheide”, “given” : “David”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1996” }, “publisher-place” : “Thousand Oaks, California”, “title” : “Qualitative Media Analysis”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=67956b05-39b5-4067-a910-c44dc795cd41” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Altheide, 1996)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Altheide, 1996)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Altheide, 1996)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Altheide, 1996).
As stated by Krippendorff (2013, p.24 cited by Wiedemann 2013, p.11) CA gives “emphasis to a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from data to their context”. In simple words, CA is a systematic technique which categorizes data into themes and then counts how often each category or theme occurs in order to identify the dominant findings in the study while making generalisations. Therefore, this allowed the researcher to include large amounts of textual information and systematically identify its properties.

3.1.2 Critical Discourse Analysis
‘Discourse’ can be defined as “language use conceived as social practice (abstract noun)” and “way of signifying experience from a particular perspective (countable noun)” (Fairclough, 1993). Discourse Analysis is regarded as one sort of vital research method that is utilized to analyse the text or talks with the goal that we can build the procedure and discover the way strength and imbalance. Following a comprehensive study like this, Van Dijk (2001 cited in Wodak and Meyer, 2014) argues that discourse analysts could locate the most proper and exact capacity, and after that to “understand, expose, and ultimately resist social inequality” along these lines.
Critical Discourse Analysis sees ‘language as social practice’ and considers the ‘context of language use’ to be crucial.” In a simple context, CDA sees “discourse – language use in speech and writing – as a form of ‘social practice’.” Depicting talk as social practice infers a rationalistic connection between a specific discursive event and the situation(s), institution(s) and social structure(s), which outlines it. (Wodak and Meyer, 2014)
The texts are used by the human subjects to understand their reality while building upon social actions and relations in the work of their regular day to day existence as well as text position and make different meanings, ideas and versions of the world accessible (Lucke 1996:12). Such analysis incorporates text analysis, interactions and social practices at the local, institutional and societal levels. As, CDA requires an account of detailed relationships between text, talk, society and culture, it deals with long term analysis of fundamental causes and consequences of issues. Looking at the social issues of the community and the type of texts being used help in understanding both teaching and learning policies. (Mogashoa, 2014)
Through CDA, this comparative study looked at the texts in a more in-depth manner in order to identify whether the language they are written in imitates or reshapes prevailing social discourses. Since CDA associates itself with ideological construction and inequality in language, the researcher considered the media discourse in terms of newspaper reports as the main domain of the study. As stated by researcher Martin Conboy, “the language of the news media works in terms of these socio-cultural contexts” (Conboy, 2007, p.118)
However, CDA provokes one to move from considering language as theoretical towards seeing our words as having importance in a specific historical, social and political condition (McGregor, 2010). Subsequently, CDA (Blommaert and Bulcaen, 2000) thinks about genuine, and regularly broadened, occurrences of social communication which take especially in linguistic form.
Lucke (1996 cited in Mogashoa, 2014) states that “as texts are moments of inter-subjectivity, that is, the social and discursive relations between human subjects, they involve writers and readers, speakers and listeners, individuals whose intentions are neither self-evident nor recoverable without recourse to another text.” CDA is an apparatus to help professionals comprehend the messages they are sending to themselves as well as other people and to comprehend the meanings of both the spoken and written texts by other individuals. The expressions of people with great influence are taken as “self-evident truths” and the words of those not in power of those not in control are expelled as immaterial, unseemly or without substance (McGregor, 2010)
Through the CDA approach, the researcher further conducted a preliminary study on the analysis of news discourse while exploring the basic ideologies as well as the connection between news discourse and ideology. The reason of CDA approach to news analysis has increasingly become the standard approach to the analysis of news reports. This approach centers around the social and ideological parts of language. In short, by using CDA in this study, the researcher endeavoured to uncover ideological messages or ulterior thought processes hidden within the language of the headlines, which seems unbiased at first glance (Machin and Mayr, 2012, p. 5).

Wodak, (2002) argued that the goal of CDA is to denaturalise the naturalised ideologies and to “make transparent the structural relationships of dominance, discrimination, power and control as manifested in language”. The connection between news language and its social and recorded condition is the key point in CDA and it likewise ought to be examined from a public discourse. News discourses are particular sorts of language use and of social practice “surrounded” by organisations, with guidelines and traditions. In this way, news discourse analysis addresses social issues and power relations and is even a type of social activity itself (Wodak, 2013).
3.2 Mode of procedure
3.2.1 Selection of newspapers and articles
The data for this study consists of articles concerning the coverage of fake news and hate speech on social media that have led to debate on the need of social media regulation in two major English-language newspapers, The Times of India (TOI)-India and The Daily Telegraph-United Kingdom from the full 2017 calendar year. The reason for choosing the particular year is that the rise of “hate speech and fake news on social media” has become prominent issues in both Indian and UK political debate. Secondly, since the researcher carried out this comparative study in mid-2018, the year 2017 was selected to stay as current as is feasible to the subject.
TOI and The Daily Telegraph were chosen as the two newspapers in this study due to their high reputation for being credible and objective in their respective countries, as well as being the most influential in terms of circulation. Also, due to the accessibility of the extensive online archives, the study focused on analysing the websites of both the newspapers. However, the number of newspapers studies was limited to only two keeping in mind the factors related to the scope of the study-since the time period is extensive, an in-depth analysis of more newspaper web archives was simply not within the scope of this Master’s thesis.
The short information about chosen newspapers is presented below:
1: “The Times of India”: An English-language daily newspaper published in Mumbai, Ahmadabad and Delhi, TOI is one of India’s most influential papers, and its voice has frequently coincided with that of the national government. Founded in 1838 as The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce to serve the British residents of western India, the paper became a daily in 1851 and changed its’ name to TOI in 1861. (britanica) Its subjects are coverage of events in India and around the world on politics, sports, Bollywood, business and live update on current affairs. With 45 dailies and periodicals in 3 languages and 108 editions across the country and a combined readership of over 40 million.
“The Daily Telegraph”: Founded in 1855 as Daily Telegraph and Courier, The Daily Telegraph or The Telegraph is a daily newspaper published in London and is considered as one of Britain’s “big three” quality newspapers. The edition is devoted to latest news from UK including sport, business, lifestyle and culture. With the selection of interesting feature articles and editorial presentation, this newspaper has consistently maintained a high standard of reporting and takes a conservative, middle-class approach to comprehensive news coverage.

