The following paper will critically discuss globalisation: the transformation of unpaid work. It will also discuss the approaches to temporary globalisation, phases of globalisation and causes of globalisation. The word globalisation is the manner in which businesses or other organisations grow international effect or start functioning on an international scale. Globalism on the other hand refers to the procedure or preparation regarding economic and foreign rule on a worldwide basis, a group of beliefs that support the idea of globalisation (Nye, 2002)
2. CONCEPTUALISATION OF KEY TERMS
According to Bhattacharya (2007) the word globalisation holds a varied spectrum of meaning, it meaning include constructing world-wide, constructing universal and accepting a shared standard or norm for the whole world. Roberto (citied by Bhattacharya, 2007) mentions that globalisation is also a procedure of transaction in capital and production grounded on a solitary sense of exchange.
Tejada (2007:31) mentions that globality is not much of an activity as it is an environment and a state of being, mainly powered by a set of business competitors not based in the developed world but rather in rapidly increasing economies. Globalism, on the other hand seeks to clarify describe nothing more than a world that is characterised by a systems of associates that span multi–continental distance, attempting to understand all the inter-connections of the modern world (Nye, 2002).
3. APPROACHES TO CONTEMPORARY GLOBALISATION
According to Edgell (2012:219) there are three approaches to contemporary globalisation that have been identified, and they include hyperglobalist, sceptics, and transformationalists. Martell (2007:1) supports this by mentioning that other modern influences in the globalisation writings have recognized three waves, approaches or perspectives in globalisation theory as globalists, sceptics, and transformationalists or post sceptics.
Edgell (2012:219) further maintains that hyperglobalists signify something entirely new, sceptics as it is not new but rather a maintenance of historical progresses, and transformationalists or post sceptics which is traditionally exceptional or remarkable in a way that states as well as societies throughout the world are undergoing a process of deep change while attempting to become accustomed to a further unified but undefined world. For example, shopping is not new, but online shopping is new, this is the maintenance of shopping in some way and societies have familiarise with these changes.
Hyperglobalist account of the economy is the first wave included in the globalisation theory in which national economies are more than less important and in some circumstances no longer in existence as a consequence of capital mobility, economic interdependence, and multinational organisations (Martell, 2007:1). Martell (2007:2) further states that between the three waves, there was an added clearheaded set that responded contrary to this with scepticism when contended that globalisation is not something new and that perhaps the methods that are designated are not that global as well. Edgell (2012:219) contends that in distinction to mentioning that nothing is new or the whole thing is a new perspective, “transformationalists adopt a middle position which acknowledges that contemporary globalisation is characterised by both continuities and distinctive features”.
4. PHASES OF GLOBALISATION
In highlighting the approaches, Scholte (citied by Edgell, 2012:220) differentiates between global imagination: to the eighteen century, incipient globalisation: 1850s to 1950s, as well as full-scale globalisation: 1950s to the present as three diverse phases of globalisation. According to Scholte (2005:87) globalisation has no ancient source, in terms of the precise initial point and any effort to pinpoint the first global act would be illogical.
According to Tejada (2007:1) Roland Robertson phases are distinguished essentially by the altering role and nature of national society. Tejada (2007:1) further mentions that phase 1, the Germinal phase proceeded in Europe between the early fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and involves the rise and development of natural communities. Phase 2, the Incipient phase, saw the advancement of the most important new global communication technologies, a reproduction and merging of global markets, two World Wars, and the incipient globalisation of finance and money was also seen during this period (Scholte, 2005:95). Tejada (2007:1) continues to mention that the final phase, Uncertainty phase (Scholte labelled it as the final scale) which commences in the late 1950s was a dramatic period which saw the conclusion of the Cold War, dispersal of nuclear weapons, as well as the escalation in difficulties associated with multiculturalism in societies all over the world.
5. CAUSES OF GLOBALISATION
According to Scholte (2000:90) a number of factors contributed to the rise of globalisation, as technological developments and vibrant entrepreneurship are often mentioned. Bhattacharya (2007) mentions that Scholes proposes the causes of modern globalisation to expand by using the main connected primary factors as Rationalism, capitalism, technological innovation and Regulative structures.
