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2734310-12509500 2070100254000Caring for Your Kitten
00Caring for Your Kitten

Housing/shelter – A new kitten requires a place to sleep and feel safe in. A cat bed or shelter is an ideal solution, although a kitten may decide sleep anywhere that they find a safe, warm and comfortable.
Bedding –If a cat bed is purchased place a piece of your clothing in the bed, this will encourage her to use the bed and offer her comfort in a new and strange environment. Line with clean blankets or towels to keep your kitten is warm.
Hygiene – Kittens will instinctively clean themselves to maintain good hygiene, it is very unlikely you will have to bathe your kitten. However, if necessary use a cat shampoo and warm water. Ensure all soap is rinsed from the coat and dry your kitten thoroughly. If you want to trim your kitten’s claws or clean its teeth, then do it from a young age so she gets used to it. Regular grooming will prevent fur balls that could be ingested.

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Waste management – Dispose of your kitten’s waste material regularly. Clean and disinfect litter tray on a regular basis to prevent the spread of bacteria and parasites. If you are pregnant and your kitten is old enough to go out, ensure you wear gloves when changing the litter tray to prevent the contraction toxoplasmosis a zoonotic disease that can cause foetal abnormalities.
Environmental enrichment – Provide toys for a kitten to explore and play with. A scratching post will let your kitten sharpen its claws, shed the outer layer of claw and allow it to stretch. Nutrition
Wean your kitten at approximately 4 weeks old of age and complete by 8 to 10 weeks.

Provide your kitten with a premium kitten food, that is well-balanced and healthy. Kittens 3 to 6 months old can be fed 3 feedings a day. At 6 months, feed twice a day. Provide fresh water and avoid giving milk.

Ensure your kitten’s properly balanced diet includes the following;
Proteins.
Amino acids.

Essential amino acids.

?Fats.
Carbohydrates.
A high high-energy wet or dry kitten food for bone growth and a healthy immune system will provide the above requirements.
Feed kitten food for twelve months, then change to adult cat food. Never feed your cat dog or human food, bones or raw fish as they can be harmful to your kitten.

Treats should not make up more than 5% of its daily nutrient intake.

Store dry food in a cool dry place of the floor and in its original bag.
The temperature should be under 38°C as to prevent the destruction of vitamins and oxidation of fats leading to rancidity.
Opened cans of food should be stored in the fridge to retain moisture, minimize exposure to air and reduce transfer of odours to other food. The best way to store opened cans of cat or dog food is to use a plastic pet food lid that fits the top of the can to prevent moisture loss and transfer of odours.
Routine Health Procedures
Daily Checks
A daily check should include looking in ears to ensure they are free from pain, has no dirt or wax and no odour, open mouth and check inside. Check teeth to ensure they are healthy. The eyes and nose should be clear, with no redness or excessive discharge. No lumps, bald patches, scabs, soreness and irritations on the body should be present. Lift paws and check the pads and nails. Also check your kitten’s toilet habits for any irregularities. Check to ensure he is not gaining or losing weight.

Vaccination
Your will kitten need a series of 2 or 3 vaccines given at 9, 13 and 17 weeks of age to ensure maximum protection against life threatening illnesses.

A vaccine booster is then required a year later.

Worming
Your kitten’s initial worm treatment should be at 2 weeks, and then repeated every 2 weeks until 12 weeks of age. Repeat monthly until 6 months old, then start on an adult schedule of every 3 months for life. By regularly worming your kitten along with good hygiene your family members, especially children will be protected from worm infections.

Dental Care
By feeding your kitten dry food it will act like a mild abrasive to clean the dental plaque that can cause tooth decay and the formation of tartar, which can lead to gum disease. Chew treats can also keep teeth clean.

Annual Health Checks
An annual health check will ensure your pet is fit and healthy and any issues you may have can be discussed with the vet. The visit will get your pet used to attending a veterinary clinic and make the visit a positive experience.
Neutering
Spay or neuter your kitten at 8 weeks of age or when a weight of at least 0.91 kilograms is reached. This will prevent unwanted pregnancy and curb unwanted patterns of behaviour associated with sexual maturity and reduce the risk of certain diseases.