The articles studied were taken from the web archives of abovementioned newspapers rather than from the actual paper copies. Thus, the method for searching for articles suitable for both the analyses was by carrying out an advanced search on each of the chosen newspaper websites with key words “hate speech on social media 2017” and “fake news on social media 2017” on each of the chosen newspaper web archives. This way, the search results generated all hate speech and fake news related articles as well general articles on social media. A total of combined 182 articles on hate speech and 184 articles on fake news overall were produced in both the newspapers’ database.
There were 94 articles on hate speech and 110 articles on fake news from TOI and 88 articles on hate speech and 74 articles on fake news from The Daily Telegraph. Since, the study entirely focused on analysing hard news, the articles were manually selected as valid ones excluding editorials, interviews, stories on other countries and opinion pieces. Even the duplicate articles were eliminated. Once the selection criteria were applied, 30 on hate speech and 40 articles on fake news from TOI and 28 on hate speech and 18 articles on fake news from The Daily Telegraph were left, which were selected as the final sample.
Therefore, “relevance sampling” technique was adopted in the selection of articles, which implies “a selecting of textual units that contribute to answering research question. Additionally, due to the resulting sample being defined by the analytical problem at hand, relevance sampling is termed as “purposive sampling” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “ISBN 0-7619-1544-3 – ISBN 0-7619-1545-1 (pbk.)”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Krippendorff”, “given” : “Klaus”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “Second”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “publisher” : “Sage Publications, Inc.”, “publisher-place” : “United States”, “title” : “Content analysis : an introduction to its methodology 2nd ed.”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=be29081c-d7b8-4bc6-9123-d8970f28bcb6” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff, 2004)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Krippendorff, 2004”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Krippendorff, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Krippendorff, 2004, p. 119)
3,2.2 Coding frameworks
3.2.2.1 QCA
In this section of analysis, overall a total of 116 relevant articles, with 58 each on online hate speech (TOI=30, The Daily Telegraph=28), and fake news (TOI=40, The Daily Telegraph=18) were analysed to determine the way in which both the newspapers’ covered the online hate
speech and fake news in their respective countries while comparing their similarities and differences. In other words, the CA of this research was able to answer the first research question “How Indian and UK newspapers cover stories on “fake news and hate speech on social media”?
To map the overall news coverage of “hate speech and fake news on social media” in TOI and The Telegraph, a coding framework was developed, after reviewing the published literature on online hate speech and fake news in India and UK and identify key components of media-based content analysis. In this way, the researcher identified two content categories as the unit of analysis: (1) News sources in the articles and (2) overall tone of the stories. This was followed by applying an inductive approach in the form of open coding to determine which categories were applicable to the online hate speech and fake news. This led to the identification of six thematic coding categories as presented in table 1.
News sources:
News sources play an important role in shaping the story line along with the nature of the message conveyed. In addition, it can also be used to detect whether the reporting has been done in a biased or an unbiased way.
News sources intervene in the news production processes while positioning news audiences and exerting influence in news framing ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.4135/9781446218082.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Manning”, “given” : “Paul”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2001” }, “publisher” : “Sage Publications Ltd .”, “publisher-place” : “London”, “title” : “News and news sources: a critical introduction”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=fb2c432a-6959-4068-9ea5-43df13ef4a60” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Manning, 2001)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Manning, 2001, p.226)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Manning, 2001)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Manning, 2001)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Manning, 2001, p.226), through the use of direct or indirect quotes in the story. However, even though news sources are considered to be an important element in the news, it is still unknown whether “certain types of news sources are inclined to provide particular news frames”ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0669850357”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “V”, “family” : “Sigal”, “given” : “Leon”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1973” }, “note” : “Bibliography: p. 201-212.”, “publisher” : “D. C. Heath”, “publisher-place” : “Lexington, Mass”, “title” : “Reporters and officials: the organization and politics of newsmaking by Leon V. Sigal”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=935f3263-7ebe-460f-a578-ec68038559da” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Sigal, 1973)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Sigal, 1973)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Sigal, 1973)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Sigal, 1973). Previous research on news sources have shown that they provide several functions in the news-making process which includes: “(1) providing verification of the news account; (2) avoiding bias and increasing objectivity in journalistic writing (3) offering different point of views; (4) reducing uncertainty before editorial deadline; and (5) increasing the credibility of the news story ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Boeyink”, “given” : “David E”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Mass Media Ethics”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1990” }, “title” : “Anonymous sources in news stories: Justifying exceptions and limiting abuses”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=03454923-afdd-4f60-8a4a-363f3296c580” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Boeyink, 1990)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Boeyink, 1990, p.235)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Boeyink, 1990)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Boeyink, 1990)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Boeyink, 1990, p.235) In terms of credibility, researchers have found that, in order to gain reader’s trust and attention, journalists more likely use authoritative sources such as government officials or elite sources ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISSN” : “0021-9916”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Bennett”, “given” : “W Lance”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Communication TA -“, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “2”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1990” }, “page” : “103-127”, “title” : “Toward a Theory of Press-State Relations in the United States TT -“, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “40” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=72bbce2a-bc7d-4b7e-82de-2e8a37961daf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Bennett, 1990)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Bennett, 1990, p.103)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Bennett, 1990)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Bennett, 1990)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Bennett, 1990, p.103)
However, some scholars believe that selecting news sources is a natural news gathering process without any intention ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1464884911431546”, “ISSN” : “14648849”, “abstract” : “This study compares election news coverage in two different countries u2013 Sweden and the United States, focusing on the use of the strategic game frame and the conflict frame and the association between these two frames and different types of news sources. The content analysis includes early evening newscasts from CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News and ABC World News in the USA and Rapport, Aktuellt and TV4 Nyheterna in Sweden. The findings show that the strategic game frame is used more frequently in the US coverage and is correlated with the use of media analysts and campaign operatives in both countries. Ordinary citizens as sources contribute to issue framing while domestic political actors tend to be associated with conflict framing. Differences in media framing between public and private media are also identified and discussed in the context of national political and media systems.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “V.”, “family” : “Dimitrova”, “given” : “Daniela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stru00f6mbu00e4ck”, “given” : “Jesper”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journalism”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “604-619”, “title” : “Election news in Sweden and the United States: A comparative study of sources and media frames”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “13” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=713cf150-1d8b-458f-aa51-c488115c5074” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012, p.609)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dimitrova and Strömbäck, 2012, p.609), others believe that choice of certain types of news sources is never in the hands of the media producer or journalist, who choose sources to determine the way news stories are framed ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Lasorsa L”, “given” : “Dominic”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Reese”, “given” : “Stephen D”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “No.1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1990” }, “page” : “pp. 60-71”, “title” : “News Source Use in the Crash of 1987: A Study of Four National Media”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “Vol. 67” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=86e4c5b2-e829-4c02-8350-371247e221d3” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Lasorsa L and Reese, 1990)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Lasorsa L and Reese, 1990)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Lasorsa L and Reese, 1990)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Lasorsa L and Reese, 1990)(Lasorsa ; Reese, 1990, p.60). On the other hand, Wilson (2010, p.44) argues that not journalists but news sources are the ones responsible for the accuracy of the facts. It happens many times that journalists or a media organisation are blamed for misreporting (Faridah, 2005, p.2), which clearly indicates that just like journalist is responsible for his news sources, in the same way the source is equally responsible for the information given out to the journalists.

In this analysis, news sources were identified as a statement of direct or indirect communication or speech/quoteADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Carpenter”, “given” : “Serena”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journalism& Mass Communication Quarterly”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “4”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “761-776”, “title” : “U.S. ELITE AND NON-ELITE NEWSPAPERS’ PORTRAYAL OF THE IRAQ WAR: A COMPARISOONF FRAMES AND SOURCE USE”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “84” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=84057769-b3b8-4cbd-9621-482c636314b2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Carpenter, 2007)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Carpenter, 2007”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Carpenter, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Carpenter, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Carpenter, 2007, p.767). While direct communication was defined as direct quotes or determined by verbs such as said, claimed, stated, founded or reported, indirect statement involved verbs associated with mental states such as feels, believes, hopes or considers. Thus, this inductive approach led to identification of different types of sources in this study which are follows: (1) government officials (2) politicians; (2) court; (3) police (4) public figures or activists who had been a victim of hate speech and fake news circulation; and, (5) communities (5) individuals who had been a participant or victim of hate speech and fake news.

Tone of the stories:
As argued by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1111/j.1460-2466.1999.tb02784.x”, “ISBN” : “1460-2466”, “ISSN” : “0021-9916”, “PMID” : “4646”, “abstract” : “Research on framing is characterized by theoretical and empirical vagueness. This is due, in part, to the lack of a commonly shared theoretical model underlying framing research. Conceptual problems translate into operational problems, limit- ing the comparability of instruments and results. In this paper I systematize the fragmented approaches to framing in political communication and integrate them into a comprehensive model. I classify previous approaches to framing research along two dimensions: the type of frame examined (media frames vs. audience frames) and the way frames are operationalized (independent variable or depen- dent variable). I develop a process model of framing, identifying four key processes that should be addressed in future research: frame building, frame setting, individual- level processes of framing, and a feedback loop from audiences to journalists.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Scheufele”, “given” : “DA”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Communication”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “page” : “103-122”, “title” : “Framing as a theory of media effects”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “49” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=aa87a419-7c9b-47ab-9bfd-6895e7c038df” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Scheufele, 1999)”, “manualFormatting” : “Scheufele (1999, “, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Scheufele, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Scheufele, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Scheufele (1999, p,107), “viewers interpret and process information based on the tone of the news story”. Journalists play a crucial role in the forming of public opinion and when the focus of the story is framed with a negative or positive angle towards the subject, other aspects of the story are eliminated. Regarding this comparative study, as it was not possible to identify the tone of the news stories by their physical presentation, the researcher read the stories profoundly to determine their tone. Thus, the tone of stories was determined as positive, negative or neutral depending on stories’ line i.e. in order for a story to be coded as either ‘positive’ or ‘negative,’ the researcher analysed the story in terms of the story being reported with a negative or positive angle or comments. Stories with both positive and negative angles or comments were coded as neutral.
Table 1: Thematic coding categories:
Hate Speech Fake News
Posts/Messages Rumors
Videos/Pictures Fake information/posts
Hate crime Fake accounts/pictures
CDA
While QCA focused on the analysis of the overall content of the newspapers’ coverage, this phase of CDA focused on analysing the headlines as a means to explore language, meanings and context from the perspective of linguistic analysis.
Therefore, in order to decipher how ideologies are created through language use in headlines by both Indian and UK newspapers about hate speech and fake news, a total of 60 newspaper headlines were selected, 30 headlines related to hate speech and 30 headlines related to fake news. This makes 15 headlines for hate speech and 15 headlines for fake news in TOI and The Daily Telegraph each, respectively. Two reasons for this specific random selection of newspaper headlines were: first, since CDA was intended to build upon the work done in the first phase of CA, it was easier to select related specimens for this analysis. Secondly, the researcher had to guarantee a manageable i.e. equal number of articles for the analysis.
According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0582219809 0582219841”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fairclough”, “given” : “Norman”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1995” }, “publisher” : “Longman”, “publisher-place” : “London”, “title” : “Critical discourse analysis the critical study of language”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b7b6c379-3bd8-447c-910b-e53a73c242b8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fairclough, 1995)”, “manualFormatting” : “Fairclough (1992)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fairclough, 1995)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fairclough, 1995)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Fairclough (1992), “linguistic analysis not only covers the traditional level of analysis within the linguistics including phonology, grammar up to the level of sentence, vocabulary and semantics but also analysis of textual organisation above the sentence including inter-sentential cohesion and various aspects of structure of texts which have been investigated by discourse analysts and conversation analysts”. He further adds that “it is descriptive in nature” (Fairclough, 1995).
In view of the context of this comparative study, the researcher applied some linguistic concepts and tools in relation to newspaper texts. However, it is important to mention that since the approach adopted in this analysis was unavoidably selective, it was unable to focus on all notable and key concepts as the contribution of linguistics to textual analysis is vast and diverse ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0582219809 0582219841”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Fairclough”, “given” : “Norman”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1995” }, “publisher” : “Longman”, “publisher-place” : “London”, “title” : “Critical discourse analysis the critical study of language”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=b7b6c379-3bd8-447c-910b-e53a73c242b8” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Fairclough, 1995)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Fairclough, 1995)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Fairclough, 1995)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Fairclough, 1995). However, Fairclough (1995) also considers two major aspects of texts during analysis- “structuring of proposition concerned with the representation of individuals and other social actors, the analysis of clauses representing actions, processes, and events and secondly, the organization of these single clauses into a coherently structured whole”.