Rationalism refers to a sort of understanding that is believed to have supported the expansion of global thinking and therefore there is globalisation (Edgell, 2012:222). Bhattacharya (2007) supports this by mentioning that rationalism splits society from nature, the standards of all-out production and great profits in a globalised business economy are born of rationalism, and that it shows itself as a trans-world truth removing boundaries between countries.
Scholte (2000:90) maintains that capitalism is a unique technique of categorising economic activity concerned with making profit and this feature of capitalism is considered as an important force behind globalisation. In capitalism, there is a growing pursuit for excess and turnover, and in capitalist approach of economy the achievement of surplus is the goal not only in industry, agriculture, and transport but also in health and education as well (Bhattacharya, 2007).
Edgell (2012:222) defines technology as the application of scientific understanding for applied purposes, particularly in industry and is a significant course of quick globalisation. Bhattacharya (2007) mentions that globalisation could not have developed such a key strength in the world without the technological assistance such as in transportation, communications, and data processing. Technological innovations that assisted globalisation to flourish include telegraph in 1837, telephone in 1876, and aeroplane in 1903.
Globalisation could not have developed or prosper without proper regulations, regulation is the politico legal framework that offers the guidelines and measures which oversee global connection (Edgell, 2012:222). Bhattacharya (2007) mentions that a regulatory structure to authorise is needed and this logic of legal and institutional obligations have assisted globalisation to develop into an accepted form of the economy. For example, IMF (International Monetary Fund), WB (World Bank), and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) are regulatory organisations which structure the rules for global relations through standardised procedures.
According to Bhattacharya (2007) the above four bending determinants of rationalism and capitalism as structural impulses, as well as technology and regulatory framework as actors are driving force behind globalisation. Edgell (2012:221) on the other hand contends that none of these factors is seen as informally dominant, although this is not always the case as the Marxian custom shows the significant role of capitalism, while neo-Weberian stresses the significance of rationalism.
6. TRANSFORMATION OF PAID WORK
According to Edgell (2012:231) it is often argued that the patterns of unpaid work has improved less compared to that of paid work, but it has been completely resistant to outside pressure for transformation. Unpaid work can be defined as work that yields goods and services but then again carries no direct compensation or additional system of remuneration or form of compensation, for example, housework and care work. In a household, the burden of domestic work falls on women and has major effects on them as well as their participation in labour market.
Edgell (2012:229) contends that the technological capability to shrink time and space disadvantaged labourers who saw it as an increase in time and space and was to the advantage of capitalists. For example, working hours for workers increased and workers were supervised at work to ensure productivity.
Transformation of paid work does no only involve the process of globalisation, but also feminisation of the labour force is an important aspect (Edgell, 2012:229). Castells (citied by Edgell, 2012:229) supports this by mentioning that women are gradually working in high levels of multi-skilled work which is number one increasing opportunity of employment, though they are paid less than men even for comparable occupations. Swebiel (1999) mentions that unpaid work does not only entail of one precise activity, for example, housework, but it also includes a range of other activities. Swebiel (1999) continues to mention that the burden of unpaid and paid work in turn are dispersed unevenly among men and women which then make men obtain a large share of earnings and credit for their economic involvement whereas most of women’s work keep on being unpaid, unrecognised and undervalued
• RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAPITAL AND LABOUR
In transformation of work, capital and labour distresses all parts of work in a globalising economy, and labour is weak and disorganised while capital powerful and organised properly (Edgell, 2012:230). Edgell (2012:230) continues to mention that since capital is powerful and labour weak, it is often debated that flexibility is regularly on employer’s terms and this disadvantages workers.
Paid and unpaid work are distributed unevenly among men and women with men getting a big share compared to women, education, globalisation, and equality among men and women though are changing all this giving women more opportunities than ever before. The transformation of unpaid work has changed remarkably as a result of globalisation, although the number of men participating in unpaid work is still low. The above paper critically discussed globalisation: the transformation of unpaid work. It also discussed the approaches to temporary globalisation, phases of globalisation and causes of globalisation