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• Hippocrates (5th Century B.C.)- Both males and females each produced two seminal liquors, one stronger than the other; which would determine the sex of the offspring.
• Aristotle (4th Century B.C.)- The first stage of a human being was indeed the egg found in females. Sperm had the potency to give that egg its shape.
• 1672- De Graaf reported Follicle & Leuwenhoek characterized Spermatozoa.
• 1875- Hertwig demonstrated in the sea urchin that only one sperm cell would perforate the egg to achieve fertilization.
• 1786- Hunter accomplished artificial human insemination.
• 1953- Watson, Crick, and Wilkins discovered the double helix structure of DNA.
• 1956- Tijo and Levan identified 46 chromosomes in the human.
• 25th July, 1978- The first healthy pregnancy was achieved with the birth of Louise Brown, by Edwards and Steptoe, based on the natural cycle, determination of the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak and follicle puncture during laparoscopy.

b. What is IVF.?
• It is the process of egg fertilization by the sperm carried out in specific environment in laboratory which involves removal of eggs from ovaries prior to ovulation.

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c. What is ICSI.?
• It is the injection of a single sperm directly into the egg using a fine glass needle contradicting to IVF which involves the penetration of sperm..

d. General Protocol:
• The process of IVF & ICSI is performed in five stages:
o Ovarian Stimulation
o Ultrasound Monitoring
o Egg and Sperm Collection
o Insemination and Fertilization
o Development of Embryos
o Embryo Transfer

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