Following this context, Richardson (2007:47-8) claims that “linguistic analysis of news texts should move from micro-textual to macro-textual analysis”. In short, it means that the linguistic analysis should be looked beyond analysis of words through sentences to the organisation of meaning across a text as a whole. (dspace) Similarly, Fairclough (2003, in ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Eghlidi”, “given” : “Mojtaba”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2016” }, “page” : “54-68”, “title” : “Critica l Discourse Analysis of u2018 People u2019 s Son u2019 Story : A Micro – and Macro-Levels Analysis”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “3” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=895afdfe-9156-4be0-952f-cf60c21d51a2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Eghlidi, 2016)”, “manualFormatting” : “Eghlidi, 2016)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Eghlidi, 2016)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Eghlidi, 2016)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Eghlidi, 2016) argued that “the micro-level of critical discourse analysis looks at the actual articulations of the text, and the linguistic features and devices to depict the given idea’. However, at a linguistic level, CDA not only identifies the frames from the news texts by just analysing the texts but also connects it with the other texts as well as the wider context ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2”, “ISBN” : “9780874216561”, “ISSN” : “0717-6163”, “PMID” : “15003161”, “abstract” : “The objective of this case study was to obtain some first-hand information about the functional consequences of a cosmetic tongue split operation for speech and tongue motility. One male patient who had performed the operation on himself was interviewed and underwent a tongue motility assessment, as well as an ultrasound examination. Tongue motility was mildly reduced as a result of tissue scarring. Speech was rated to be fully intelligible and highly acceptable by 4 raters, although 2 raters noticed slight distortions of the sibilants /s/ and /z/. The 3-dimensional ultrasound demonstrated that the synergy of the 2 sides of the tongue was preserved. A notably deep posterior genioglossus furrow indicated compensation for the reduced length of the tongue blade. It is concluded that the tongue split procedure did not significantly affect the participant’s speech intelligibility and tongue motility.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “He”, “given” : “Miao”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2010” }, “title” : “An analysis of framing in British news media representations of China and the Chinese”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=623ef78b-2c4d-48ff-95e2-ae3f0cfe9832” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(He, 2010)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(He, 2010)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(He, 2010)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(He, 2010).
Therefore, as this comparative study is concerned, the researcher examined linguistic features of the news headlines of the selected newspaper articles in order to establish what is present in the news and what is not, as they provided evidence in unpacking the meaning across the whole texts.
There are some major linguistic analysis devices proposed by various scholars to analyse news texts such as lexical choices, rhetoric devices, modality, transitivity and presuppositions among others. Since this dissertation is a comprehensive comparative study and has already applied QCA as the first method, the researcher examined only one linguistic aspect: lexical choices.

A) Lexical choices:
It is considered to be one of the most frequent operations in CDA ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Moltsaar”, “given” : “Annabel”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2014” }, “page” : “2008-2012”, “title” : “the Representation of Teachers in the Headlines of”, “type” : “article-journal” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=054b6e1c-a38c-4eeb-8d67-aaaab36b2cdf” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Moltsaar, 2014)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Moltsaar, 2014)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Moltsaar, 2014)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Moltsaar, 2014) and includes the analysis of particular words in the news discourse (b1). As defined by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “9781403935656”, “abstract” : “a bevezetu0151 fejezetekben ju00f3 u00f6sszefoglalu00f3k a tartalomelemzu00e9s ill. a diskurzuselemzu00e9s mibenlu00e9tu00e9ru0151l u00e9s fajtu00e1iru00f3l”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Richardson”, “given” : “John E.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Analysing Newspapers. An Approach from Critical discourse Analysis”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2007” }, “page” : “114-148”, “title” : “Social Practices: Journalism and the Material World”, “type” : “article” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=127b940d-4f7a-4b26-89c3-feaa7b30ea7c” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Richardson, 2007)”, “manualFormatting” : “Richardson, (2007)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Richardson, 2007)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Richardson, 2007)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Richardson, (2007) “words convey the imprint of society and of value judgments in particular-they convey connoted as well as denoted meanings”. To expose the hidden ideologies in discourses, lexical classification is proven to be an effective analytical tool of CDA ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.17507/tpls.0511.21”, “abstract” : “China in China Daily and The Washing Post. By analyzing the difference of the word choice and verbal messages, the article aims to reveal the hidden ideologies in the news discourse covertly implied and unbeknownst to the readers. Guided by assumptions of critical discourse analysis and drawing on the framework of lexical classification in Hallidayu2019s (1994) systemic-functional grammar, the study finds that the seemingly impersonal, objective news reports are not neutral at all; rather, they encode ideologies to exert influence on readersu2019 view towards the world. The article demonstrates how the two newspapers represented the same event in vastly different ways through the particular uses of lexicon that reflected their differing ideological standpoints and national interests.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “He”, “given” : “Xianzhong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhou”, “given” : “Xulu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Theory and Practice in Languages Studies”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “2356-2365”, “title” : “Contrastive Analysis of Lexical Choice and Ideologies in News Reporting the Same Accidents between Chinese and American Newspapers”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5517eb20-65b7-4951-b083-d696ff9a3c05” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(He and Zhou, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(He and Zhou, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(He and Zhou, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(He and Zhou, 2015). In simple words, it is used to analyse associations invoked in readers by the use of particular words and considered the first stage of any text or discourse analysis. Words used in a news text not only communicate messages of such text but they also help frame the text in a certain direct and unavoidable ways.
Pisarek (1983, in ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pajunen”, “given” : “Juhani”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “publisher” : “University of Tampere”, “title” : “Linguistic Analysis of Newspaper Discourse in Theory and Practice”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7307ee70-9411-4379-a360-cf9695701d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pajunen, 2008)”, “manualFormatting” : “Pajunen, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pajunen, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pajunen, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Pajunen, 2008) argues that “the lexical surface of the language of a journalistic reflects and at the same time impresses upon a reader a specific image of the world and a particular attitude towards reality”.

With the use of one word instead of some other word, the tone of the sentence can change, creating a completely different connotation for the reader. Therefore, the lexical choice leaves a certain effect on the impression that the readers receives from an article ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Pajunen”, “given” : “Juhani”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2008” }, “publisher” : “University of Tampere”, “title” : “Linguistic Analysis of Newspaper Discourse in Theory and Practice”, “type” : “thesis” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=7307ee70-9411-4379-a360-cf9695701d6d” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Pajunen, 2008)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Pajunen, 2008)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Pajunen, 2008)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Pajunen, 2008).

However, ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.17507/tpls.0511.21”, “abstract” : “China in China Daily and The Washing Post. By analyzing the difference of the word choice and verbal messages, the article aims to reveal the hidden ideologies in the news discourse covertly implied and unbeknownst to the readers. Guided by assumptions of critical discourse analysis and drawing on the framework of lexical classification in Hallidayu2019s (1994) systemic-functional grammar, the study finds that the seemingly impersonal, objective news reports are not neutral at all; rather, they encode ideologies to exert influence on readersu2019 view towards the world. The article demonstrates how the two newspapers represented the same event in vastly different ways through the particular uses of lexicon that reflected their differing ideological standpoints and national interests.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “He”, “given” : “Xianzhong”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Zhou”, “given” : “Xulu”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Theory and Practice in Languages Studies”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “11”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2015” }, “page” : “2356-2365”, “title” : “Contrastive Analysis of Lexical Choice and Ideologies in News Reporting the Same Accidents between Chinese and American Newspapers”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “5” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5517eb20-65b7-4951-b083-d696ff9a3c05” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(He and Zhou, 2015)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(He and Zhou, 2015)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(He and Zhou, 2015)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(He and Zhou, 2015) believe that since lexis is always under the control of ideology, it has an impact on people’s choice and in news discourse, these ideologies and the opinions may hide in the lexical choice.
ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0805800646 9780805800647”, “ISSN” : “1756-8927”, “abstract” : “national and intemational news in the press. it first summarizes our dis- course analytical theory of the processes and structures of news reports as it has been developed in the last five years. Then, this theoretical framework is applied to an analysis of the structures of intemational news, based on a case study of world press reporting of the assassination of president-elect Bechir Gemayel of Lebanon in September 1982. In this study, which summarizes the result of a longer report written for UNESCO, hundreds of news reports that appeared in more than 260 newspapers from some 100 countries were analyzed and compared. One question addressed in that study is whether newspapers from different countries and regions of the world, and pro- duced in different political and ideological contexts, world also provide equally variable types of description of such a world event. We hope that the answer to this and related questions may contribute to the ongoing debate, stimulated by Third World countries, about the perceived imbalance in intemational news sources, topics, and distribution. This study is embedded in a more general analysis of possible difference”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dijk”, “given” : “Teun A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “Van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1988” }, “number-of-pages” : “53”, “publisher” : “LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES”, “publisher-place” : “Hillsdale, NJ”, “title” : “News analysis: Case studies of international and national news in the press”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=694cc9ae-1a62-4aee-ae2e-c57c63432384” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Van Dijk, 1988)”, “manualFormatting” : “Van Dijk (1988)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Van Dijk, 1988)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Van Dijk, 1988)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Van Dijk (1988) observe that “lexical choices that reporters make may have particular semantic implications”.
The lexical part of this study investigated collocations in the news headlines to find out the words which were most often associated with the keywords or other particular words. Vocabulary which consists of additional shades of meaning provides information regarding the values as well attitudes of the writer towards the subject of his text.
Analysing the choice of words can enable the researcher to draw conclusions about the value judgements of the writer (Richardson 2007). In this comparative study, analysing the lexical choices informed the researcher about the ideas readers associate with factors influencing the social media use.