References
-88900-431800The Five Freedoms. Retrieved from http://www.rnzspca.org.nz/animal-welfare/the-5-freedoms
The Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007. Retrieved from https://www.mpi.govt.nzCaring your kitten. Referenced from https://www.mpi.govt.nz/www.animalplanet.com/pets/ideal-home-environmentYour kitten’s nutrition. Retrieved from https://www.spcaauckland.org.nz/animal-care/cats/
https://www.hillspet.com/pet-care/nutrition-feeding/cat-and-dog-food-storage-tips
https://www.vetent.co.nz/companion-animals-factsheets/pet-food-dog-food.htmlHealth procedures for your kitten. Retrieved from https://www.woodgreen.org.uk/pet_adviceRequired vaccinations. Retrieved from https://www.vetent.co.nz/companion-animals-factsheets/looking-after-your-new-kitten.html
BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing (2011) India Parksons Graphics
Dental care. Retrieved from http://carevets.co.nz/pet-library/dental-care-for-cats/
https://www.hornbyvet.co.nz/services/dentistry-2/ http://www.catster.com/lifestyle/is-there-a-right-age-to-neuter-a-kitten
Waste strategy and legislation. Retrieved from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/waste/
00The Five Freedoms. Retrieved from http://www.rnzspca.org.nz/animal-welfare/the-5-freedoms
The Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007. Retrieved from https://www.mpi.govt.nzCaring your kitten. Referenced from https://www.mpi.govt.nz/www.animalplanet.com/pets/ideal-home-environmentYour kitten’s nutrition. Retrieved from https://www.spcaauckland.org.nz/animal-care/cats/
https://www.hillspet.com/pet-care/nutrition-feeding/cat-and-dog-food-storage-tips
https://www.vetent.co.nz/companion-animals-factsheets/pet-food-dog-food.htmlHealth procedures for your kitten. Retrieved from https://www.woodgreen.org.uk/pet_adviceRequired vaccinations. Retrieved from https://www.vetent.co.nz/companion-animals-factsheets/looking-after-your-new-kitten.html
BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing (2011) India Parksons Graphics
Dental care. Retrieved from http://carevets.co.nz/pet-library/dental-care-for-cats/
https://www.hornbyvet.co.nz/services/dentistry-2/ http://www.catster.com/lifestyle/is-there-a-right-age-to-neuter-a-kitten
Waste strategy and legislation. Retrieved from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/waste/

2260600-21590000
1593850280035Caring for Your Young
Adult Dog
00Caring for Your Young
Adult Dog

Environment
Your dog will have lots of energy and will require adequate exercise and play. Failure to give your dog the adequate exercise can lead to obesity, diabetes, respiratory disease, and heart disease, hip dysplasia, arthritis stress on joints, ligaments, and tendons. Your dog should now know how to play and continues to learn how to interact and behave appropriately with humans.
Adequate shelter should always be accessible for your dog and should be able to accommodate him standing and lying down. It should be moisture-proof, windproof, ventilated, and keep him warm or protect him from the direct rays of the sun. Clean bedding should also be provided.

Fresh water and adequate food should be provided daily.

At this age the young adult dog will become sexually mature. Ensure adequate fencing and a secure gate is in place to stop this occurring.

Both female and male dogs may become aggressive with other dogs of the same sex. It is necessary to be mindful of this fact when your dog interacts with other dogs at the dog park or out in public.

Your dog could possibly become shy or frightened of things that he took in his stride just a few weeks previously, handle this situation compassionately and don’t force him into a situation that frightens him.

By understanding your young adult dog’s needs and behaviours it will ensure he lives a healthy and happy life.

Nutrition
You will notice a significant change in your young adult as he loses his puppy coat and your dogs bones are continuing to grow.

Young adult dogs still need bone-growing nutrients like Calcium and Phosphorous, as well as brain and eye developing nutrients like DHA (an essential Omega 3 fatty acid) and ARA, choline to support healthy development of cognitive learning and retinal function, proteins to develop strong muscles, phosphorus and essential vitamins to promote healthy bone and tooth growth, and essential vitamins, chelated minerals and important antioxidants to help support the immune system.