3.3 Measures taken to enhance trustworthiness
3.3.1 Credibility
According to ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0781715628 9780781715621”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Polit”, “given” : “Denise”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hungler”, “given” : “Bernadette”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “6th ed”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “number-of-pages” : “265”, “publisher” : “Lippincott”, “publisher-place” : “Philadelphia”, “title” : “Nursing research : principles and methods”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcc55356-f83f-493f-87eb-4ec945d6fc55” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Polit and Hungler, 1999)”, “manualFormatting” : “Polit and Hungler (1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Polit and Hungler, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Polit and Hungler, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Polit and Hungler (1999), credibility deals “with the focus of the research and refers to confidence in how well data and processes of analysis address the intended focus”. In this study, the researcher established the credibility of the study by determining it’s focus, selection of the context as well as data gathering approach, which included highly-circulated national daily newspapers from India and UK. As Polit and Hungler highlight,
“The first question concerning the credibility arises when the researchers makes a decision about the focus of the study, selection of the context, participants and the approach to gathering data” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0781715628 9780781715621”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Polit”, “given” : “Denise”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Hungler”, “given” : “Bernadette”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “6th ed”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1999” }, “number-of-pages” : “265”, “publisher” : “Lippincott”, “publisher-place” : “Philadelphia”, “title” : “Nursing research : principles and methods”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=bcc55356-f83f-493f-87eb-4ec945d6fc55” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Polit and Hungler, 1999)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Polit and Hungler, 1999)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Polit and Hungler, 1999)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Polit and Hungler, 1999).

Other aspects of maintaining the credibility included the selection of the most appropriate method for data collection and the amount of data i.e. 366 newspaper reports were scanned for applicability, of which 116 relevant articles were analysed for QCA and 60 headlines were analysed for CDA.
3.3.2 Reliability and Validity
Reliability can be defined as “a measurement that supplies consistent results” ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Blumberg”, “given” : “Boris”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Cooper”, “given” : “Donald R.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Schindler”, “given” : “Pamela S”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2005” }, “number-of-pages” : “596”, “publisher” : “Maidenhead:McGraw-Hill Education”, “title” : “Business research methods”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=5f7b6732-6c96-4233-b1b0-90be8dd49605” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2005)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Blumberg et al., 2005”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2005)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2005)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Blumberg et al., 2005) and validity is referred to the “degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measuring (Polit & Beck 2004: 422)
While looking at validity, in co-relation to reliability, validity plays a more important role, which means that if validity is not established in a research, it hardly matters if it is reliable. In this comparative study, the researcher maintained the reliability and validity by employing a number of measures. Firstly, the researcher tried to achieve the validity in the study by selecting the samples of those news articles which specifically answered the research questions. As mentioned earlier, those articles which did not focus on the topic or were irrelevant, were excluded from the analysis. Secondly, to increase reliability of the study, the researcher used appendices and tables to demonstrate a link between the results and the data ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Polit”, “given” : “Denise F”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Beck”, “given” : “Cheryl Tatano”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “edition” : “7th ed”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2004” }, “publisher” : “Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia”, “publisher-place” : “London”, “title” : “Nursing research:principles and methods”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=42ce3e33-6cc8-4f07-9a28-230a256c6430” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Polit and Beck, 2004)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Polit and Beck, 2004)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Polit and Beck, 2004)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Polit and Beck, 2004). This has been done by providing small descriptions of the newspapers and by presenting appendices which showed the articles used in the research. Even the language used was kept simple and clear to avoid ambiguity and confusion.

3.4. Limitations
The first limitation of the study was that the researcher was unable to find the required relevant articles in any news databank like “Newsbank UK” or “LexisNexis Library”. As the search on aforementioned news database generated either old or other publication articles, the articles from both TOI and the Telegraph was taken from their respective websites. However, as it was not possible to monitor the output of the two websites continuously, it is possible that some relevant articles without the key words might have been neglected.
The second limitation of the study was that it did not use any computer programmes to support the analysis and all coding was done manually which might have resulted in some incorrect conclusions.
Third limitation is in terms of methodology. Firstly, since it applied quantitative content analysis as the first method, it was not possible to provide a detailed and rich data as qualitative analysis. Therefore, the result might not have been able to completely uncover the essence of the issue. Secondly, since the size of sample in the CDA was randomly selected for each of the issues with 15 each for hate speech and fake news in each newspaper, they may not fully present the might have resulted in incorrect conclusions.
Findings:
4.1 Findings of QCA
To differentiate between the TOI and The Telegraph newspapers’ coverage of hate speech and fake news on social media in 2017, a total of 116 newspaper articles were identified for QCA, with 58 each on hate speech and fake news from TOI and The Telegraph. All data were written manually as per the coding done before. The data in the first set of analysis was critically analysed by quantitative method and the findings are presented here under:
4.1.1 Tone of the total coverage of development issues in the newspaper
The two sets of graphs in table 3 presents the tone of the total coverage of stories categorised under the “hate speech and fake news on social media” in terms of positive, negative and neutral description noted in their contents.
While the highest proportion of the tone of stories related to hate speech on social media were positive, the highest proportion of tone of the stories related to fake news on social media were neutral, in total for both newspapers. However, the highest proportion of the tone of the total coverage in the newspapers were either positive or neutral constituting …. of the overall hate speech and fake news coverage, which highlights the alarming condition of the social media use for negative purposes.
To expand further, the tone of the issues was measured whether a story’s tone was constructed in a way via use of quotes, allegations, or implication which results in positive, neutral, or negative coverage for the primary figure as it relates to the topic of the story. While reading a story, the researcher analysed whether the article had a positive angle or a negative angle. The articles which either had both the positive and negative aspects or were unclear or unbalanced were considered as neutral.
The Times of India The Daily Telegraph
Category
Tone Posts/
Messages
Videos
Crime
Total
(%) Posts/
Messages
Videos
Crime

Total
(%)
Hate
Speech Positive 12 2 0 14 (24.1) 7 0 2 9 (15.5)
N=58 Negative 8 0 0 8 (13.7) 5 3 1 9 (15.5)
Neutral 6 2 0 8 (13.7) 6 3 0 9 (15.5)
Fake News
N=58 Rumours Fake Information/
Posts Fake account/
pictures Total Rumours Fake Information/
Posts Fake accounts/
pictures Total
Positive 3 4 4 11 (19) 0 7 0 7 (12.06)
Negative 4 3 2 9 (15.5) 1 7 1 9 (15.5)
Neutral 7 9 4 20 (34.4) 0 2 0 2 (3.4)

Table 2: Tone of the coverage of the issues in TOI Vs The Telegraph
Indeed, of the two newspapers studied, the TOI carried more positive stories on both online hate speech and fake news as compared to The Telegraph. In TOI, while 24.1% of the stories related to hate speech saw a positive tone in the content, negative and neutral coverage were identified equally with 13.7% each. In contrast, there were equal number of positive, negative and neutral stories in The Telegraph at 15.5%.

On the other hand, TOI had the highest number of neutral stories on fake news on social media with 34.4% and 19% of stories had positive tone in the content and 15.5% stories were identified with a negative tone. Comparatively, The Telegraph had more negative coverage on fake news related stories at 15.5% whereas 12.06% had a positive tone and a mere 3.4% were covered with a neutral tone.
To summarise, while positive stories in TOI outweighed positive and negative stories on hate speech in The Telegraph, neutral stories in TOI outweighed positive and negative stories in The Telegraph. The major difference observed in the tone of coverage in the target newspapers could have been due the fact that India has been facing more communal tension and violent situation since 2012 Muzzafarnagar riots, where social media was used to spread hate speech and fake information. This led to a serious debate of social media regulation in the country whereas UK seemed to have a lesser tensed environment due to which even journalists did not face any on-ground realities unlike India, as seen from the analysis of the coverage.
4.1.2 News sources of the articles:
New sources present in the media reporting across the duration are presented in the Table 3: While in TOI, police officials were the most used source in the stories on hate speech and fake news on social media, The Daily Telegraph had politicians and MPs represented as the most used sources in its stories covered.
In TOI, the voices of police officials who had been the news source for online hate speech stories appeared in 20 articles i.e. at 67% and the same voices appeared in 18 articles at 45%. While there were no government sources for hate speech stories, only 2 articles on fake speech represented government sources. Other sources stood at the second number in the news stories which included reports, lawyers or an organisation.
In contrast, politicians as the news source appeared in 8 articles (28.5%) and government officials or committees as the source in 6 articles (21.4%) of The Telegraph. Surprisingly, the police officials were represented only at 11% in only hate speech stories. Twitter and Facebook officials were used as the other sources in both the stories related to hate speech and fake news on social media in The Daily Telegraph.
This analysis shows that while the TOI relied heavily upon police officials including crime branch or cyber cell as their news sources, the Daily Telegraph preferred to give weight to their stories with government officials and politicians as their news source. The difference in the coverage of stories in terms of news sources could be due to the fact that TOI focused more on the actions taken against the perpetrators under the existing laws whereas The Daily Telegraph was inclined to report more on the role of the government and the steps being taken by them to fight hate speech and fake news.
Table 3: News sources affiliation

Newspapers
News Sources The Times of India The Daily Telegraph
Hate Speech
(n=30) (%) Fake News
(n=40) (%) Hate Speech
(n=28) (%) Fake News
(n=18) (%)
Government/Ministries/Committee 0 2 (5) 6 (21.4) 2 (11.1)
Politicians/MPs 1 (3.3) 2 (5) 8 (28.5) 4 (22.2)
Police officials/Crime Branch/Cyber cell 20 (67) 18 (45) 3 (11) 0
Individuals as victim or accused 3 (10) 2 (5) 2 (7.1) 1 (5.5)
Journalist 1 (3.3) 4 (10) 4 (14.2) 4 (22.2)
NGO/Experts 0 0 6 (21.4) 1 (5.5)
Others (Facebook, Twitter, Reports, etc) 6 (20) 5 (12.5) 4 (14.2) 5 (28)
4,1.3 The overall coverage of hate speech and fake news on social media:
Stories on hate speech and fake news on social media covered over a period of one year in 2017 were collected and analysed. The analysis of the data is presented in pie chart 1 and 2.
The chart 1 clearly indicates the overall coverage on hate speech and fake news on social media in the sample newspapers. A total of 58 stories were published related to online hate speech and 58 stories on fake news in both the newspapers’. Out of these, hate speech news stories published in the TOI were 30 (52%) and 28 (48.27%) in The Telegraph, while those covered on fake news in the TOI were 40 (69%) and 18 (31%) in The Telegraph. As seen by the figure, TOI covered more stories related to online hate speech and fake news as compared to The Daily Telegraph. Even though both the newspapers are a daily national newspaper in their respective countries, TOI was in a better position to cover a wide range of stories on hate speech and fake news making the audience aware about the increasing misuse of social media, whereas The Daily Telegraph featured fewer number of stories on the issues as compared to TOI. However, The Daily Telegraph focused in depth on the steps and actions taken by the government and the social media platforms like Facebook against battling these issues as compared to TOI.
However, one of the most noticeable difference between the coverage of the newspapers were that The Telegraph tended to focus more on “hate crime” due to the rise of social media platforms as compared to TOI which covered different aspects of hate speech on social media. The Telegraph also covered the hate speech stories with focus on terrorism. In terms of fake news, while TOI mostly published stories related to spreading of rumours as an influence of fake news, The Telegraph reported on fake news with focus on political aspects.

Chart 1: Overall coverage of “Online Hate Chart 2: Overall Coverage of “Online Fake
Speech in TOI vs The Telegraph News” in TOI vs The Telegraph
4.2 Findings of CDA:
In this section, the analysis was carried out in two sub-sections. While the first sub-section consists of lexical choices used in the headlines to report on online hate speech and fake news, the second sub-section presented the ideological differences manifested through words in the headlines of both TOI and TDG newspapers, which shape the readers’ thoughts.

4.2.1 Lexical Choice on newspaper headlines used to report the hate speech and fake news on social media:
As presented in the table below, the data shows that the following key lexical elements were employed on India and UK newspapers headlines to report on the online hate speech and fake news: the use of vocabulary (nouns, action verbs, auxiliary verbs, and adjectives) that depicts some form of action and expressions showing panic or tension. These lexical features and their occurrences in TOI and UK newspapers under the study are presented in Table 2:
Table 4: Lexical choice on newspaper headlines used to report the hate speech and fake news on social media:
Lexical Feature
Newspapers Use of vocabulary depicting action Expressions showing panic or tension
Hate Speech Fake News Hate Speech Fake News
TOI 11 18 5 9
TDG 16 14 6 6
Total 27 32 11 15
59 26
Table 2 shows that high-sounding vocabulary that indicates some form of action is the most preferred lexical feature that journalists used to present headlines on the issues of hate speech and fake news on social media. The total number of vocabulary words including action verbs and nouns found on the headlines is 59. Out of the 60 headlines (cf. Table 2) 26 overall carry expressions that depict tension or panic regarding the issues.
4.2.1.1 Vocabulary indicating action:
As defined by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “ISBN” : “0805800646 9780805800647”, “ISSN” : “1756-8927”, “abstract” : “national and intemational news in the press. it first summarizes our dis- course analytical theory of the processes and structures of news reports as it has been developed in the last five years. Then, this theoretical framework is applied to an analysis of the structures of intemational news, based on a case study of world press reporting of the assassination of president-elect Bechir Gemayel of Lebanon in September 1982. In this study, which summarizes the result of a longer report written for UNESCO, hundreds of news reports that appeared in more than 260 newspapers from some 100 countries were analyzed and compared. One question addressed in that study is whether newspapers from different countries and regions of the world, and pro- duced in different political and ideological contexts, world also provide equally variable types of description of such a world event. We hope that the answer to this and related questions may contribute to the ongoing debate, stimulated by Third World countries, about the perceived imbalance in intemational news sources, topics, and distribution. This study is embedded in a more general analysis of possible difference”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Dijk”, “given” : “Teun A.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “Van”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1988” }, “number-of-pages” : “53”, “publisher” : “LAWRENCE ERLBAUM ASSOCIATES”, “publisher-place” : “Hillsdale, NJ”, “title” : “News analysis: Case studies of international and national news in the press”, “type” : “book” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=694cc9ae-1a62-4aee-ae2e-c57c63432384” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Van Dijk, 1988)”, “manualFormatting” : “Van Dijk (1988)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Van Dijk, 1988)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Van Dijk, 1988)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Van Dijk (1988), vocabulary is “an element of microstructure in discourse analysis whose meaning is derived from the semantic relation between preposition, syntax, and other rhetorical elements such as coherence, quotations, direct and indirect speech”. Majority of the vocabulary found on the headlines of both TOI and TDG newspapers are those that indicate various forms of actions involving different stakeholders presented in the stories.
As seen in table 1, out of the total 27, TOI carries just 11 vocabulary words as compared to The Daily Telegraph, which carries 16 words of this item on hate speech whereas out of the 32 vocabulary words used to report on fake news, TOI carried 18 words whereas The Daily Telegraph carried 14 words. These lexes include high sounding verbs, nouns as well as adjectives.

TOI:
The TOI headlines used succinct words that produce imagery to address the various categories of hate speech and fake news as categorised in the Table 1. The following headlines from the data illustrate this:
Hate Speech:
“BSP candidate Yaqub Qureshi booked for making hate speech”
“Techie arrested for posting comments against TDP MLA on social media”
“FIR against MP Pratap Sinha for provocative social media posts”
“Two arrested for derogatory FB post against the MLA”
The headlines clearly depict how the political leaders are involved both as a victim as well as a perpetrator of hate speech. However, the verbs “arrested” and “booked” also prove the law enforcement officers’ active role in taking necessary actions by picking up the perpetrators responsible for spreading the hatred on social media.
Fake News:
“Fake appeals from PM Modi circulated again on social media”
“Fake Whatsapp news claiming 22 deaths kept MP police on toes”
While the headline (1) and (2) indicates about both Prime Minister and the police officials becoming a victim of fake news on social media, the headline.

“Facebook turns to offline media to combat fake news”
This example depicts how the rise in circulation of fake news on social media led to Facebook seeking help from offline media in India, to take necessary actions.
The Telegraph
On the other hand, unlike TOI, The Telegraph tried to form a positive image about the Government in tackling hate speech and fake news, by using high-sounding verbs in the headlines and create a relaxing situation. This is supported in the headlines below:
Hate Speech:
“Exclusive: Google and social media companies could be prosecuted if they show extremist videos”
“Boris Johnson calls on social media firms to take down hate videos”
“Police to tell social media firms to take down hate posts”
The headlines above indicates the role play by various actors including Government, politician and police in curbing the hate content on social media. With the use of words “prosecuted”, “calls” and “tell” show the different forms of regulatory measures being taken by these actors.
“Online abuse to be treated as hate crime under new guidelines”
“Government funds research into social media hate crimes”
Even though the headlines used the word “hate crime” to depict a tensed situation taking place due to the social media misuse, the use of verbs “treated” and “funds” balances the headline further with a positive angle, where the government has put into efforts to stop hate crime as a whole.