Fewer calories are required as their growth rate has slowed considerably. You need to change from a puppy diet to an adult dog diet around one year of age.
Feed a young adult-specific food according to the weight of your dog and follow the guide on the packet. An example guide is provided below from https://bluebuffalo.com/
18656303758565

Routine Health Procedures
Daily Checks
A daily check should include looking in ears to ensure they are free from pain, has no dirt or wax and no odour, open mouth and check inside. Check teeth to ensure they are healthy. The eyes and nose should be clear, with no redness or excessive discharge. No lumps, bald patches, scabs, soreness, heat spots or other irritations on the body should be present. Lift paws and check the pads, nails and dew claws. Check your dog’s toilet habits for any irregularities. Also ensure he is not gaining or losing weight.

Neutering
After 8 weeks of age your dog can be neutered. Although, some veterinarians advise waiting until puberty hit at about six months of age. There are many health benefits to neutering your dog, including:
Less diseases such as testicular cancer and most prostate diseases.

There is less testosterone in his system, and this will make him calmer.

The urge to mark his territory or announce his arrival will decrease.

Lower testosterone levels can improve if not eliminate roaming, aggression, humping, and other dominance-related behaviours.
In senior dogs, neutering reduces the size of an enlarged prostate.

Increased concentration and attention if neutered as he will not be distracted by pheromonal stimuli.

Vaccination
Vaccinating your dog protects it from several diseases that can be potentially serious or even fatal if contracted. Information about vaccinating your dog can be accessed through the World Small Animal Veterinary Association and The New Zealand Veterinary Association websites.

The core vaccinations for your young adult are:
Distemper
Hepatitis
Parvovirus
Leptospirosis
These should be administered 1 year after last puppy vaccination. Vaccinate for leptospirosis every year and distemper/hepatitis/parvovirus every 2-3 years after this.

Worming
It is important to regularly worm your dog every 3 months. A tell-tale sign that your dog is suffering from worms is if he has diarrhoea or is vomiting, coughing, chewing or licking under his tail, short of breath, or losing weight. Worm treatments can be purchased from your supermarket or veterinarian and will ensure your pet will remain healthy and well.

Dental Care
Your young adult dog will have 42 teeth. Approximately 85% of dogs 3 years of age suffer from the early signs of periodontal disease.

If you clean your dogs he should now be used to it, as you should have started when he was a puppy. Use a pet toothpaste and medium bristle toothbrush.

Feeding your dog, a tooth friendly dog food, and chews that contain enzymes will also help.

Annual Health Checks
An annual health check will ensure your pet is fit, physically healthy and can have yearly vaccinations.
References
http://dogtime.com/trending/257-adolescents http://dogtime.com/dog-health/dog-ages-and-dog-stages/253-ages-stageshttp://www.pethealthnetwork.com/dog-health/dog-diet-nutrition/young-adult-nutrition-dogs
https://www.petcoach.co/article/benefits-of-neutering-castrating-male-dogs-puppies/http://www.thevets.net.nz/dogs/vaccinations.cfm
http://www.wsava.org/WSAVA/media/PDF_old/WSAVA-Vaccination-Guidelines-2015-Full-Version.pdf
http://www.nzva.org.nz/page/policyvaccineuse/Vaccine-use-in-New-Zealand-cats-and-dogs.htmhttp://newsteadvets.co.nz/product/worm-treatments-for-dogs/milbemax-for-dogs/
https://medlineplus.gov/autoimmunediseases.html#cat_47
http://www.petmed.co.nz/education/category/canine/heartworm-disease/
https://www.combantrin.co.nz/faqs#can-i-get-worms-from-my-pet
https://www.rnzspca.org.nz/news/14-ask-a-vet/45-wormshttps://www.nzpetdoctors.co.nz/dentistry
Textbook Dictionary of Veterinary Nursing (2016) D.R Lane, S. Guthrie, S Griffith China Elsevier Limited
-101600225425http://www.purina.com.au/dogs/health/vet-check-up
00http://www.purina.com.au/dogs/health/vet-check-up
BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing (2011) India Parksons Graphics

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