Fake News:
“Manchester attack: Social media trolls spread fake posts about missing children”
“False news stories about schools and teachers shared by thousands”
These headlines show how social media users “spread” and “share” the fake news and posts without any control.
“Fake news inquiry launched by MPs”
“Parliament to grill FB chief over fake news”
While both the examples show the active role of Parliament in tackling fake news, the word “grill” indicates the Parliament’s anger towards the growing issue of fake news on Facebook.
4.2.2.2 Expressions showing tension and/or panic
Tension is usually expressed through the mood of speaking. The kind of words used in speech and the manner in which the words are used can clearly spell out tension or panic. The expression of tension on TOI headlines communicates “violence”, “obscenity” and “communal tension”. Consider examples of TOI headlines that express tension below:
“Bhadrak violence: 150 identified for spreading hate messages on social media”
“Two police vehicles set ablaze by mob in Trombay”
“Fake Ids being used for sending obscene messages”
“News of serial stabber goes viral on social media”
“Fake FB post on boy’s kidnap and murder goes viral, worries cops”
“UP model agent made fake Facebook accounts of women who refused sexual favours”
The above headlines present a disturbing image to the readers, about the happenings due to increase in hate speech and fake news, post and accounts on social media. These nervous situations have led the government form a regulatory mechanism to keep a tab on the online content. The use of hate posts and rumours on social media have mostly been the reason of the aggravation of a communal tension in the country as shown below:
“Inflammatory social media posts fuelled tensions”
“Social media rumours fuel tension in Old city”
“Temple vandalization: Police warns against spreading rumours”
In contrast, The Daily Telegraph presents the issue of hate speech and fake news in a different way. Unlike TOI, the Daily Telegraph headlines directly focused on Facebook and Twitter as separate platforms to spread either hate speech or fake news. The headline presented terrorism also as one of the growing concerns due to the rise of hate content on social media platforms while also pointing towards the rise in hatred against particular communities: Muslims and Jews. Examples include the following:
“Rising anti-Semitism in UK fuelled by social media, report finds”
“Soldier of Allah, avoids terror charge due to Facebook settings”
“Twitter failing women by taking too long to remove hateful content”
“Russian bot behind false claim Muslim woman ignored victims of Westminster terror attack”
“Facebook deletes thousands of UK accounts in crackdown on fake news”
“Twitter bans Britain First leaders after anti-Muslim videos shared by Donald Trump”
“UK terror tsar accused of ‘naivety’ over claims that disciples of hate preachers should not be prosecuted”
Similarly, the headlines have even claimed directly about the circulation of fake news and misuse of Twitter especially for political purposes by a party or a leader, as presented below:
“Exclusive: Labour election campaign boosted fake Twitter accounts”
“Corbyn supporters spread fake news”
“Jeremy Corbyn tweets fake quote attributed to Nye Bevan about NHS”
Unlike TOI, The Daily Telegraph newspapers gave more importance to the role of government and other officials in most of the stories related to the hate speech and fake news on social media.
4.2.2.3 Ideologies revealed through lexical choices in headlines of TOI and The Telegraph newspapers’:
According to Fowler (1979, p.188), ideology is constructed through words i.e. “the choice of words used in topicalizing articles could reveal the philosophy of the journalists and the newspaper institution. The words have the possibility to shape the ideology of the reader which they conceive in their minds after reading the headline or the full text. The manner in which words are used in a headline or the article determine the kind of mental image constructed and the choice of language used is consciously or unconsciously principled and systematic, and thus, ideologically based”. Here, the image refers to the identity and the conception by readers because when something is conceived as a notion, it becomes an ideology. In order to achieve this notion, Van Dijk (1988) divided it as “Us” versus “Them”; which are used by opposing actors or parties in media to paint each order’s negative image to the audience (readers or listeners). This image is what the readers consider as the true self of the presented actors, since it is convincingly designed.
Facts from data show that the TOI headlines on the hate speech and fake news carry words that paint a negative perspective of various social media users which also include political leaders. Such expressions include: 150 identified for spreading hate messages, BJP candidate booked for hate and communal speech, BSP candidate Yaqub Qureshi booked for making hate speech, FIR against MP Pratap Sinha for provocative social media posts, 65 detained for spreading rumours, rumours spurs Doonites to wage social media war, UP model agent made fake FB accounts. Even though the TOI used more of negative words and phrases, the journalists used few words in the headlines that portrayed the active role of cops/cyber cell acting against the perpetrators spreading hate speech and fake news on social media. Examples of such expressions include: Bhopal police sets up cell, Crime Branch gears up to prevent hate message, Ahmadabad cyber cell registers offence over floating fake messages, police warn against social media posts, kept MP police on toes.
On the other hand, the Telegraph headlines used words and phrases that presented an equal level of negative and positive ideology regarding the actions occurring due to the spreading of online hate speech and fake news. The negative ideological expressions include: rising anti-semitism, Twitter failing women, rising tide of social media crimes, FB deletes 1000s of UK accounts, boosted fake Twitter accounts, Russian bot behind false claim Muslim. The reporters tried to create an equal positive ideology regarding the actions taken against these issues by using the positive words and phrases such as: Government funds research, Google and FB could be forced to take responsibility, online abuse to be treated as hate crime under new guidelines, fake news inquiry launched by MPs, IPSO launches new symbol in fight against fake news.

However, the use of verbs like fuelling, rising and arrested in both the newspapers describe an atmosphere of insecurity that has been created by the misuse of the social media.
Table 5 shows the frequency of words that portray ideology in both the headlines related to hate speech and fake news in TOI and The Telegraph. Out of the total 60 headlines, a total of 45 expressions portray ideologies. Of these, 25 are related to hate speech and 20 related to fake news on social media. While the TOI had the highest number of negative expressions, The Telegraph showed a balance of both negative and positive expressions.
Table 5: Frequency of words that portray ideology
Newspapers Frequency of expressions that portray ideology
Hate Speech Fake News
TOI 12 8
The Daily Telegraph 13 12
Total 25 20
As compared to the headlines of The Telegraph, none of the headlines in TOI focused on the steps being taken by government, which suggests that The Daily Telegraph was more concerned with the actions of the government rather than consequences due to the hate speech and fake news. Whereas the TOI did a detailed reporting on the consequences due to the issues of hate speech and fake news on social media.
Thus, it can be said that both the newspapers intended to manifest an equal balance of negative and positive ideologies in the minds of the readers by reporting on both negative consequences and positive steps or actions as a result of hate speech and fake news.
ANALYSIS/ DISCUSSION:
The goal of this study was to compare the Indian and UK newspapers in their coverage of the hate speech and fake news on social media through QCA and CDA. The present study demonstrates that there were some notable differences in the way Indian and UK newspapers covered the issue of online hate speech and fake news in 2017.
This chapter provides critical discussions about the findings in both the content analysis and the journalistic discourse analysis. In general terms, some of the differences found between both the newspapers were: first, the TOI has markedly more articles concerning the topic from the time period than the The Daily Telegraph. Secondly, majority of the TOI articles analysed were shorter than the TDG ones. Thirdly, the TOI demonstrated a trend for including articles which delved deeper in the religious and political repercussions due to the hate speech and fake news on social media.
5.2 Discussion about the Findings of QCA
In the QCA of the current study, the researcher first calculated the total numbers and the percentages of the online hate speech and fake news related news items in both The TOI and The Telegraph. This was in order to examine the difference in the extent and nature of the coverage these two publications gave to issues of hate speech and fake news or events/incidents surrounding these issues on social media in the year 2017. The figures show that the TOI carried out intensive news coverage of the incidents that were a consequence of hate speech and fake news on social media. Comparatively, the The Telegraph did focus more on the fake news elements but more than hate speech it reported more on the rise of hate crimes due to the social media platforms.
Then, in order to understand how comprehensively these online issues were represented in these papers, the news sources and the tones of the news items in the two publications were assessed. Findings show that amongst the two newspapers, The TOI appeared to provide the most comprehensive news coverage of social media misuse. It published a large number of analytical hate speech and fake news-related news articles, providing the readers with an in-depth insight into almost every aspect of the negative use of social media.
Nearly 44% of the stories in TOI were connected to hate posts including inflammatory or offensive posts on Facebook and Twitter that incited communal tensions in the country and 27.5% of the news reports were on fake information or news and posts whereas. Whereas 31.03% of The Telegraph news reports were on hate posts and hate crimes and had the same number of stories on fake news including information and content like TOI, at 27.5%. However, a notable finding is that, The Telegraph focused more on the overall hate crimes instead of just one aspect of hate speech, whereas the TOI devoted most of the coverage to the actions that were taken against the individuals responsible for misusing social media for either spreading rumours, fake information, positing offensive or inflammatory posts/comments /messages as a part of hate speech and fake news. The reason why TOI covered these elements in great detail as compared to The Telegraph might be due to the increasing communal tension in India after the 2012 Muzzafarnagar riots, which was a result of hate posts and fake video circulation on social media, as mentioned in Chapter 2.

Furthermore, findings suggested that as compared to The Telegraph, TOI was inclined more towards presenting a negative portrayal of social media use in India especially by the youth. While the The Telegraph gave a positive angle to the stories on fake news by discussing the steps taken by social media platforms like Facebook and the government to fight fake news, the TOI stressed on the negative aspects of hate speech including posts which led to the disturbance erupting between different communities or individuals and the government’s role in it.
In terms of news sources, government officials and politicians played an important role in giving an angle to the story coverage on both the newspapers. However, in TOI, even cops were identified as the main stakeholder voices as compared to The Telegraph, which hardly saw any communication from the police officials.

One similarity between TOI and The Telegraph is that majority of the articles did not consider to have the voices of the affected communities in their articles. Other studies have reported that the magnification of community voices enables pressure to be placed on key decision makers that in turn encourages policy change. the result demonstrated that each media outlet varied in how it portrayed the unrest to its respective readers.
In terms of nature of coverage, the findings also found that TOI did an intense coverage of these issues due to the fact that the reporters have been able to witness some of the major events that happened in the past as a result of spreading of hate speech and fake news on social media. Whereas The Telegraph did not give much coverage to the incidents that were a result of online hate speech issue possibly due to the reason, as previously mentioned in the literature review, that online hate crimes are not separated from the offline hate crimes within the offline hate crime statistics which does not bring out cases individuals face due to hate speech on social media, unlike covered by TOI.
However, The Telegraph mostly relied on government official sources for its stories which means that inclusion of certain type of news source affects the framing of stories, and how the news event is interpreted ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “DOI” : “10.1177/1464884911431546”, “ISSN” : “14648849”, “abstract” : “This study compares election news coverage in two different countries u2013 Sweden and the United States, focusing on the use of the strategic game frame and the conflict frame and the association between these two frames and different types of news sources. The content analysis includes early evening newscasts from CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News and ABC World News in the USA and Rapport, Aktuellt and TV4 Nyheterna in Sweden. The findings show that the strategic game frame is used more frequently in the US coverage and is correlated with the use of media analysts and campaign operatives in both countries. Ordinary citizens as sources contribute to issue framing while domestic political actors tend to be associated with conflict framing. Differences in media framing between public and private media are also identified and discussed in the context of national political and media systems.”, “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “V.”, “family” : “Dimitrova”, “given” : “Daniela”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Stru00f6mbu00e4ck”, “given” : “Jesper”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journalism”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “5”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “2012” }, “page” : “604-619”, “title” : “Election news in Sweden and the United States: A comparative study of sources and media frames”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “13” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=713cf150-1d8b-458f-aa51-c488115c5074” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012)”, “manualFormatting” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012, p.698)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Dimitrova and Stru00f6mbu00e4ck, 2012)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Dimitrova and Strömbäck, 2012, p.698). However, it is perhaps not surprising given that media reporting typically seeks comment from government or politicians on any major issue which is a threat to the society ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Jernigan”, “given” : “David H”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Wright”, “given” : “Patricia A”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Journal of Public Health Policy”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “3”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1996” }, “page” : “306-330”, “title” : “Media Advocacy : Lessons from Community Experiences”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “17” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=49130e9b-cf41-4540-bdfc-022e3b30be36” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Jernigan and Wright, 1996)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Jernigan and Wright, 1996)”, “previouslyFormattedCitation” : “(Jernigan and Wright, 1996)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }(Jernigan and Wright, 1996). Some studies examining media advocacy identified that initiatives are most effective when ‘authentic voices’ are telling ‘real local stories’ that the public can connect with. As argued by ADDIN CSL_CITATION { “citationItems” : { “id” : “ITEM-1”, “itemData” : { “author” : { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Holder”, “given” : “Harold D.”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” }, { “dropping-particle” : “”, “family” : “Treno”, “given” : “Andrew J”, “non-dropping-particle” : “”, “parse-names” : false, “suffix” : “” } , “container-title” : “Trials”, “id” : “ITEM-1”, “issue” : “November 1996”, “issued” : { “date-parts” : “1997” }, “title” : “M edia advocacy in com m unity prevention: new s as a m eans to advance policy change”, “type” : “article-journal”, “volume” : “92” }, “uris” : “http://www.mendeley.com/documents/?uuid=8430a21e-c5b2-48b4-bbc5-d276989933b2” } , “mendeley” : { “formattedCitation” : “(Holder and Treno, 1997)”, “manualFormatting” : “Holder and Treno (1997)”, “plainTextFormattedCitation” : “(Holder and Treno, 1997)” }, “properties” : { “noteIndex” : 0 }, “schema” : “https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json” }Holder and Treno (1997), such news stories “provide a more salient and credible message than news stories about events with which people cannot identify”.
In the perspective of the TOI newspaper, the issue of hate speech and fake news on social media has been the main reason for the increasing social unrest in India. TOI depicted the stories with both religious and political versions equally. Thus, it can be said that the frequent coverage of these issues within the mainstream media have put pressure on the government to form a monitoring committee in order to control the online content. Comparatively, in perspective of TDG newspaper, government and social media platforms were taking steps to control the circulation of fake news but still the hate crimes have been on rise, However, majority of the stories covered by The Telegraph had a political angle to it with little or no focus on religious angles but to an extent an angle of terrorism was mentioned.
5.3 Discussion about the Findings of Critical Discourse Analysis
Through the CDA, this research examined how the two newspapers created different ideologies through language use in the headlines, not only about the issues of hate speech and fake news but the overall use of social media. The findings reveal that both TOI and TDG used high sounding vocabulary (high sounding verbs, adjectives, metaphors, and the auxiliary verb “must”) to condemn the incidents that occurred due to the hate speech and fake news. Even though large number of headlines did not directly quote fake news or hate speech on social media but both the newspapers manifested tension and panic by mentioning the categories as stated in table … in the headlines, which seemed to express the express the serious or alarming situation happening on social media.
Research indicates that the media report on issues they believe are both newsworthy and of community interest, thus influencing how an issue is perceived by the public. While TOI reports specially through the findings of the headlines from CDA, created mostly negative ideologies, The Telegraph tried to sound neutral without defining any objectivity within their headlines. Taking strict actions and having a regulatory mechanism to stop spreading of hate speech and fake news online, has been identified as a key priority for government and politicians. There were few news articles in TOI specifically focusing on the legal actions that were taken against the youth who misused social media to post offensive posts or comments against women and politicians. This may be due to the fact that the journalists’ wanted to make the readers aware about the increasing crimes against women on the online space and how politicians are also becoming a target of hate speech and fake news.

Both the newspapers use both hard and soft language in presenting the hate speech and fake news presence on social media with mostly tensive words such as anti-Semitism, crime, inflammatory, tension etc. They construct a negative identity of the social media users using the platforms for spreading hate speech and circulating fake news and bringing threat to national unity.

The newspapers portray different ideologies through the use of different headlines. TOI headlines present various forms of hate speech such as inflammatory posts, hate messages, videos and fake news including fake information, rumours as the main cause of the increasing religious/communal tensions in the country. On the other hand, The Telegraph headlines presented social media as a whole cause for the increasing hate crimes in the country. Majority of the TOI headlines which talked about the arrests being made depicted the cops as positive actors in terms of taking actions against the perpetrators whereas TDG headlines did not find or represented any such major cases.
Both the newspapers used concise expressions on headlines that push people to read the articles in order to make them understand the issues of online hate speech and fake news in a better way. In simple words, newspapers remain an indispensable source of information on the incidents or events happening due to the hate speech and fake news on social media in India and UK. However, the language they use in reporting these issues is powerful as it affects people’s thoughts and results to diverse opinions about the social media use, which has now more disadvantages than advantages.
From the findings, another difference in terms of manifesting ideologies through language use in headlines was that The Daily Telegraph used heavy words such as “hate crime” and “terror” to create more impact on the minds of the readers. It depicts the disturbed situation taking place not only on the online space but offline sphere too.
The findings showed the use of lexical features that portray action and tension to describe the hate speech and fake news on social media. Facts from data (Table 5) portrayed both negative and positive ideologies manifested through the choice of words in TOI and The Telegraph headlines, respectively. However, there were also headlines which tried to stay neutral without defining their objectivity towards the issue.
Due to TOI’s intense coverage on incidents happening due to hate speech and fake news, it can be suggested that the readers are able to connect with the issues more whereas witnessing the coverage level of The Telegraph, it can be argued that it could shape the thoughts of the readers in a way that the situation in UK is still under control as compared to India.
However, a question that arises from the findings of CDA is regarding the factors which explain the differences between the representations in the headlines and in the main text content. The first factor is that the since headline is shorter than the main content, it includes only one representation at best as compared to the whole text which carries several different representations. Secondly, as the headlines provides with the first impression to the readers, they tried to provide an overall information about the exact issue of hate speech or fake news related events.
Ethical Standpoints:
Bryman (2008, p.129) argued that “if participants have not given their assent to having their postings used in research, then it could be argued that the principle of informed consent has been violated”. Thus, before conducting this comparative study it was important for the researcher to find out whether consent from the authors of the newspaper articles was required. But since the study was based on analysing the newspaper articles which were freely available on the archives of the newspaper websites, seeking consent from the journalists was not required.
Conclusion:
Even as this comparative study is based on a selective sample of news articles, the depth of analysis applied to them has gone some way towards providing compensation for this.
While more work is required to present a more powerful indictment of both the newspapers attitude towards the presence of hate speech and fake news on online space, this study illustrates that it is unquestionably an issue which is worthy being addressed. This means that there is a much bigger scope for other researchers to take up this line of research.
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Appendix 1:
Headlines used for CDA: The Daily Telegraph
Government funds research into social media hate crime after Brexit vote (9 February 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/02/09/government-funds-research-social-media-hate-crime-brexit-vote/Rising anti-semitism in the UK fuelled by social media, report finds (23 April 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/04/23/rising-anti-semitism-uk-fuelled-social-media-report-finds/Police to tell social media firms to take down hate posts in major government crackdown (18 October 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/10/08/police-tell-social-media-firms-take-hate-posts-major-government/Exclusive: Google and social media companies could be prosecuted if they show extremist videos (24 March 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/03/24/exclusive-google-social-media-companies-could-prosecuted-show/Twitter is ‘failing women’ by taking too long to remove misogynistic abuse, Yvette Cooper says (22 August 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/08/21/twitter-failing-women-taking-long-remove-misogynistic-abuse/Boris Johnson calls on social media firms to take down hate videos quicker after Parliament attack (23 March 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/03/23/boris-johnson-calls-social-media-firms-take-hate-videos-quicker/Google and Facebook could be forced to take responsibility for everything posted on their sites as Government considers crackdown (11 October 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/10/11/google-facebook-could-forced-take-responsibility-everything/UK terror tsar accused of ‘naivety’ over claims that disciples of hate preachers should not be prosecuted (24 October 2017)
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/10/24/uk-terror-tsar-accused-naivety-claims-disciples-hate-preachers/Britain First leader and deputy leader arrested in Belfast over hate speeches
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/12/14/britain-first-leader-paul-golding-arrested-belfast-rally-speech/’Soldier of Allah’ avoids terror charge due to Facebook settings
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/10/13/soldier-allah-avoids-terror-charge-due-facebook-settings/Government ‘blocked’ from accessing Twitter data to help spot terrorist plots
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/04/25/government-blocked-accessing-twitter-data-help-spot-terrorist/British public would accept three-minute social media delay to tackle extremist content
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/12/01/british-public-would-accept-three-minute-social-post-delay-tackle/Police facing rising tide of social media crimes
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/11653092/Police-facing-rising-tide-of-social-media-crimes.htmlOnline abuse to be treated as hate crime under new guidelines
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/08/20/online-hate-crime-treated-seriously-offences-committed-person/Charity boss’s links to online hate
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/11/26/charity-bosss-links-online-hate/Fake News:
Michael Gove goes to war with fake news as he warns social media ‘corrupts and distorts’ politics
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/11/24/michael-gove-goes-war-fake-news-warns-social-media-corrupts/Facebook deletes thousands of UK accounts in crackdown on fake news
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/05/08/facebook-deletes-thousands-uk-accounts-crackdown-fake-news/Manchester attack: Social media trolls spread fake posts about missing children
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/05/23/manchester-attack-social-media-trolls-spread-fake-posts-missing/’Fake news’ inquiry launched by MPs 
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/30/fake-news-inquiry-launched-mps/David Cameron criticises Donald Trump for ‘fake news’ attacks on media
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/12/14/david-cameron-criticises-donald-trump-fake-news-attacks-media/2Parliament to grill Facebook chiefs over ‘fake news’
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/01/14/parliament-grill-facebook-chiefs-fake-news/Exclusive: Labour election campaign boosted by fake Twitter accounts
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/06/01/exclusive-labour-election-campaign-boosted-fake-twitter-accounts/Facebook and Twitter face sanctions if they fail to help ‘fake news’ inquiry
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/12/28/facebook-twitter-face-sanctions-fail-help-fake-news-inquiry/False news stories about schools and teachers shared by thousands 
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/04/false-news-stories-schools-teachers-shared-thousands/Corbyn supporters ‘spread fake news’ about Grenfell Tower death toll
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/06/16/corbyn-supporters-spread-fake-news-grenfell-house-death-toll/Jeremy Corbyn tweets fake quote attributed to Nye Bevan about the NHS
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/05/17/jeremy-corbyn-tweets-fake-quote-attributed-nye-bevan-nhs/Leading private school uses Greek philosophers to teach pupils how to spot ‘fake news’
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2017/12/29/leading-private-school-uses-greek-philosophers-teach-pupils/Russian bot behind false claim Muslim woman ignored victims of Westminster terror attack
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/11/13/russian-bot-behind-false-claim-muslim-woman-ignored-victims/IPSO launches new symbol in fight against fake news
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/12/04/ipso-launches-new-symbol-fight-against-fake-news/Prince Harry engagement rumours fuelled by claim Prime Minister ‘primed’ for announcement
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/11/27/prince-harry-engagement-rumours-fuelled-claim-prime-minister/
Appendix 2:
Headlines used for CDA: The Times of India
Hate speech:
Cops question suspect over hate video  (20 November 2017)https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/cops-question-suspect-over-hate-video/articleshow/61717341.cmsPanel to suggest way to curb hate content online (6 August 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/panel-to-suggest-way-to-curb-hate-content-on-social-media/articleshow/59943921.cmsBhadrak Violence: 150 identified for spreading hate messages on social media (11 April 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhubaneswar/bhadrak-violence-150-identified-for-spreading-hate-messages-on-social-media/articleshow/58122600.cmsCrime Branch gears up to prevent hate message spread after Bhadrak riot (9 April 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhubaneswar/crime-branch-gears-up-to-prevent-hate-message-spread-after-bhadrak-riot/articleshow/58090389.cmsMathura BJP candidate booked for hate and communal speech (6 February 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/elections/assembly-elections/uttar-pradesh/news/mathura-bjp-candidate-booked-for-hate-and-communal-speech/articleshow/56997279.cmsBSP candidate Yaqub Qureshi booked for making hate speech (1 February 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/meerut/bsp-candidate-qureshi-booked-for-making-hate-speech/articleshow/56899430.cmsMan held for offensive videos on social media (9 November 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/amritsar/man-held-for-posting-offensive-videos-on-social-media/articleshow/61574881.cmsMan makes ‘derogatory’ comments against Yogi Adityanath on social media, booked (19 August 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/agra/man-makes-derogatory-comments-against-yogi-adityanath-on-social-media-booked/articleshow/60133545.cmsTwo arrested for derogatory Facebook post against MLA Mohiuddin Bava (11 November 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mangaluru/two-arrested-for-derogatory-facebook-post-against-mla-mohiuddin-bava/articleshow/61607603.cmsFIR against MP Pratap Sinha for provocative social media posts (16 December 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/fir-against-mp-pratap-simha-for-provocative-social-media-posts/articleshow/62089891.cmsInflammatory social media posts fuelled tensions (2 June 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/inflammatory-social-media-posts-fuelled-tensions/articleshow/58935065.cmsTechie arrested for posting comments against TDP MLA on social media (18 May 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/visakhapatnam/techie-arrested-for-posting-comments-against-tdp-mla-on-social-media/articleshow/58722913.cmsBhopal police sets up cell to keep tab on inflammatory posts (3 June 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/bhopal-police-sets-cell-to-keep-watch-on-inflammatory-posts/articleshow/58968680.cmsObjectionable posts on social media: Yoga teacher booked (29 January 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/objectionable-post-on-social-media-yoga-teacher-booked/articleshow/56846502.cmsTwo police vehicles set ablaze by mob in Trombay (19 March 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/two-police-vehicles-set-ablaze-by-a-mob-in-trombay/articleshow/57711965.cmsFake News:
Babush files complaint against fake news on social media (23 August 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/goa/babush-files-plaint-against-fake-news-on-social-media/articleshow/60182794.cmsFacebook turns to offline media to combat fake news (22 September 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/facebook-turns-to-offline-media-to-combat-fake-news/articleshow/60797240.cmsFake IDs being used for sending obscene messages (14 November 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/allahabad/fake-ids-being-used-for-sending-obscene-messages/articleshow/61645603.cmsUP model agent made fake FB accounts of women who refused sexual favours (13 December 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/up-model-agent-made-fake-fb-accounts-of-women-who-refused-sexual-favours/articleshow/62046336.cmsPulwama: 65 detained for spreading rumours on social media (20 May 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/videos/news/pulwama-65-detained-for-spreading-rumours-via-social-media/videoshow/57738072.cmsFake FB post on boy’s kidnap and murder goes viral, worries cops (7 February 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/mumbai/fake-fb-post-on-boys-kidnap-and-murder-goes-viral-worries-cops/articleshow/57010866.cmsFake appeals from PM Modi circulated again on social media (3 August 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/videos/news/fake-appeals-from-pm-modi-circulate-on-social-media-again/videoshow/59896372.cmsNews of serial stabber goes viral on social media (10 February 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/nagpur/news-of-serial-stabber-goes-viral-on-social-media/articleshow/57069671.cmsSocial media rumours fuel tension in Old city (31 May 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/social-media-rumours-fuel-tension-in-old-city/articleshow/58917762.cmsAhmedabad cyber cell registers offence over floating fake messages on social media (17 December 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/ahmedabad-cyber-cell-registers-offence-over-floating-fake-messages-on-social-media/articleshow/62105242.cmsFake Whatsapp news claiming ’22 deaths’ kept MP police on toes (30 March 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bhopal/fake-whatsapp-news-claiming-22-deaths-kept-madhya-pradesh-police-on-toes/articleshow/57908847.cmsCity’s name change rumour spurs Doonites to wage social media war 21 July 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/dehradun/citys-name-change-rumour-spurs-doonites-to-wage-social-media-war/articleshow/59809858.cmsTemple vandalization: Police warns against spreading rumours (21 May 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kozhikode/temple-vandalization-police-warn-against-spreading-rumours/articleshow/58888259.cmsRumours of robbers on prowl haunt city cops (25 March 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ahmedabad/rumours-of-robbers-on-prowl-haunt-city-cops/articleshow/57818977.cmsMan held for posting rumours about women police sub-inspector on social media (9 November 2017)
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/man-held-for-posting-rumours-about-woman-police-sub-inspector-on-social-media/articleshow/57413839.cms

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